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Deforestation

General introduction of deforestation term. Causes of deforestation. Effects of deforestation on the Environment (Atmospheric, Hydrological, soil, and biodiversity). The economic impact of deforestation. Rates of deforestation. Deforestation in India. How to control deforestation, by reducing emissions or reforestation or forest plantations.

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Seminar 1(SE601)
Deforestation
Presented By,
SHIVANGI PATEL
[18EN803]
M. Tech 3rd sem., Environment Engg.,
BVM, VV nagar
BIRLA
VISHVAKARMA
MAHAVIDYALAYA
(2019-2020)
Guided by, Co-guided by,
Dr. Reshma Patel Prof. Jignesh Brahmbhatt
Index
• 1.Introduction
• 2.Causes
• 3.Environmental effects
• 4.Economic impact
• 5.Rates of Deforestation
• 6.Deforestation in India
• 7.Control
• 8.References
INTRODUCTION
• Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or
stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use.
Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban
use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About
31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.
• Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used
for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while
cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal
of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage,
biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on bio sequestration of
atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to
deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces.
• Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military
in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States military in
Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
INTRODUCTION
• As of 2005, net deforestation rates had ceased to increase in countries with a
per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. Deforested regions typically incur
significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.
• Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, and deficient
environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale
deforestation. In many countries, deforestation both naturally occurring and
human induced is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes
to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as
observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More
than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical
forests.
• Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometers (890,000 sq meters) of
forests around the world were cut down.
INTRODUCTION
The Data behind Deforestation
• Forests cover approximately 31% of the total land surface of the Earth.
• Tropical forests harbor over half of all land-based animal and plant species in
the world.
• Between the years 2000 and 2012, over 568 million acres of forest has been
claimed by deforestation.
• Approximately 9 million acres of virgin tropical forest was cut down in the
year 2018.
• The Amazon rainforest, which is the source of 20% of the world’s oxygen
supply, loses approximately 1.32 acres of its area every minute due to
deforestation.
CAUSES
Agriculture:
• Conversion of forests to agricultural land to feed growing needs of people.
There are an estimated 300 million people living as shifting cultivators
who practice slash and burn agriculture and are supposed to clear more
than 5 lakh ha of forests for shifting cultivation annually.
Commercial logging:
• (Which supplies the world market with woods such as meranti, teak,
mahogany and ebony) destroys trees as well as opening up forest for
agriculture. Cutting of trees for fire wood and building material, the heavy
lopping of foliage for fodder and heavy grazing of saplings by domestic
animals like goals.
Mining:
• This causes environmental impacts like erosion, formation of sinkholes,
loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface
water by chemicals from mining processes. In some cases, additional
forest logging is done in the vicinity of mines to increase the available
room for the storage of the created debris and soil.

