Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
AUERBACH PUBLICATIONS
A CRC Press Company
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.
Wireless
Sensor
Networks
Edgar H. Ca...
This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material
is quoted with perm...
Dedication
To Jan
AU1823_C00.fm Page v Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM
©2004 CRC Press LLC
About the Author
Edgar H. Callaway Jr. received a B.S. in mathematics and an M.S.E.E. from
the University of Florida, Gain...
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
1.1 Applications and Motivation
1.1.1 Industrial Control and M...
2.3.2 PicoRadio
2.3.3 mAMPS
2.3.4 Terminodes, MANET, and Other Mobile Ad Hoc
Networks
2.3.5 Underwater Acoustic and Deep S...
4.4.2 Latency
4.5 Conclusion
References
Chapter 5 The Network Layer
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Some Network Design Examples
5.2....
7.2.1 Mains
7.2.2 Batteries
7.2.2.1 Lifetime
7.2.2.2 “Low Battery” Detection
7.2.2.3 “Low Battery” Alarm
7.2.2.4 Choice of...
9.4.4 Scope of the Problem
9.4.4.1 Digital-RF Isolation Needed
9.4.5 Coupling Mechanisms
9.4.5.1 “Radiated” Coupling
9.4.5...
10.5.1 The Double Exponential Pulse
10.5.2 Human Body, Machine, and Charged Device Models
10.5.3 Detailed Requirements of ...
Acknowledgments
This book is an extension of my dissertation,1 completed at Florida Atlantic
University (Boca Raton) in 20...
Acknowledgments
My parents, Pat and Ed, deserve special thanks for emphasizing the
value of education to a young man more ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

259668362 wireless-circuits-pdf

221 views

Published on

A number of hospitals and medical centers are exploring applications of
WSN technology to a range of medical applications, including pre-hospital and
in-hospital emergency care, disaster response, and stroke patient rehabilitation.
WSNs have the potential to affect the delivery and study of resuscitative care
by allowing vital signs to be collected and integrated automatically into the
patient care record and used for real-time triage

