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  1. 1. Connecting Online Best Practices to Intrinsic Motivation Examples Curt Bonk, Indiana University President, [email_address]
  2. 2. Are You Ready?
  3. 3. Who are some of the key players …
  4. 4. Online Strategies (Karen Lazenby, University of Pretoria, Nov., 2001) <ul><li>Limit lecturing online—promote self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Set clear rules for posting and interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Explain tasks and overlooked info. </li></ul><ul><li>Let learners synthesize key points. </li></ul><ul><li>Publish best work of students (with permission) </li></ul><ul><li>Involve participation from outside experts </li></ul>
  5. 5. Online Teaching Skills The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) <ul><li>Technical: email, chat, Web development </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation: engaging, questioning, listening, feedback, providing support, managing discussion, team building, relationship building, motivating, positive attitude, innovative, risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial: planning, reviewing, monitoring, time management </li></ul><ul><li>======================================== </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From provider to content to designer of learning experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From oracle to guide and resource provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From solitary teacher to member of team </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3) The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) <ul><li>Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to engage the learner (2.84) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to provide direction and support (2.82) </li></ul><ul><li>Skills in online listening (2.76) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to use email effectively (2.70) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to motivate online learners (2.66) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66) </li></ul><ul><li>Skills in effective online questioning (2.65) </li></ul>
  7. 7. E-Moderating E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, (Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan Page) <ul><li>Know when to stay silent for a few days. </li></ul><ul><li>Close off unused or unproductive conferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a variety of relevant conference topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Deal promptly with dominance, harassment, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Weave, summarize, and archive often. </li></ul><ul><li>Be an equal participant in the conference. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide sparks or interesting comments. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid directives and right answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge all contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>Support others for e-moderator role. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pedagogical Recommendations (Berge, 1995, The role of the online instructor/facilitator) <ul><li>Draw attention to conflicting views </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t expect too much/thread </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence of comments yields silence) </li></ul><ul><li>Request responses within set time </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain non-authoritarian style </li></ul><ul><li>Promote private conversations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Research on Nine Online Courses (Vanessa Dennen, San Diego State Univ) <ul><li>9 case studies of online classes using asynchronous discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Topics: sociology, history, communications, writing, library science, technology, counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Range of class size: 15 - 106 </li></ul><ul><li>Level: survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: custom and commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Little or no feedback given </li></ul><ul><li>Always authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Kept narrow focus of what was relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Created tangential discussions, fact questions </li></ul><ul><li>Only used “ultimate” deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Provided regular qual/quant feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Participated as peer </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed perspective sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Tied discussion to grades, other tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Used incremental deadlines </li></ul>Poor Instructors Good Instructors
  11. 11. Collaborative and Constructivist Web Tasks (McLoughlin & Oliver, 1999; Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999) ) <ul><li>Apprenticeship: Q&A; Ask an Expert (chats & async). </li></ul><ul><li>Case-Based and Simulated Learning: exchange remote views; enact events online. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Learning: Design Web pages and project databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective/Metacognitive Learning: Reflect in online journals, bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential Learning: Post (articulate ideas) to discussion groups </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Learning: PBL, search current databases </li></ul>
  12. 12. Framework for Pedagogical CMC Techniques (Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication) <ul><li>One-alone Techniques: Online journals, online databases, interviews, online interest groups. </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one Techniques: Learning contracts, internships, apprenticeships. </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-many Techniques: Lectures, symposiums, skits. </li></ul><ul><li>Many-to-many Techniques: Debates, simulations, games, case studies, discussion groups, brainstorming, Delphi techniques, nominal group process, forums, group projects. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ideal Environment of Synchronous Trainer Jennifer Hoffman, Online Learning Conference (2001, Oct.) <ul><li>A private, soundproof room. </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed connection; telephone; powerful computer; additional computer; tech support phone # </li></ul><ul><li>Studio microphone and speakers </li></ul><ul><li>A “Do Not Disturb” sign </li></ul><ul><li>Near restroom; pitcher of water </li></ul>
  14. 14. Considerations: The Event Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2001, March) <ul><li>Log on early; students come 15 minutes early. </li></ul><ul><li>Do tech checks of microphones (sound check). </li></ul><ul><li>Check to see if students brought needed items </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps call or send notes to missing students </li></ul><ul><li>Vary your instructional strategies; maximize interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Make it visual—color, sound, animation </li></ul><ul><li>Design 10-minute breaks every 90 minutes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pedagogical Tips (Bonk 1998; Indiana University) <ul><li>Build peer interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize multiple forms of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback cues (dots) </li></ul><ul><li>Embed choices (avatars, tasks, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify (everything!!!) </li></ul><ul><li>Offer early feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling something due early </li></ul>
  16. 16. Just a Lot of Bonk <ul><li>Variety: tasks, topics, participants, accomplishments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction extends beyond class </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are also teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple ways to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization and choice </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity and easy to navigate course </li></ul><ul><li>Find tech mentor, be student b4 teacher </li></ul>
  17. 17. But how to determine the pedagogical quality of courses and course materials you develop?
