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IntroToNLP.ppt

NLP

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Natural Language Processing
Slides by Sergei Nirenberg
General speech and language understanding and generation capabilities
Politeness: emotional intelligence
Self-awareness: a model of self, including goals and plans
Belief ascription: modeling others; reasoning about their
goals and plans
Dave: Open the pod bay doors, HAL.
HAL: I am sorry, Dave. I am afraid I can’t do that.
Dave: What’s the problem.
HAL: I think you know what the problem is just as well as I do.
Dave: I don’t know what you’re talking about.
HAL: I know that you and Frank were planning to disconnect me, and I’m
afraid that’s something I cannot allow to happen.
Recognition of emotion from speech
Vision capability including visual recognition of emotions and faces
Also: situational ambiguity
Hal: I can tell from the tone of your voice, Dave, that you’re upset.
Why don’t you take a stress pill and get some rest.
[Dave has just drawn another sketch of Dr. Hunter].
HAL: Can you hold it a bit closer?
[Dave does so].
HAL: That’s Dr. Hunter, isn’t it?
Dave: Yes.
To attain the levels of performance we attribute to
HAL, we need to be able to define, model, acquire and
manipulate
• Knowledge of the world and of agents in it,
• Text meaning,
• Intention
and related “big” issues.
But is a HAL-like system really needed?
Can we maybe fake intelligence -- or at least a
capability to maintain dialog -- and not have
to face a problem that is so very hard?
Well, sometimes.
When thinking about building dialog systems, consider
PARRY (Colby 1971), a computer conversationalist with
a paranoid personality. It was far, far more powerful than its much
more famous cousin Eliza and had thousands of users in the 1970s
who plainly believed that it was intelligent. Trained psychiatrists
couldn’t in a blind test distinguish PARRY from a human. But all
PARRY had was about 6000 patterns through which to recognize
elements of input and some open-pattern stock answers, many of
them referring to the mafia and bookies at racetracks. PARRY could
keep up conversations of dozens of turns and appeared to have
a personality.
It was at one time pitched against Eliza:

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IntroToNLP.ppt

  • 2. General speech and language understanding and generation capabilities Politeness: emotional intelligence Self-awareness: a model of self, including goals and plans Belief ascription: modeling others; reasoning about their goals and plans Dave: Open the pod bay doors, HAL. HAL: I am sorry, Dave. I am afraid I can’t do that. Dave: What’s the problem. HAL: I think you know what the problem is just as well as I do. Dave: I don’t know what you’re talking about. HAL: I know that you and Frank were planning to disconnect me, and I’m afraid that’s something I cannot allow to happen.
  • 3. Recognition of emotion from speech Vision capability including visual recognition of emotions and faces Also: situational ambiguity Hal: I can tell from the tone of your voice, Dave, that you’re upset. Why don’t you take a stress pill and get some rest. [Dave has just drawn another sketch of Dr. Hunter]. HAL: Can you hold it a bit closer? [Dave does so]. HAL: That’s Dr. Hunter, isn’t it? Dave: Yes.
  • 4. To attain the levels of performance we attribute to HAL, we need to be able to define, model, acquire and manipulate • Knowledge of the world and of agents in it, • Text meaning, • Intention and related “big” issues.
  • 5. But is a HAL-like system really needed? Can we maybe fake intelligence -- or at least a capability to maintain dialog -- and not have to face a problem that is so very hard? Well, sometimes.
  • 6. When thinking about building dialog systems, consider PARRY (Colby 1971), a computer conversationalist with a paranoid personality. It was far, far more powerful than its much more famous cousin Eliza and had thousands of users in the 1970s who plainly believed that it was intelligent. Trained psychiatrists couldn’t in a blind test distinguish PARRY from a human. But all PARRY had was about 6000 patterns through which to recognize elements of input and some open-pattern stock answers, many of them referring to the mafia and bookies at racetracks. PARRY could keep up conversations of dozens of turns and appeared to have a personality. It was at one time pitched against Eliza:
  • 7. PARRY: I don't understand your motives. ELIZA: Why don't you understand my motives? PARRY: Shouldn't I be? ELIZA: Why do you say that just now? PARRY: That's just the way it is. ELIZA: Suppose that's just the way it were not? PARRY: So? ELIZA: I am not sure I understand you fully. PARRY: You harp on the same questions too much. ELIZA: What does that similarity suggest to you? PARRY: I don't get you. ELIZA: Do you wish you did get I? PARRY: It's about time you showed some interest in my feelings. ELIZA: Oh? I showed some interest in your feelings? PARRY: In my opinion, you have a one- track mind. ELIZA: What makes you think I have a one-track mind? PARRY: I used to go to the track every week. ELIZA: What does that suggest to you? PARRY: I avoid racetracks now because the races are fixed. ELIZA: Is that the real reason? PARRY: I'd rather not discussit. ELIZA: What else would you like to discuss? PARRY: That's something I don't want to go into.
  • 8. Phonetics and phonology The study of language sounds Ecology The study of language conventions for punctuation, text mark-up and encoding Morphology The study of meaningful components of words Syntax The study of structural relationships among words Lexical semantics The study of word meaning Compositional semantics The study of the meaning of sentences Pragmatics The study of the use of language to accomplish goals Discourse conventions The study of conventions of dialogue
  • 9. Some NLP Applications finding appropriate documents on certain topics from a database of texts (for example, finding relevant books in a library) extracting information from messages or articles on certain topics (for example, building a database of all stock transactions described in the news on a given day) translating documents from one language to another (for example, producing automobile repair manuals in many different languages) summarizing texts for certain purposes (for example, producing a 3-page summary of a 1000-page government report)
  • 10. Some more NLP Applications question-answering systems, where natural language is used to query a database (for example, a query system to a personnel database) automated customer service over the telephone (for example, to perform banking transactions or order items from a catalogue) tutoring systems, where the machine interacts with a student (for example, an automated mathematics tutoring system) spoken language control of a machine (for example, voice control of a VCR or computer)
  • 11. Production-Level Applications A computer program in Canada accepts daily weather data and automatically generates weather reports in English and French Over 1,000,000 translation requests daily are processed by the Babel Fish system available through Altavista A visitor to Cambridge, MA can ask a computer about places to eat using only spoken language. The system returns relevant information from a database of facts about the restaurant scene.
  • 12. Prototype-Level Applications Computers grade student essays in a manner indistinguishable from human graders An automated reading tutor intervenes, through speech, when the reader makes a mistake or asks for help A computer watches a video clip of a soccer game and produces a report about what it has seen A computer predicts upcoming words and expands abbreviations to help people with disabilities to communicate
  • 13. Stages in a Comprehensive NLP System Tokenization Morphological Analysis Syntactic Analysis Semantic Analysis (lexical and compositional) Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis Knowledge-Based Reasoning Text generation
  • 16. Syntax How many readings do the following examples have? I made her duck I saw Grand Canyon flying to San Diego the a are of I the cows are grazing in the meadow John saw Mary Foot Heads Arms Body
  • 17. The bane of NLP: ambiguity Ambiguity resolution at all levels and in all system components is one of the major tasks for NLP
  • 18. Translation The coach lost a set One strongly preferred meaning although in a standard English-Russian dictionary coach has 15 senses lose has 11 senses set has 91 sense 15 x 11 x 91 = 15015 possible translations
  • 19. Translation The soldiers shot at the women and I saw some of them fall. If translating into Hebrew, them will have a choice of a masculine or a feminine pronoun. How do we know how to choose?
  • 20. Noise in the communication channel hte Easily resolvable But sometimes, it is less clear: Thanks for all you help! This sentence is ambiguous: It has a reading as is; but it can also be misspelled… How does one process this?
  • 21. `Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe (Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky) Is anything at all understandable here? It was 4 o’clock in the afternoon and the slimy/lithe toves (a combination of a badger, a lizard, and a corkscrew) ran around and made holes in the grass around a sundial. (first two lines) Brilliant Nonsense