Meaning of Culture and Heritage
Culture: Culture emerged as a concept central to
anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena
that are not purely results of human genetics.
Specifically, the term "culture" in American
anthropology has two meanings: (1) the evolved
human capacity to classify and represent experiences
with symbols, and to act imaginatively and
creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people
living in different parts of the world classified and
represented their experiences, and acted creatively.
Cultural Heritage: refers to architectural works,
works of monumental sculpture and painting,
elements or structures of an archaeological nature,
inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of
features, which are of outstanding universal value
from the point of view of history, art or science
Australia has no official language. Australian English has its own
distinctive accent and vocabulary. According to the 2001 census, English is
the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population.
The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%),
Italian (1.9%), and Greek (1.4%).
Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main
language of about 6,500 deaf people.
It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Australian Aboriginal
languages at the time of first European contact, but only about 70 of these
languages have survived and all but 20 of these are now endangered.
ARTS IN AUSTRALIA
The arts in Australia — film, music, painting, theatre, dance and crafts — have
achieved international recognition.
High culture thrives in the form with a few art galleries, a rich tradition in
ballet, enlivened by the legacy of Edouard Borovansky and Sir Robert
Helpmann, and continuing with the national ballet company The Australian
Ballet, and choreographer/dancers such as Graeme Murphy and Meryl Tankard;
a national opera company based in Sydney; and symphony orchestras in all
capital cities, particularly the Melbourne and Sydney symphony orchestras.
However, outside of the main centres artists struggle and high culture is
The independent arts of music, film, art and street art, are the most extensive.
Melbourne's independent music scene, is one of the largest in the world
Contemporary Australian architecture includes a number of iconic structures,
including the Sydney Opera House, the Royal Exhibition Building in
Melbourne and Parliament House, Canberra. Significant architects include
Harry Seidler and Francis Greenway.
Other significant architectural movements in Australian architecture include
the Federation style of the turn of the 20th century and the modern styles of
the late 20th century which also saw many older buildings demolished.
Heritage concerns led to union-initiated green bans, which saved significant
examples of Australia's architectural past. Green bans helped to protect historic
18th century buildings in The Rocks from being demolished to make way for
office towers, and prevented the Royal Botanic Gardens from being turned into
a car park for the Sydney Opera House.
Clothing and Apparel
Australia has no official designated
national dress. However, two
examples of Australian local dress are
bushwear and surfwear. Major
examples of clothing brands associated
with bushwear are Akubra and R.M.
Williams whilst surfwear labels
including Billabong and Rip Curl are
sold and recognised around the world
Other iconic Australian clothing and
apparel labels include Blundstone
Footwear, Bonds, Country Road,
Driza-Bone, Mambo and Quiksilver.
Australian food traditions have been influenced by those that have settled
in Australia. There are a few foods which can be considered uniquely
Macadamia nuts are an Australian food that have become popular
worldwide, and more recently kangaroo meat has become more mainstream.
Local beers and wines are popular and internationally renowned. Vegemite
is a well-known spread originating from Australia. It is not popular among
immigrants, but is exported to many foreign countries.
Desserts well known for their Australian origins include Pavlova
lamingtons and Tim Tams.
Australians are passionate about sport and it forms a
major part of the country's culture, particularly in
terms of spectating, but also in terms of participation.
Cricket is popular in the summer and football codes
are popular in the winter, with different codes being
more popular in different areas.
Football (soccer) is Australia's highest participation
sport in the country with both boys and girls at junior
level as well with men and women at senior level.
Rugby League is the most popular winter sport in
New South Wales, Queensland and arguably in the
Australian Capital Territory. The National Rugby
League (NRL) grew out of a suburban league in
Sydney and has expanded to include teams from across
Eastern Australia and New Zealand.
Australia has some of the most beautiful and
lively cities and tourist attractions in the
world. Australia offers irony and contrast
beyond the disposition of its relaxed
inhabitants. The spectacular Great Barrier
Reef along the Queensland shore is one is
kind in the world.
Uluru (famous for its towering red rock
projection,348 m), Barossa Valley (well
known for its delicate wines), Flinders
Ranges (bushwalks, salt lakes, national
parks and gorges), Freycinet Peninsula,
Kakadu National Park, Snowy Mountains,
and The Kimberley (epitome of raw outback
Australia with rivers, oasis, crocodiles etc)
are the famous places.
The ACT Memorial is an Australian war
memorial honouring men and women
associated with the Australian Capital
Territory who served in a number of conflicts
and peacekeeping missions throughout the
Dog on the Tuckerbox: The statue was
inspired by a bullock driver's poem, Bullocky
Bill, which celebrates the life of a mythical
driver's dog that loyally guarded the man's
lunch box until death.
Designed in the Greek Classic Revival
style, the columns of the Shrine of
Remembrance are built of Helidon
sandstone, and the Eternal Flame is kept
in a brass urn within the Shrine.
Johnstone Park is a landscaped garden in
Geelong, Victoria, Australia. It is
bounded by Railway Terrace, Gheringhap
Street, Little Malop Street, Fenwick
Street, and Mercer Street.