  18. 18. Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed (Blackboard & NEA, 2000) <ul><li>Teaching/Learning Process </li></ul><ul><li>Student interaction with faculty is facilitated through a variety of ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback to student assignments and questions is provided in a timely manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Each module requires students to engage themselves in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation as part of their course assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Course materials promote collaboration among students. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed (Blackboard & NEA, 2000) <ul><li>Other Benchmark Categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Support: incentive, rewards, plans </li></ul><ul><li>Course Development: processes, guidelines, teams, structures, standards, learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Course Structure: expectations, resources </li></ul><ul><li>Student Support: training, assistance, info </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Support: mentoring, tech support </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation and Assessment: review process, multiple methods, specific standards </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Sharp Edge of the Cube: Pedagogically Driven Instructional Design for Online Education Syllabus Magazine, Dec, 2001, Nishikant Sonwalkar <ul><li>five functional learning styles—apprenticeship, incidental, inductive, deductive, discovery. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. New Methodology for Evaluation: The Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar <ul><li>The Pedagogical Effectiveness Index: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Learning Styles: (see previous page) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Media Elements: text, graphics, audio, video, animation, simulation </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Interaction Elements: feedback, revision, e-mail, discussion, bulletin </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>For more info, e-mail: </li></ul>
  22. 22. New Methodology for Evaluation: The Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar <ul><li>Summative evaluation instrument for rating online courses: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Content Factors: quality, media, authentic </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Learning Factors: interactivity, testing & feedback, collaboration, ped styles </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Delivery Support Factors: accessible, reporting, user management, content </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Usability Factors: clarity, chunk size, layout </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Technological Factors: bandwidth, database connectivity, server capacity,browser </li></ul>
  23. 23. What do we need??? FRAMEWORKS!
  24. 24. The Web Integration Continuum (Bonk et al., 2000) <ul><ul><li>Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 4: Course Resources on the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>======================================= </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. What are your best practices???
  26. 26. Best Practices… Is it that simple? NOPE!!!
  27. 27. What is the single biggest obstacle to e-learning continuing to grow and fulfilling its potential? 1. The cost of development? 2. Lack of human contact? 3. Reluctance of training departments to change? The problem is much more likely to be plain boredom!!!
  28. 28. Online Training Boring? From Forrester, Michelle Delio (2000), Wired News. (Interviewed 40 training managers and knowledge officers)
  29. 29. We’re Handing out degrees in electronic page turning!!! <ul><li>To get the certificate, learners merely needed to “read” (i.e. click through) each screen of material </li></ul>
  30. 32. How Bad Is It? <ul><li>“ Some frustrated Blackboard users who say the company is too slow in responding to technical problems with its course-management software have formed an independent users’ group to help one another and to press the company to improve.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of Higher Ed) </li></ul>
  31. 33. Must Online Learning be Boring? What Motivates Adult Learners to Participate?
