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Organization Behavior - Learning


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Organization Behavior

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Organization Behavior - Learning

  1. 1. Learning   ASSIGNMENT 3 Learning Organization Behavior Dr. D. Gopala Krishna TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  2. 2. Learning   1. Define Learning Learning is relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Components of learning • Learning involves change. Change may be good or bad. • Change must become ingrained. Immediate changes may be only reflexive or as a result of fatigue (or a sudden burst of energy) and thus may not represent learning • Some form of experience is necessary for learning. Experience can be obtained either by observation or practice or it may be acquired indirectly, as through reading 2. Explain important theories of learning Several theories have been offered to explain the process of learning by which we acquire patterns of behavior. These are: 1) Conditioning Theory i. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov Experiment) ii. Operant Conditioning (Skinner Experiment) 2) Social Learning Theory 3) Cognitive Theory (Edward Tolman) Conditioning Theory: Classical Conditioning: Learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditional stimulus. When the stimuli, one compelling and other one neutral, are paired, the neutral one becomes a conditioned stimulus and hence takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus. This is more applicable incase of reflexive or unlearned behavior. Classical conditioning can be used to explain why Christmas carols often bring back pleasant memories of childhood; the songs are associated with the festive holiday spirit and evoke fond memories and feelings of euphoria. Pavlov Experiment: • When Pavlov presented the dog with a piece of meat, the dog exhibited an increase in salivation • When Pavlov withheld the presentation of the meat and merely rang a bell, the dog didn’t salivate • Pavlov linked the presentation of meat and the ringing of the bell. The dog salivated • After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting the food, the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell rang • After a while, the dog would salivate merely at the sound of the bell even if no food was offered • Meat is the unconditional stimulus. Increase in salivation is unconditioned response. Bell was artificial stimulus and a conditional stimulus (originally neutral). Conditioned response is salivation with bell only (no meat) Conditioning Theory: Operant Conditioning   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  3. 3. Learning   Operant conditioning argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. Operant behavior means voluntary or learned behavior in contrast to reflexive or unlearned behavior. The tendency to repeat such behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement brought about by the consequences of the behavior. Reinforcement strengthens the behavior and increases the likelihood that it will be repeated. Skinner Experiment: • People will most likely engage in desired behavior if they are positively reinforced or rewarded for doing so and that behavior that is not rewarded or punished, is less likely to be repeated • People learn to associate stimulus and response but their conscious awareness of this association is irrelevant Stimulus Desirability Name of Presented or of Stimulus contingency Withdrawn Presented Pleasant Positive Reinforcement Strength of Response Increases Presented Unpleasant Punishment Decreases Withdrawn Pleasant Extinction Decreases Withdrawn Unpleasant Negative reinforcement Increases Example Praise from a superior encourages continuing the praised behavior Criticism from a superior discourages enacting the punishment behavior Failing to praise a helpful act reduces the odds of helping in the future Future criticism is avoided by doing whatever the superior wants Social Learning Theory Learning through both observation and direct experience is called social learning theory. Individuals can also learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct experiences. Much of what we have learned comes from watching models – parents, teachers, peers, motion picture and television performers., bosses, and so forth. Social learning is an extension of Operant Learning. It not only assumes that behavior is a function of consequences, it also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the important of perception in learning. People respond to how they perceive and define consequences, not to the objective consequences themselves. Four processes determine the influence that a model will have on an individual: 1) Attentional Processes 2) Retention Processes 3) Motor reproduction Processes 4) Reinforcement Processes   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  4. 4. Learning   Cognitive Theory Cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them The steps in this are: 1) Receiving 2) Memorizing 3) Perceiving 4) Interpreting   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University