New Zealand has three official languages: New Zealand English, Te Reo
Māori (the Māori language), and New Zealand Sign Language. In practice
only English is widely used although major efforts have been made in recent
years to nurture Te Reo.
New Zealand English: New Zealand English is close to Australia English in
pronunciation, but has several subtle differences often overlooked by people
from outside these countries.
Te Reo Māori: An Eastern Polynesian language, Te Reo Māori is closely
related to Tahitian and Cook Islands Māori. The 2006 census found Te Reo
to be spoken by 157,110 people, making it the most common language in New
Zealand after English.
New Zealand Sign Language: It uses more lip-patterns in conjunction with
hand and facial movement to cue signs than BSL, reflecting New Zealand's
history of oralist education of Deaf people. Its vocabulary includes Māori
concepts such as marae and tangi, and signs for New Zealand placenames.
ARTS IN NEW ZEALAND
New Zealand has two 'high cultural' traditions: Māori and Western.
However most cultural material consumed in New Zealand is imported from
overseas, particularly from Britain and the United States.
Because of this and New Zealand's small population, most New Zealand
artists, performers and writers struggle to make a living from their art.
Performing arts: include Kapa Haka which is the 'cultural dance' component
of traditional Māori Performing Arts. Kapa haka is an avenue for Maori
people to express their heritage and cultural identity through song and dance;
Drama which has been plagued during much of its history by cost and lack of
popular interest in New Zealand culture; Music New Zealand music takes
most of the same forms as that of other 'Western' countries, with hip-hop
being particularly popular amongst young Māori and Pacific Islanders.
Classical Architecture is very formal; it always obeyed laws. It used
symmetry, which really means balance, and it used proportion which means
keeping shapes to certain patterns. The Golden Mean was a rule (or law)
which said, if you are making a room, or any other thing, it will work best if
you always make the long side 1.6 times longer than the short side.
Later, people in Western Europe in the Middle Ages made Romanesque
architecture, then Gothic architecture. Gothic buildings have tall, pointed
windows and arches. Many churches have Gothic architecture.
Modernism, which started as early as 1890, has resulted in some handsome,
impressive buildings, like the Chrysler Building in New York, but also some
truly horrible buildings. The ancient laws have been forgotten, or ignored, as
architects have become more interested in doing something 'original'.
Clothing and Apparel
Much of contemporary New Zealand clothing is derived from
British roots. It also includes significant influences from
American, Australian and Māori cultures.
Māori cuisine: Pre-European Māori cuisine was derived from
that of tropical Polynesia, adapted for New Zealand's colder
climate. Key ingredients included kūmara (sweet potato), fern
root, taro, birds and fish. Food was cooked in hāngi (earth
ovens), roasted and, in geothermal areas, boiled or steamed
using natural hot springs and pools.
Pākehā cuisine: The majority of Pākehā are of British descent,
and so it is not surprising that Pākehā cuisine owes much (good
and bad) to British cuisine. Nineteenth century British settlers in
New Zealand tried as much as possible to reproduce the foods of
their homeland. A major difference between British and Pākehā
food was that meat was much more readily available to all social
classes in New Zealand.
Sport in New Zealand largely reflects its
British colonial heritage. Some of the most
popular sports in New Zealand, namely
rugby, cricket and netball, are primarily
played in Commonwealth of Nations
Sport is very popular in New Zealand and
despite New Zealand being a very small
nation, it has enjoyed great success in many
sports notably Rugby Union (The national
sport) and also Rugby League, Cricket,
Americas Cup Sailing, Netball, motorsport
and many other sports.
Snow sports such as skiing and snowboarding
are also popular.
Kaikoura : It is the seaside town of Kaikoura which overlooks
majestic mountains which are snow capped for many months of
Coromandel Peninsula : This area is blessed with a superb climate
and contains some of New Zealand's most scenic beaches and
coastline. There is even a thermal beach here called Hot Water
Beach, which has volcanic heat rising through the ground.
Rotorua :Rotorua is famous for its volcanic activity.
Tongariro National Park : It is a World Heritage Park and one of
the oldest National Parks in the world. The park contains 3 active
Queenstown :For action adventure and scenery Queenstown has it
all. This beautiful lake side town is surrounded by mountains and
is one of New Zealands premier tourist destinations.
Fiordland National Park: It is New Zealand's largest national
park and one of the largest in the world. The scenery is nothing
short of stunning, with deep fiords, steep mountains, raging
waterfalls, and lush rain forests.
The New Zealand Tomb of the
Unknown Warrior: The remains of the
Warrior, one of the 18,166 New Zealand
casualties of World War I, were exhumed on 10
October 2004 from the Caterpillar Valley
Cemetery, near where the New Zealand
Division fought in 1916.
Wellington Cenatoph: It is a war memorial
in Wellington, New Zealand.
Commemorating the New Zealand dead of
World War I, it was unveiled on Anzac
Day (25 April) 1931.