  32. 34. From Learning Designers to Experience Designers (Reinhard Ziegler, March 2002, e-learning) <ul><li>“ How are we going to create environments, simulations, and real learning experiences unless they’ve participated in them and reflected on their importance for themselves?”…the key is “how to design the interaction so the user lives the experience. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Extrinsic Motivation <ul><li>“… is motivation that arises from external contingencies.” (i.e., students who act to get high grades, win a trophy, comply with a deadline—means-to-an-end motivation) </li></ul><ul><li>See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources . Boston: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Intrinsic Motivation <ul><li>“… innate propensity to engage one’s interests and exercise one’s capabilities, and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and personal curiosity for growth) </li></ul>See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior . NY: Plenum Press.
  35. 37. Motivational Terms? See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources . Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee) <ul><li>Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control </li></ul><ul><li>Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership </li></ul>
  36. 38. Encourage activities that motivate thinking. (Sheinberg, April 2000, Learning Circuits)
  37. 39. <ul><li>Tone: Ice Breakers </li></ul><ul><li>Introductions: require not only that students introduce themselves, but also that they find and respond to two classmates who have something in common (Serves dual purpose of setting tone and having students learn to use the tool) </li></ul><ul><li>99 Seconds of Fame: In an online synchronous chat, give each student 99 seconds to present themselves and field questions. </li></ul>
  38. 40. 1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers <ul><li>c. Eight Nouns Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Introduce self using 8 nouns </li></ul><ul><li>2. Explain why choose each noun </li></ul><ul><li>3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings </li></ul><ul><li>d. Coffee House Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations </li></ul><ul><li>2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they might be met </li></ul><ul><li>(or make public commitments of how they will fit into busy schedules!) </li></ul>
  39. 42. 1. Tone/Climate: Like Ice Breakers <ul><li>KNOWU Rooms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create discussion forums or chat room topics for people with diff experiences (e.g., soccer parent, runner, pet lovers, like music, outdoor person). Find those with similar interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete eval form where list people in class and interests. Most names wins. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chat Room Buds: Create a discussion prompt in one of “X’ number of chat rooms. Introduce yourself in the chat room that interests you. </li></ul>
  40. 43. Multiple Rooms for Chat
  41. 44. 1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers <ul><li>Storytelling Cartoon Time: Find a Web site that has cartoons. Have participants link their introductionsor stories to a particular cartoon URL. Storytelling is a great way to communicate (alternative: post favorite Web site). </li></ul><ul><li>Two Truths, One Lie </li></ul><ul><li>Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Class votes on which is the lie </li></ul>
  42. 45. 2. Feedback A. Requiring Peer Feedback <ul><li>Alternatives: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Reading Reactions: Require minimum # of peer comments and give guidance (e.g., they should do…) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Peer Feedback Through Templates—give templates to complete peer evaluations. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Have e-papers contest(s) </li></ul>
  43. 48. 2. Feedback (Instructor) B. Anonymous Suggestion Box <ul><li>George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity and Electronics for Engineers: </li></ul><ul><li>Students send anonymous course feedback (Web forms or email) </li></ul><ul><li>Submission box is password protected </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor decides how to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Then provide response and most or all of suggestion in online forum </li></ul><ul><li>It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor views, and justified actions publicly. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: If you are disturbed by criticism, perhaps do not use. </li></ul>
  44. 49. 2. Feedback: C . Double-Jeopardy Quizzing <ul><li>Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to Management of Info Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Students take objective quiz (no time limit and not graded) </li></ul><ul><li>Submit answer for evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz returns a compelling probing question, insight, or conflicting perspective (i.e., a counterpoint) to force students to reconsider original responses </li></ul><ul><li>Students must commit to a response but can use reference materials </li></ul><ul><li>Correct answer and explanation are presented </li></ul>
  45. 50. 2. Feedback: D . Async Self-Testing and Self-Assessments
