There are many definitions of a forest, based on the various criteria. These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of theEarths surface (or 30% of total land area) in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic f low modulators, and soilconservers, constituting one ofthe most important aspects of the Earths biosphere.
It hosts three biodiversity hotspots: the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas, and the hilly ranges that straddle the India-Myanmar border. India, for the most part, lies within the Indomalaya ecozone, with the upper reaches of the Himalayas forming part of the Palearctic ecozone; the contours of 2000 to 2500m are considered to be the altitudinal boundary between the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic zones. India displays significant biodiversity. One of eighteen megadiverse countries, it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2%.
It provide us medicinal plants. It protect us from global warming. It provides a better ecosystem. It provides habitat to various kinds of animals
Medicinal plants (MP) are a vital component of non-timber forest products (NTFP) and play a significant role in the health care of rural people all over the world. Collection of MP is also making an important contribution to poor people’s livelihood, but in countries with high population density, like Bangladesh, the pressure on natural forests is hard.
During the last year the awareness about the anthropogenic induced climate change due to increasing level of Green House Gases (GHGs), like for example carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased drastically. The atmospheric content of CO2 which is the GHG that the forest sector mainly can influence has increased from 280 ppm pre-industrial time (1750) to 379 ppm 2005.
All humans everywhere depend on ecosystem products and services for their well-being. But what if the ecosystems are not able to provide all these products and services because of overexploitation? In bad cases this can, for example, lead to starvation.
Worldwide amphibians and reptiles are declining with habitat fragmentation and destruction as the primary cause. Riparian areas are important for the herpetofauna, but as land is converted to agriculture or harvested for timber the areas are diminishing. The aim of this study was to examine amphibian and reptile abundance in relation to distance from water and in relation to habitat characteristics, foremost per cent deciduous trees. The survey was conducted during spring at six different locations, with continuous forest along streams or rivers, outside of Karlstad, Sweden. Animals were searched along four lines parallel to the water and each study area was visited five times.
A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem usually found around the equator. They are common in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific Islands. Within the World Wildlife Funds biome classification, tropical rainforests are considered a type of tropical wet forest (or tropical moist broadleaf forest) and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. Minimum normal annual rainfall between 1,750 millimetres (69 in) and 2,000 millimetres (79 in) occurs in this climate region. Mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C (64 °F) during all months of the year.
The newly bare trees open up the canopy layer, enabling sunlight to reach ground level and facilitate the growth of thick underbrush. Trees on moister sites and those with access to ground water tend to be evergreen. Infertile sites also tend to support evergreen trees. Deciduous trees predominate in most of these forests, and during the drought a leafless period occurs, which varies with species type.
This vegetation covers a large part of southwestern North America and southwestern Africa and smaller areas in Africa, South America, and Australia. In South America, thorn forest is sometimes called caatinga. Thorn forest grades into savanna woodland as the rainfall increases and into desert as the climate becomes drier .These are dense, scrublike vegetation characteristic of dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with a seasonal rainfall averaging 250 to 500 millimeters (about 10 to 20 inches).
Mangroves form a characteristic saline woodland or shrubland habitat, called mangrove swamp, mangrove forest, mangrove or mangal.….. The saline conditions tolerated by various species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (30 to 40 ppt), to water of over twice the salinity of ocean seawater Mangroves are trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S.
The temperate coniferous forest includes areas such as the Valdivian temperate rain forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, northwest Europe (small pockets in Ireland) The Klamath-Siskiyou forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon is known for its rich variety of plant and animal species, including many endemic species.
Protecting and improving the natural habitat of the plants and animals. Proper management of water resources in forests for animals. Creating national parks and wildlife sanctuaries for safe breeding of the endangered and other species. National parks are areas that are permanently reserved for conservation of natural resources. For example, Kanha national park known for tiger, leopards, etc. Sanctuaries are areas where protection is given chiefly to animals. Locals are allowed to come and collect fallen forest products like firewood. Species which may become extinct should be bred in captivity at zoological parks and released into the forests. Social forestry which encourages polyculture (planting of different species) of trees. Grazing should be controlled in such a way that it does not affect the habitat of the wildlife. Strict laws to be enacted and enforced. Public awareness to be create.