Lecture 9.9 found of individ post

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Lecture 9.9 found of individ post

  1. 1. Foundations of Individual Behavior
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define key biographical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Identify two types of ability </li></ul><ul><li>Shape the behavior of others </li></ul><ul><li>Examine four schedules of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the role of punishment in learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biographical Characteristics Age
  4. 4. Biographical Characteristics Gender
  5. 5. Biographical Characteristics Marital Status
  6. 6. Biographical Characteristics Tenure
  7. 7. Intellectual Abilities <ul><li>Number aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual speed </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Memory ability </li></ul>
  8. 8. Flexibility Factors Strength Factors Basic Physical Abilities Other Factors
  9. 9. The Ability-Job Fit <ul><li>Abilities of the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements of the job </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classical Conditioning
  11. 12. Operant Conditioning
  12. 14. Social Learning Theory Learn by observing others and through direct experiences Models have influence when the following processes occur: Get rewarded Reinforcement Motor Reproduction Retention Attentional Reconize Remember Do
  13. 15. Methods of Shaping Behavior Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Extinction Punishment
  14. 16. Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent </li></ul>Reinforces desired behavior every time Reinforces desired behavior often enough to make behavior worth repeating
  15. 17. Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed- Interval Fixed- Ratio Variable- Ratio Variable- Interval Interval Ratio Variable Fixed
  16. 18. Behavior Modification: Emery Air Freight
  17. 19. Behavior Modification <ul><li>Critical behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Performance improvement </li></ul>
  18. 20. Organizational Applications <ul><li>Lotteries to reduce absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Well pay versus sick pay </li></ul><ul><li>Training programs </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring programs </li></ul>

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