  46. 51. 2. Feedback: E. Synchronous Testing & Assessment (Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002) <ul><li>Post times when will be available for 30 minute slots, first come, first serve. </li></ul><ul><li>Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to study for. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell can skip one. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment will be a dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>Get them there 1-2 minutes early. </li></ul><ul><li>Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask q’s, redirect, push for clarity, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes. </li></ul>
  47. 52. 2. Feedback (Instructor) F. Reflective Writing <ul><li>Alternatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers </li></ul><ul><li>PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL </li></ul><ul><li>Summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email instructor after class on what learned or failed to learn… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 2001, p. 18) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 53. 3. Engagement: A. Questioning (Morten Flate Pausen, 1995; <ul><li>Shot Gun: Post many questions or articles to discuss and answer any—student choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Seat: One student is selected to answer many questions from everyone in the class. </li></ul>
  49. 54. 3. Engagement A. Questioning: XanEdu Coursepacks
  50. 55. 3. Engagement B. Annotations and Animations: MetaText (eBooks)
  51. 56. 4. Meaningfulness: A. Perspective Taking: Oral Histories and Interviews <ul><li>1. Perspective sharing discussions: Have learners relate the course material to a real-life experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: In a course on Technology & Culture, students freely shared experiences of visiting grandparents on rural farms. The discussion led to a greater interest in the readings. </li></ul>
  52. 57. 4. Meaningfulness: B. Perspective Taking: Foreign Languages <ul><li>Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU and Jennifer Liu, East Asian Languages and Cultures at IU: </li></ul><ul><li>Have students receive e-newsletters from a foreign magazine as well as respond to related questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Students assume roles of those in literature from that culture and participate in real-time chats using assumed identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Students use multimedia and Web for self-paced lessons to learn target language in authentic contexts. </li></ul>
  53. 58. 4. Meaningfulness: C. Expert Job Interviews <ul><li>1. Field Definition Activity: Have student interview ( via e-mail, if necessary) someone working in the field of study and share their results </li></ul><ul><li>As a class, pool interview results and develop a group description of what it means to be a professional in the field </li></ul>
  54. 59. 4. Meaningfulness: D. Job or Field Reflections <ul><li>Instructor provides reflection or prompt for job related or field observations </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on job setting or observe in field </li></ul><ul><li>Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to peers </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor summarizes posts </li></ul>
  55. 60. 4. Meaningfulness: E. Case-Based Learning: Student Cases <ul><li>Model how to write a case </li></ul><ul><li>Practice answering cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Link to the text material—relate to how how text author or instructor might solve. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to 6-8 peer cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the discussion in their case. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize discussion in a peer case. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Note: method akin to storytelling) </li></ul></ul>
  56. 62. 4. Meaningfulness: F. Authentic Data Analysis <ul><li>Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human Origins; Components: From CD to Web </li></ul><ul><li>A set of research q’s and problems that archaeologists have posed about the site (a set of Web-based activities) </li></ul><ul><li>A complete set of data from the site and background info (multimedia data on sites from all regions and prehistoric time periods in Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>A set of methodologies and add’l background info (TimeWeb tool to help students visualize and explore space/time dimensions) </li></ul><ul><li>Students work collaboratively to integrate multidisciplinary data & interpret age of site </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret evidence for site’s ancient environments </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze info on artifacts and fossils from the site </li></ul>
  57. 63. 5. Choice: A. Multiple Topics <ul><li>Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask students to participate in 2 out of 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Provide different discussion “tracks” (much like conference tracks) for students with different interests to choose among </li></ul><ul><li>List possible topics and have students vote (students sign up for lead diff weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Have students list and vote. </li></ul>
