Environmental pollution is the contamination of
the physical and biological components of the
earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that
normal environmental processes are adversely
Air pollution is the introduction into
the atmosphere of chemicals,
particulate matter, or biological materials that
cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans,
damage other living organisms such as food crops,
or damage the natural environment or built
environment . Smoke from chimneys, automobile
exhaust, burning of fossil fuels and forest fires
result in air pollution
Some of the most important air pollutants are
sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon
monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) and airborne particles, with radioactive
pollutants probably among the most destructive
ones (specifically when produced by nuclear
Due to increase in the volume of these gases in
atmosphere the ozone layer is depleting because of
which the ultraviolet rays of sun are reaching us and
causing damage to our skin, eyes and other organs.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies
(e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater).
Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged
directly or indirectly into water bodies without
adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence
of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the
natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity,
agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most
common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons,
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and
benzopyrene),solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals.
Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and
intensity of chemical usage.
Acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and
sulfuric acids. These acids are formed primarily by nitrogen oxides
and sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels
ii. Haze is caused when sunlight encounters tiny pollution particles in
the air. Haze obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what
iii. Ozone depletion- This is a layer present in the atmosphere which
protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun which can
cause skin cancer. But due to the air pollutants this layer is getting
iv. The air pollutants also cause diseases in humans like lung cancer,
asthma, Irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat, etc.
Water bodies like lakes and rivers are polluted which
results in the death of marine animals like
fishes, turtles, whales, dolphins etc.
ii. Oil spills not only harm marine animals but they also
affect precipitation rate.
iii. If the polluted water is consumed by humans then
water-borne diseases like typhoid, cholera, dysentery.
iv. When the pesticides after surface runoff reach the
lakes, they lead to the growth of algae which after
sometime covers the whole lake and due to lack of
oxygen the animals die.
The waste from landfill leaches and causes
contaminates the groundwater.
Certain animals like cows eat waste like plastic bags
It emits foul odor and becomes breeding ground for
The waste on a landfill reduces the fertility of the soil.
Pesticides, benzene, chromium and weed killers
sprayed on the field are carcinogens which have been
established to lead to all kinds of cancer. Long-term
benzene exposure is responsible for irregular
menstrual cycles in women, leukemia and anemia.