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

259668362 wireless-circuits-pdf

  1. 1. AUERBACH PUBLICATIONS A CRC Press Company Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. Wireless Sensor Networks Edgar H. Callaway, Jr. Architectures and Protocols
  2. 2. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Visit the Auerbach PublicationsWeb site at www.auerbach-publications.com © 2004 by CRC Press LLC Auerbach is an imprint of CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-1823-8 Library of Congress Card Number 2003051886 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Callaway, Edgar H. Wireless sensor networks : architectures and protocols / Edgar H. Callaway. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1823-8 (alk. paper) 1. Sensor networks. 2. Wireless LANs. I. Title. Tk7872.D48C35 2003 004.6¢8—dc21 2003051886 AU1823_C00.fm Page iv Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  3. 3. Dedication To Jan AU1823_C00.fm Page v Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  4. 4. About the Author Edgar H. Callaway Jr. received a B.S. in mathematics and an M.S.E.E. from the University of Florida, Gainesville in 1979 and 1983, respectively; an M.B.A. from Nova (now Nova-Southeastern) University, Davie, Florida, in 1987; and a Ph.D. in Computer Engineering from Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, in 2002. Dr. Callaway joined the Land Mobile Division of Motorola in 1984 as an RF engineer working on 800-MHz and (later) 900-MHz trunked radio prod- ucts. In 1990, he transferred to Motorola’s Paging Products Group, Boynton Beach, where he designed paging receivers for the Japanese market. From 1992 to 2000, Dr. Callaway was engaged in paging receiver and transceiver system design and was the lead receiver designer of Motorola’s paging platform. In 2000, he joined Motorola Labs, Plantation, Florida, where his interests include the design of low-power wireless networks. He is a Registered Professional Engineer (Florida). He has published several papers and has had more 20 U.S. patents issued. AU1823_C55.fm Page 325 Monday, July 14, 2003 8:44 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  5. 5. Contents Chapter 1 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks 1.1 Applications and Motivation 1.1.1 Industrial Control and Monitoring 1.1.2 Home Automation and Consumer Electronics 1.1.3 Security and Military Sensing 1.1.4 Asset Tracking and Supply Chain Management 1.1.5 Intelligent Agriculture and Environmental Sensing 1.1.6 Health Monitoring 1.2 Network Performance Objectives 1.2.1 Low Power Consumption 1.2.2 Low Cost 1.2.3 Worldwide Availability 1.2.4 Network Type 1.2.5 Security 1.2.6 Data Throughput 1.2.7 Message Latency 1.2.8 Mobility 1.3 Contributions of this Book 1.4 Organization of this Book References Chapter 2 The Development of Wireless Sensor Networks 2.1 Early Wireless Networks 2.2 Wireless Data Networks 2.2.1 The ALOHA System 2.2.2 The PRNET System 2.2.3 Amateur Packet Radio Networks 2.2.4 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) 2.2.5 Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) 2.3 Wireless Sensor and Related Networks 2.3.1 WINS AU1823_C00.fm Page vii Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  6. 6. 2.3.2 PicoRadio 2.3.3 mAMPS 2.3.4 Terminodes, MANET, and Other Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 2.3.5 Underwater Acoustic and Deep Space Networks 2.4 Conclusion References Chapter 3 The Physical Layer 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Some Physical Layer Examples 3.2.1 Bluetooth 3.2.2 IEEE 802.11b 3.2.3 Wireless Sensor Networks 3.2.3.1 PicoRadio 3.2.3.2 WINS 3.2.3.3 mAMPS 3.3 A Practical Physical Layer For Wireless Sensor Networks 3.3.1 Cost 3.3.2 Power 3.3.2.1 Power Source 3.3.2.2 Power Consumption 3.4 Simulations and Results 3.4.1 Simulations 3.4.2 Results 3.5 Conclusion References Chapter 4 The Data Link Layer 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Medium Access Control Techniques 4.2.1 ALOHA 4.2.2 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) 4.2.3 Polling 4.2.4 Access Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks 4.2.4.1 WINS 4.2.4.2 PicoRadio 4.2.4.3 Others 4.3 The Mediation Device (MD) 4.3.1 The MD Protocol 4.3.2 The Distributed MD Protocol 4.3.3 “Emergency” Mode 4.3.4 Channel Access 4.4 System Analysis and Simulation 4.4.1 Duty Cycle AU1823_C00.fm Page viii Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  7. 7. 4.4.2 Latency 4.5 Conclusion References Chapter 5 The Network Layer 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Some Network Design Examples 5.2.1 Structure 5.2.2 Routing 5.3 A Wireless Sensor Network Design Employing a Cluster Tree Architecture 5.3.1 Network Design 5.3.2 Network Association 5.3.3 Network Maintenance 5.3.4 Routing 5.4 Simulations 5.5 Results 5.5.1 Throughput (Cumulative Percentage of Messages Arriving at the DD versus Time) 5.5.2 Throughput (Cumulative Percentage of Messages Arriving at the DD versus Node Level) 5.5.3 Average Message Transmission Time 5.5.4 Average Message Latency versus Node Level 5.5.5 Packet Collisions versus Time 5.5.6 Duty Cycle 5.5.7 Duty Cycle versus Level 5.5.8 Message Latency versus MD Period 5.5.9 Maximum Network Throughput versus MD Period 5.5.10 Maximum Network Throughput versus Node Density 5.6 Conclusion References Chapter 6 Practical Implementation Issues 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Partitioning Decision 6.3 Transducer Interfaces 6.3.1 Integrated Sensors 6.3.2 The External Interface 6.4 Time Base Accuracy and Average Power Consumption 6.5 Conclusion References Chapter 7 Power Management 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Power Sources AU1823_C00.fm Page ix Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  8. 8. 