  58. 66. 5. Choice: B. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper (Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000) <ul><li>Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others participate and wrapper summarizes what was discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate). </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper (Alexander, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or questioner to push student thinking and give feedback </li></ul>
  59. 67. 5. Choice: C. Web Resource Reviews
  60. 69. 5. Choice and Voice D. Poll Students for Formative Feedback
  61. 71. 6. Variety: A. Just-In-Time-Teaching <ul><li>Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics Professor (teaches teamwork, collaboration, and effective communication): </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures are built around student answers to short quizzes that have an electronic due date just hours before class. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor reads and summarizes responses before class and weaves them into discussion and changes the lecture as appropriate. </li></ul>
  62. 72. 6. Variety: B. Just-In-Time Syllabus (Raman, Shackelford, & Sosin) <ul><li>Syllabus is created as a &quot;shell&quot; which is thematically organized and contains print, video, and web references as well as assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = critical thinking (analysis, evaluation), developing student interests, collaboration, discussion </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., Economics instructors incorporate time-sensitive data, on-line discussions, and Web links into the delivery of most of the undergraduate courses in economics. Instructor reads and summarizes responses before class and weaves them into discussion and changes the lecture as appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., To teach or expand discussion of supply or elasticity, an instructor adds new links in the Just-in-Time Syllabus to breaking news about gasoline prices and energy blackouts in California. </li></ul>
  63. 73. 6. Variety: C. Virtual Classroom <ul><li>Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data Warehousing and Decision Support </li></ul><ul><li>Voice annotated slides on Web; 7 course modules with a number of 15-30 minutes units </li></ul><ul><li>Biweekly Q&A chat sessions moderated by students </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin Board class discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Exam Q’s posted to BB; answers sent via email </li></ul><ul><li>Team projects posted in a team project space </li></ul><ul><li>Add’l Web resources are structured for students (e.g., white papers, reports, project and product home pages) </li></ul><ul><li>Email is used to communicate with students </li></ul>
  64. 74. 7. Curiosity: A. Electronic Seance <ul><li>Students read books from famous dead people </li></ul><ul><li>Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous). </li></ul><ul><li>Present present day problem for them to solve </li></ul><ul><li>Participate from within those characters (e.g., read direct quotes from books or articles) </li></ul><ul><li>Invite expert guests from other campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Keep chat open for set time period </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief </li></ul>
  65. 75. 7. Curiosity <ul><li>B. Online Fun and Games </li></ul><ul><li>(see </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzle games </li></ul><ul><li>Solve puzzle against </li></ul><ul><li>timer </li></ul><ul><li>Learn concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Compete </li></ul><ul><li>Get points </li></ul>
  66. 76. C. Simulations Games E-Learners Play, 2001, Clive Shepard <ul><li>“ For people-oriented subjects, SmartForce is using role-play simulations that challenge students to solve real-life problems in realistic situations. The student interacts with virtual characters and consults a wide variety of resources, including white papers, presentations and web links, in order to realize the goals of the scenario.” </li></ul>
  67. 77. I. eDrama (Front Desk Hiring)
  68. 78. II. Intermezzon: MoneyMaker Sales Training
  69. 79. Games and Simulations <ul><li>“ There’s something new on the horizon, though: computer-based soft skills simulations, which let learners practice skills such as negotiation and team building.” </li></ul><ul><li>Clark Aldrich, The State of Simulations, Sept. 2001, Online Learning </li></ul>
  70. 80. 7. Curiosity: D. Electronic Guests & Mentoring <ul><li>Find article or topic that is controversial </li></ul><ul><li>Invite person associated with that article (perhaps based on student suggestions) </li></ul><ul><li>Hold real time chat </li></ul><ul><li>Pose questions </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change their minds?) </li></ul><ul><li>(Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments with expert reviews) </li></ul>
  71. 82. 8. Tension <ul><li>A. Role Play Personalities </li></ul><ul><li>List possible roles or personalities (e.g., coach, optimist, devil’s advocate, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key roles) </li></ul><ul><li>Reassign roles if someone drops class </li></ul><ul><li>Perform within roles—refer to different personalities </li></ul><ul><li>B. Assume Persona of Scholar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enroll famous people in your course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students assume voice of that person for one or more sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own </li></ul></ul>
