9 motivation

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9 motivation

  1. 1. MOTIVATION
  2. 2. The Issues The direction and intensity of peoples’ motivation Theories of motivation Need theory Reinforcement (Learning) theory Goal-Setting theory Equity theory Integration: Expectancy theory
  3. 3. EVERYONE IS MOTIVATED
  4. 4. Motivation is an issue of Direction Intensity
  5. 5. SOME THEORIES THAT CAN HELP Need theory Reinforcement (Learning) theory Goal-Setting theory Equity theory Integration: Expectancy theory
  6. 6. NEED THEORY Basic Concepts People have a complex set of needs People are motivated to meet their needs When needs are met, satisfaction is experienced When needs are not met, dissatisfaction is experienced All people have needs!
  7. 7. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs There is a hierarchy of five needs As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Example A Example B
  8. 8. Need Theory A CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVE Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence Relatedness Growth
  9. 9. Reinforcement Theory People learn from the consequences of their behavior Stimulus - Behavior (response) - Consequence
  10. 10. Reinforcement Theory LEARNING MECHANISMS Positive reinforcement following a response with something pleasant Negative reinforcement following a response by termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant Punishment causing an unpleasant condition Nonreinforcement (extinction) eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior SHAPING Reinforcing close and closer approximations to a target behavior a complex application of these other learning mechanisms
  11. 11. Reinforcement Theory SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Continuous Intermittent Fixed interval Fixed ratio Variable interval Variable ratio
  12. 12. GOAL-SETTING THEORY Goals define a target for people Goals help identify the needed amount of intensity
  13. 13. Goal-Setting Theory A MODEL Goal Acceptance Goal Difficulty Goal-Directed Effort (Motivation) Goal Specificit y Goal Commitment
  14. 14. EQUITY THEORY People compare their own situation to that of others Outcomes Inputs People compare their outcomes to their inputs
  15. 15. Equity Theory CONSEQUENCES OF EQUITY Perceived Equity Satisfaction Motivation to Maintain Outcometo-Input Ratio
  16. 16. Equity Theory CONSEQUENCES OF INEQUITY Under-reward Anger Perceived Inequity Tension Motivation to Change Tension Motivation to Change Dissatisfaction Guilt Over-reward
  17. 17. EXPECTANCY THEORY: AN INTEGRATING THEORY √ √ People choose their direction rationally Pro Con Intensity is developed logically
  18. 18. Expectancy Theory COMPONENTS Expectancy If I try, will I succeed? Instrumentality If I succeed, what are the consequences? Valence How do I feel about the consequences?
  19. 19. Expectancy Theory A MODEL Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Force (Effort or Motivation Level)
  20. 20. Expectancy Theory AN EXPANDED MODEL E Org Factor s I Effort (Forc e) V Person al Factors Extrinsic Outcomes Performance Intrinsic Outcomes Feedback Distributive Justice Satisfaction Social Equity
  21. 21. The Issues The direction and intensity of peoples’ motivation Theories of motivation Need theory Reinforcement (Learning) theory Goal-Setting theory Equity theory Integration: Expectancy theory

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