7.2.1 Mains 7.2.2 Batteries 7.2.2.1 Lifetime 7.2.2.2 “Low Battery” Detection 7.2.2.3 “Low Battery” Alarm 7.2.2.4 Choice of Cell Chemistry 7.2.3 Energy Scavenging 7.2.3.1 Photovoltaic Cells 7.2.3.2 Mechanical Vibration 7.2.3.3 Other Scavengable Energy Sources 7.3 Loads 7.3.1 Power Consumption of Analog Circuits 7.3.2 Power Consumption of Digital Logic 7.3.3 Power Consumption of Other Loads 7.4 Voltage Converters and Regulators 7.4.1 Types of Voltage Converters 7.4.2 Voltage Conversion Strategy 7.5 Power Management Strategy 7.6 Conclusion References Chapter 8 Antennas and the Definition of RF Performance 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Antennas 8.2.1 Antenna Characteristics 8.2.2 Efficiency and Antenna Placement 8.2.3 Bandwidth 8.2.4 Antenna Design Choices 8.3 RF Performance Definition and Measurement 8.3.1 Definition and Measurement 8.3.2 Production Issues 8.4 Conclusion References Chapter 9 Electromagnetic Compatibility 9.1 Introduction 9.2 EMC: The Problem 9.3 Examples of Self-Interference 9.4 The Physics Associated with EMC Problems 9.4.1 The Wideband Spectral View 9.4.2 The Narrowband Spectral View 9.4.3 Victim Circuits in Receivers 9.4.3.1 The Zero-IF Receiver 9.4.3.2 The Low-IF Receiver 9.4.3.3 The Superheterodyne Receiver AU1823_C00.fm Page x Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  9. 9. 9.4.4 Scope of the Problem 9.4.4.1 Digital-RF Isolation Needed 9.4.5 Coupling Mechanisms 9.4.5.1 “Radiated” Coupling 9.4.5.2 “Conducted” Coupling 9.4.6 Avoiding Coupling Problems 9.4.6.1 System Level 9.4.6.2 Integrated Circuit Level 9.4.6.3 Circuit Board Level 9.5 Principles of Proper Layout 9.5.1 There is No Ground 9.5.2 There is Only Return Current 9.6 The Layout Process 9.6.1 Things to Look for After the Schematics Are Done but Before the Layouts Are Started 9.6.1.1 High-Frequency Voltages and Currents 9.6.1.2 Antenna Placement 9.6.1.3 Power Source Placement 9.6.1.4 Sensor Placement 9.6.1.5 Placement of Oscillators 9.6.1.6 RF Filters, Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs), and Power Amplifiers 9.6.2 EMC-Aware Layout Procedure 9.7 Detective/Corrective Techniques 9.7.1 The “Hole in the Bucket” Principle 9.7.2 Substitution 9.7.3 Software to Control Specific MCU Functions 9.7.4 Physical Separation 9.7.5 The Fallacy of Shields 9.7.6 Get to Know the IC Designer 9.7.7 Simulation 9.8 Conclusion References Chapter 10 Electrostatic Discharge 10.1 Introduction 10.2 The Problem 10.2.1 Examples 10.2.2 Failure Modes 10.3 Physical Properties of the Electrostatic Discharge 10.3.1 The Triboelectric Effect 10.3.2 Air Breakdown 10.3.3 Charge Redistribution 10.4 The Effects of ESD on ICs 10.5 Modeling and Test Standards AU1823_C00.fm Page xi Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  10. 10. 10.5.1 The Double Exponential Pulse 10.5.2 Human Body, Machine, and Charged Device Models 10.5.3 Detailed Requirements of an ESD Standard 10.5.4 Performance Standards 10.6 Product Design to Minimize ESD Problems 10.6.1 Prevent Discharges from Entering or Exiting the Housing 10.6.1.1 Avoid Holes in the Housing 10.6.1.2 Locate Circuit Boards and the Metal on Them Away from Housing Holes 10.6.1.3 Eliminate Metal Points and Burrs 10.6.2 Once Inside, Design Paths for the Discharge to Travel 10.6.3 Reaching the Integrated Circuit 10.6.4 Once an ESD Event Occurs, Limit Discernable Effects 10.7 Conclusion References Chapter 11 Wireless Sensor Network Standards 11.1 Introduction 11.2 The IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate WPAN Standard 11.3 The ZigBee Alliance 11.4 The IEEE 1451.5 Wireless Smart Transducer Interface Standard References Chapter 12 Summary and Opportunities for Future Development 12.1 Summary 12.2 Opportunities for Future Development References Appendix A Signal Processing Worksystem (SPW) Appendix B WinneuRFon B.1 Introduction B.2 Motivation B.3 System Requirements B.4 Supported Features B.5 Current Status and Achievement B.6 Simulation Method and More Potential Functionalities B.7 Proposal for Future Work B.8 Summary Appendix C An Example Wireless Sensor Network Transceiver Integrated Circuit (IC) AU1823_C00.fm Page xii Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  11. 11. Acknowledgments This book is an extension of my dissertation,1 completed at Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton) in 2002 under the guidance of Dr. Ravi Shankar. If, as Newton said, a body remains at rest until acted upon by an external force, his was the force that moved me to return to school and complete my education; and for that, I am grateful. I also thank the other members of my committee, Dr. Valentine Aalo, Dr. Raymond Barrett, Dr. Borko Furht, Dr. Sam Hsu, and Dr. Fred Martin, for consenting to serve on the committee and for their constructive criticism of my work. Much of the research for this book was done while I was employed at the Florida Communication Research Laboratory, Plantation, a division of Motorola Labs. I am indebted to the laboratory directors, Dr. Larry Dwor- sky and Dr. Chip Shanley, and my immediate superior, Dr. Bob O’Dea, for their support, which went far beyond corporate standard operating proce- dure. I also benefited from many useful technical discussions with my co- workers, including Anthony Allen, Monique Bourgeois, Priscilla Chen, Dr. Neiyer Correal, Dr. Lance Hester, Dr. Jian Huang, Dr. Yan Huang, Masahiro Maeda, Qicai Shi, Bob Stengel, and especially Paul Gorday, Sumit Talwalkar, and David Taubenheim for their consultations on the Signal Processing Worksystem (SPW). I thank Gary Pace of Motorola’s Semiconductor Products Sector, Boynton Beach, Florida, for the differential amplifier circuit discussed in Chapter 7, and for inculcating in me the value of low-voltage, low-power design. In addition to many of the aforementioned individuals, Dan Brueske, Barbara Doutre, Dr. Antonio Faraone, Latonia Gordon, and Dr. Kai Siwiak reviewed various early drafts of this book; any remaining errors of omission or commission, however, are mine. Special thanks are due to Joan Lange, Kim Searer, and Martha Mitchell, corporate librarians who went to extraordinary efforts to track down obscure references for me on short notice. AU1823_C00.fm Page xv Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC
  12. 12. Acknowledgments My parents, Pat and Ed, deserve special thanks for emphasizing the value of education to a young man more often interested in other things. I also recognize my greatest debt of gratitude: to my wife, Jan. Without her support and understanding, this book would not have been possible. Edgar H. Callaway, Jr. Note 1. Edgar H. Callaway, Jr., A Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, Ph.D. dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, August 2002. AU1823_C00.fm Page xvi Monday, July 28, 2003 10:24 AM ©2004 CRC Press LLC

×