  72. 83. 8. Tension. C. Six Hats (from De Bono, `985; adopted for online learning by Karen Belfer, 2001, Ed Media) <ul><li>White Hat: Data, facts, figures, info (neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>Red Hat: Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage… </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Hat: Positive, sunshine, optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Black Hat: Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy </li></ul><ul><li>Green Hat: New ideas, creativity, growth </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Hat: Controls thinking process & organization </li></ul><ul><li>Note: technique used in a business info systems class where discussion got too predictable! </li></ul>
  73. 84. 8. Tension: D. Instructor Generated Virtual Debate (or student generated) <ul><li>Select controversial topic (with input from class) </li></ul><ul><li>Divide class into subtopic pairs: one critic and one defender. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic </li></ul><ul><li>Critics and defenders post initial position stmts </li></ul><ul><li>Rebut person in one’s pair </li></ul><ul><li>Reply to 2+ positions with comments or q’s </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate and post personal positions. </li></ul>
  74. 85. 9. Interactive: A. Critical/Constructive Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies <ul><li>Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on commonalities). </li></ul><ul><li>Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders of due dates, help where needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark) as well as suggestions for strengthening. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In effect, critical friends do not slide over weaknesses, but confront them kindly and directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflect on experience. </li></ul>
  75. 88. 9. Interactive: B. Symposia of Experts <ul><li>Find topic during semester that peaks interest </li></ul><ul><li>Find students who tend to be more controversial </li></ul><ul><li>Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme </li></ul><ul><li>Have them prepare statements </li></ul><ul><li>Invite questions from audience (rest of class) </li></ul><ul><li>Assign panelists to start </li></ul>
  76. 89. 9. Interactive: <ul><li>C. Panels of Experts: Be an Expert/Ask an Expert: Have each learner choose an area in which to become expert and moderate a forum for the class. Require participation in a certain number of forums (choice) </li></ul><ul><li>D. Press Conference: Have a series of press conferences at the end of small group projects; one for each group) </li></ul>
  77. 90. 9. Interactive: E. Secret Coaches and Proteges <ul><li>Input learner names into a Web site. </li></ul><ul><li>When learners arrive, it randomly assigns them a secret protégé for a meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them to monitor the work of their protégé but to avoid being obvious by giving feedback to several different people. </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of comments. </li></ul><ul><li>At end of mtg, have proteges guess coaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how behavior could be used in other meetings. </li></ul>
  78. 91. 9. Interactive: F. Online Co-Laborative Psych Experiments <ul><li>PsychExperiments (University of Mississippi) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 30 free psych experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Location independent </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient to instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Run experiments over large number of subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Can build on it over time </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-institutional </li></ul>Ken McGraw, Syllabus, November, 2001
  79. 92. 10. Goal Driven <ul><li>A. Jigsaw Technique : each student becomes an expert on a topic and teaches that to his/her group. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., Assign chapters within groups </li></ul><ul><li>(member #1 reads chapters 1 & 2; #2 reads 3 & 4, etc.) </li></ul>
  80. 94. 10. Goal Driven: B. Gallery Tours of Individual or Team Products <ul><li>Assign Topic or Project </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers ) </li></ul><ul><li>Students Post to Web </li></ul><ul><li>Experts Review and Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Try to Combine Projects </li></ul>
  81. 95. What about synchronous possibilities?
  82. 96. News Flash: “Instant Messenger (IM) is a huge corporate tool, yet rarely mentioned in corporate productivity or learning plans.” TechLearn TRENDS, Feb. 6, 2002 <ul><li>Jupiter Media Metrix: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8.8 million AOL IM users at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.8 million MSN users at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.4 million Yahoo! Messenger users at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doubled from 2.3 billion minutes in Sept. 2000 to 4.9 billion minutes in Sept. 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can connect learners to each other and provide easier access to the instructor (the MASIE Center). </li></ul>
  83. 97. Synchronous Presentation Tools: What Are the Common Tools and Features?
