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Gothic n renessance

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Gothic n renessance

  2. 2. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Gothic like the classical style, raises its head again and again, and this shows its strength. Time period 1200 to 1300. Evolution - Gothic style began in france around 1150. It was due Normans who also ruled Sicily, and sicily being under Islamic (called “Saracenic” by Europeans).
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOTHIC STYLE Gothic is symbolised by tall, slim, pointed arches which came from the islamic east. Tracery was another important feature which seeped from architecture to furniture. Domestic gothic furniture was modest and not much of it has survived except three legged stools.
  4. 4. WOOD USED IN FURNITURE Various kinds of woods were used depending upon avaibility. Oak was the chief timber in Northern Europe and England. In southern france, spain and italy, many other woods were used such as lime, apple and pear, walnut and cypress.
  5. 5. STOOLS Many types of stools existed during the gothic period. X shaped stool of antique origin was common. More common was 3 legged stool, with very stout legs, cut and turned, joined by seat, rails and stretchers, and tapped by a wooden or rush seat whose triangular shape. Some times one of legs was extended upwords and a cross bracket attached to it to work as backrest.
  6. 6. 550mm 500mm TEAK WOOD 750 MM
  7. 7. SILK 400 MM 650 MM OAK WOOD
  8. 8. In the 15th centuary, a new type of stool called slab- ended, emerged. It had a flat top of plank supported at both ends by planks of which the edges were often shaped in a manner that remained of buttresses employed in architecture. A piece of wood was cut out of the base in a way as to form a trefoil agival or cusped gothic arch. Benches were made in the same style. The whole look through is very islamic.
  9. 9. CHAIRS Thrones seems to be more common than simple chairs. These were seldom moved because they were very heavy. For e.g. the coronation chair in west minster abbey which is highly architecture in its form. Then another of the same level and an excellent example of portugese ornate furniture is the throne of D’ Afonso V of 1470. But the throne which beats these two in being more architecture is the silver throne of king Martin of aragon.
  10. 10. 450 MM 1350MM ALDER WOOD
  11. 11. Most of chairs were made of wood and were sometimes furnished with high backs, curving forward at the top to form a canopy. All these forms symbolically equalled our own chhatra, umbrella over the simhasans of the kings. Among the simple chairs, the most common was the tub chair.
  12. 12. TABLES AND DESKS Gothic tables were of two types dormant or fixed and movable. The movable tables were usually boards on trestles. Most writing desk were boxes with sloping top to allow convenient writing and were highly portable. They often had panelled construction with elaborate decoration and flamboyant tracery.
  13. 13. OAK WOOD 650 MM
  14. 14. CUPBOARDS In the middle ages people hoarded plates as some indians hoard gold. Later the craze was for silver drinking vessels called in england livery ports. As they were the pride of the house, soon furniture makers provided an item of display for them: the cupboard. Enclosed presses came into existence in the 12th century for use in churches and were used for secular purposes in the later part of middle ages.
  15. 15. 1650 MM OLIVE WOOD
  16. 16. CHESTS Chests or coffers were the most widespread and popular items of gothic period. The ones with the flat top were used as a seat, a bench, a table, and sometimes as a bed apart from being used as a receptacleand for storage. Earlier, the chests were made by hollowing out a tree trunk and sometimes reinforced with iron bands. This is the reason the chests were also called trunk.
  18. 18. A slice cut from the top acted as a lid. This again is the origin of a curved laid on the chests. The curve also hepled in warding off water and snow. The decoration was adapted from architecture. It was constructed stoutly and simply from planks of oak and covered with wrought iron scrolls which increased its strength and security with the extra decorative advantage of relieving the plainness of the surface.
  19. 19. BEDS Many types of beds existed during the gothic period. Some had simple box like construction, otherwise were the fixed type which had drapped testers hung from the ceiling cords (canopy). Some beds had half testers which were formed by headboards extension, called demi-celours, half conopies. Canopies were most important component of a bed and denoted the rank of its users like chhatra, umbrella, in indian tradition .
  20. 20. 2000MM 900M M 1000MM BALSOL WOOD
  21. 21. There were three types of canopies: celour, full canopies : demi celours, half canopies and : sparver, conical canopy. Canopies were also used over seats of honour and thrones as we have seen and where definitely imported from the east. In many places the apartment with the bed was used for holding caurt, and the real bed was in a small room attached with it for sleeping purposes, the bed acting more like a throne.
  22. 22. CRADLES  Childrens also needed cradles and all the trappings of beds were transferred to cradles. Like the adults, the children were provided with two cradles, one for show and one for actually sleeping in.
  23. 23. 900 MM WHITE WALL NUT WOOD
  24. 24. EARLY RENAISSANCE Time period 1515 to 1547. As italy was the origin of the renaissance, italian influences penetrated france, were assimilated and emerged as a style in themselves. New types of wood were employed and the filtered in ifluences from german, spanish and flemish styles were used for detailing.
  25. 25. Stone bricks
  26. 26. CHARACTERSTICS OF EARLY RENAISSANCE The cabinet established its place, chairs became more comfortable and light, armless chairs with cushions of sraw were introduced. Carving was employed almost on all the surfaces. Pilasters were in vogue. The diamond shape, elaborated into starsand other geometric shapes, was a favourite and remained so for a century and later in the provinces.
  27. 27. HIGH RENAISSANCE Time period 1560 to 1610. Disapperance of the Gothic style, disruption by wars of the logical evolution of furniture design, and the emergence of a definite middle class resulted in shift from urban to provincial.
  28. 28. CHARACTERSTICS OF HIGH RENAISSANCE The period of louis xiii (1610 to 1643) had furniture gaudily splendid, monumental, overpowering and showing off the power of just emerging imperialism, and was the climax of high renaissance. The woods preferred were walnut and ebony. Panels, columns and pilasters of semi-precious stones or moulded stucco panels were introduced into cabinets. Marquetry, turning and flemish carving were in vogue. Turning was employed not only for legs but for decuration also.
  29. 29. CABINETS By adding a false front, the cabinet was turned into a bureau, the name derived from the cloth used to cover the writing table earlier.
  30. 30. 1200 mm 1400mm EUROPEAN WALNUT WOOD
  31. 31. CHAIRS Chairs were made law, perhaps to accommodate the current elaborate head-dress and fluffs . Instead of loose cushions, they were incorporated in the chair, i.e. they were upholstered in leather and decurative brass or silver nailheads were used for fitting fouteuil also appeared.
  32. 32. 1000 MM 1200MM
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