  84. 98. Synchronous WBT Products Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2000, Jan) <ul><li>Deluxe (InterWise, LearnLinc, Centra) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-way audio using VOIP, one-way or two-way video, course scheduling, tracking, text chat, assessment (requires thick client-side software) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard (HorizonLive, PlaceWare) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-way VOIP or phone bridge for two-way audio, text chat, application viewing, (requires thin client-side app or browser plug-ini) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy (Blackboard, WebCT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browser-based, chat, some application viewing (Requires Java-enabled browsers, little cost, free) </li></ul></ul>
  85. 99. “ There are, say, 20 features that encompass live e-learning, and all the products have 17 of them.” Jennifer Hofmann, quoted by Wendy Webb, Online Learning, November, 2001, p. 44.
  86. 100. Web Conferencing Features <ul><li>Audio (VOIP, bridge) and Videostreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Application Sharing or Viewing (e.g., Word and PowerPoint) Includes remote control and emoticons </li></ul><ul><li>Text (Q&A) Chat (private and public) </li></ul><ul><li>Live Surveys, Polls, and Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous Web Browsing </li></ul><ul><li>File Transfer </li></ul>
  87. 101. Web Conferencing Features <ul><li>Content Windows—HTML, PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Boards—post info, FAQs, post session assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Archive Meeting—record and playback </li></ul><ul><li>Breakout Rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-Raising and Yes/No Buttons </li></ul>
  88. 102. Curiosity: Synchronous Activities <ul><li>Webinar, Webcast </li></ul><ul><li>Guest speaker moderated (or open) Q&A forum </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor meetings, private talk, admin help </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Polls/Quizzes, Voting Ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Team activities or meetings or Peer Q&A </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative writing </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming ideas, What-Ifs, Quick reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn) </li></ul><ul><li>Online Mentoring or Language Learning </li></ul>
  89. 103. 1. Webinar, Webcast
  90. 104. 2. Discussion plus Chat (e.g., Starter-Wrapper + Sync Guest Chat)
  91. 105. 3. Instructor Meetings and Support
  92. 106. 3. Instructor Online Office Hours
  93. 107. 4. Electronic Voting and Polling <ul><li>1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or send directly to the instructor) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view </li></ul><ul><li>3. Discuss with majority pt of view </li></ul><ul><li>4. Repoll students after class </li></ul><ul><li>(Note: Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique: anomymous input till a due date </li></ul><ul><li>and then post results and </li></ul><ul><li>reconsider until consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999) </li></ul>
  94. 108. Poll Your Students Online
  95. 109. 5. Survey Student Opinions (e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
  96. 111. 6. Peer Questions & Team Meeting
  97. 112. 7. Collaborative Document Writing Online: Peer-to-Peer Collaboration
  98. 113. 8. Brainstorming <ul><li>Come up with interesting or topic or problem to solve </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymously brainstorm ideas in a chat discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage spin off ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Post list of ideas generated </li></ul><ul><li>Rank or rate ideas and submit to instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate average ratings and distribute to group </li></ul>
  99. 114. 9. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Digital Whiteboards)
  100. 115. 9. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Map edit tool)
  101. 116. Mapedit Tool <ul><li>Mapedit allows multiple users to add, delete, and move symbols and lines on the map overlay. The Mapedit program, was developed to create map overlays, emulating plastic sheets on which symbols are drawn that are laid onto a map. And if students want a whiteboard, they simply have to open a blank overlay (no map background). </li></ul>
  102. 117. 10. Online Language Support (pronunciation, communication, vocabulary, grammar, etc.)
  103. 118. Motivational Top Ten <ul><li>1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>3. Engagement: Q’ing, Polling, Voting </li></ul><ul><li>4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases </li></ul><ul><li>5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper </li></ul><ul><li>6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins </li></ul><ul><li>7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors </li></ul><ul><li>8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy </li></ul><ul><li>9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels </li></ul><ul><li>10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours </li></ul>Pick One…??? (circle one)
  104. 119. Pick an Idea <ul><li>Definitely Will Use: ___________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>May Try to Use: ___________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>No Way: ___________________________ </li></ul>
  105. 121. <ul><li>Questions? Comments? Concerns? </li></ul>