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Deforestation

  • 1. Seminar 1(SE601) Deforestation Presented By, SHIVANGI PATEL [18EN803] M. Tech 3rd sem., Environment Engg., BVM, VV nagar BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA (2019-2020) Guided by, Co-guided by, Dr. Reshma Patel Prof. Jignesh Brahmbhatt
  • 2. Index • 1.Introduction • 2.Causes • 3.Environmental effects • 4.Economic impact • 5.Rates of Deforestation • 6.Deforestation in India • 7.Control • 8.References
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests. • Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on bio sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces. • Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION • As of 2005, net deforestation rates had ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. • Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale deforestation. In many countries, deforestation both naturally occurring and human induced is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical forests. • Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometers (890,000 sq meters) of forests around the world were cut down.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION The Data behind Deforestation • Forests cover approximately 31% of the total land surface of the Earth. • Tropical forests harbor over half of all land-based animal and plant species in the world. • Between the years 2000 and 2012, over 568 million acres of forest has been claimed by deforestation. • Approximately 9 million acres of virgin tropical forest was cut down in the year 2018. • The Amazon rainforest, which is the source of 20% of the world’s oxygen supply, loses approximately 1.32 acres of its area every minute due to deforestation.
  • 6. CAUSES Agriculture: • Conversion of forests to agricultural land to feed growing needs of people. There are an estimated 300 million people living as shifting cultivators who practice slash and burn agriculture and are supposed to clear more than 5 lakh ha of forests for shifting cultivation annually. Commercial logging: • (Which supplies the world market with woods such as meranti, teak, mahogany and ebony) destroys trees as well as opening up forest for agriculture. Cutting of trees for fire wood and building material, the heavy lopping of foliage for fodder and heavy grazing of saplings by domestic animals like goals. Mining: • This causes environmental impacts like erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes. In some cases, additional forest logging is done in the vicinity of mines to increase the available room for the storage of the created debris and soil.
  • 8. Increase in population: • The needs also increase and utilize forests resources. To meet the demands of rapidly growing population, agricultural lands and settlements are created permanently by clearing forests. Urbanization and industrialization: • Since Industrialization and Urbanization needs land to grow, so major amount of forest lands are cut in order to promote Industrialization and Urbanization. This creates harmful effect on environment and forest ecological balance. Construction of dam reservoirs: • For building big dams, large scale devastation of forests takes place which breaks the natural ecological balance of the region. Floods, droughts and landslides become more prevalent in such areas. Forests are the repositories of invaluable gifts of nature in the form of biodiversity and by destroying these we are going to lose these species even before knowing them. These species could be having marvelous economic or medicinal value. These storehouses of species which have evolved over millions of years get lost due to deforestation in a single stroke.
  • 9. Forest fires: They may be natural or manmade, and cause huge forest loss. Overgrazing: Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, or by overpopulations of native or non- native wild animals.
  • 10. Atmospheric • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries has emerged as a new potential to complement ongoing climate policies. The idea consists in providing financial compensations for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation". • REDD can be seen as an alternative to the emissions trading system as in the latter, polluters must pay for permits for the right to emit certain pollutants (i.e. CO2). • Rainforests are widely believed by laymen to contribute a significant amount of the world's oxygen, although it is now accepted by scientists that rainforests contribute little net oxygen to the atmosphere and deforestation has only a minor effect on atmospheric oxygen levels. • However, the incineration and burning of forest plants to clear land releases large amounts of CO2, which contributes to global warming. Scientists also state that tropical deforestation releases 1.5 billion tons of carbon each year into the atmosphere. Environmental effects
  • 11. Hydrological • The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest is removed, the trees no longer transpire this water, resulting in a much drier climate. • Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. The dry soil leads to lower water intake for the trees to extract. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue.. • Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transpire precipitation. Instead of trapping precipitation, which then percolates to groundwater systems, deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff, which moves much faster than subsurface flows. • Forests return most of the water that falls as precipitation to the atmosphere by transpiration. In contrast, when an area is deforested, almost all precipitation is lost as run-off. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover. Environmental effects
  • 13. Hydrological • Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapotranspiration. • According to one study, in deforested north and northwest China, the average annual precipitation decreased by one third between the 1950s and the 1980s Trees, and plants in general, affect the water cycle significantly their canopies intercept a proportion of precipitation, which is then evaporated back to the atmosphere (canopy interception); their litter, stems and trunks slow down surface runoff; their roots create macrospores large conduits in the soil that increase infiltration of water; they contribute to terrestrial evaporation and reduce soil moisture via transpiration Environmental effects
  • 14. soil • Due to surface plant litter, forests that are undisturbed have a minimal rate of erosion. The rate of erosion occurs from deforestation, because it decreases the amount of litter cover, which provides protection from surface runoff. • The rate of erosion is around 2 metric tons per square kilometer. This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of (forest) roads and the use of mechanized equipment. • Deforestation in China's Loess Plateau many years ago has led to soil erosion; this erosion has led to valleys opening up. The increase of soil in the runoff causes the Yellow River to flood and makes it yellow colored. • Greater erosion is not always a consequence of deforestation, as observed in the southwestern regions of the US. In these areas, the loss of grass due to the presence of trees and other shrubbery leads to more erosion than when trees are removed. • Soils are reinforced by the presence of trees, which secure the soil by binding their roots to soil bedrock. Due to deforestation, the removal of trees causes sloped lands to be more susceptible to landslides. Environmental effects
  • 15. Biodiversity • Since the tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and about 80% of the world's known biodiversity could be found in tropical rainforests, removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. • A study in Rondônia, Brazil, has shown that deforestation also removes the microbial community which is involved in the recycling of nutrients, the production of clean water and the removal of pollutants. • It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant, animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation, which equates to 50,000 species a year. Others state that tropical rainforest deforestation is contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction. Environmental effects
  • 16. • Deforestation facilitates the generation of raw material for a wide range of industries. Examples include the agriculture industry, the wood industry, and the construction industry. • However, the overexploitation of wood and timber can have a negative impact on the economy. The short-term economic gains made from deforestation are accompanied by reduced long-term productivity. • For example, overenthusiastic timber harvesting from a forest area may increase the overall output temporarily, but the declining forest area will eventually cause the harvest to decline. The overall forest output is greatly reduced by such practices. • According to some reports, the global GDP may see a 7% decline by the year 2050 due to deforestation and other factors. • Therefore, a sustainable approach to the usage of forest resources is ideal for the economy. Economic impact
  • 17. • Global deforestation sharply accelerated around 1852. It has been estimated that about half of the Earth's mature tropical forests between 7.5 million and 8 million km2 (2.9 million to 3 million sq mi) of the original 15 million to 16 million km2 (5.8 million to 6.2 million sq mi) that until 1947 covered the planet have now been destroyed. • Some scientists have predicted that unless significant measures (such as seeking out and protecting old growth forests that have not been disturbed) are taken on a worldwide basis, by 2030 there will only be 10% remaining, with another 10% in degraded conditions 80% will have been lost, and with them hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable species. • Some cartographers have attempted to illustrate the sheer scale of deforestation by country using a cartogram. Rates of Deforestation
  • 18. • Deforestation is one of the major causes to the environmental degradation which is affected by the agents like small farmers, ranches, loggers and plantation companies. • There is a broad consensus that expansion of cropped areas and pastures are a major source of deforestation. • The term ‘deforestation’ describes the complete long term removal of tree cover. The loss forest cover influences the climate and contributes to a loss of biodiversity. • The economic activity is adversely affected by siltation, flooding, soil degradation and reduced timber supplies. Thus, in turn, threatens the livelihood of people. Deforestation in India
  • 19. • Forests are fast vanishing from our country. Extensive and unabated deforestation, over-grazing and the growing hunger for land have hit the ecology of the country so badly that India may soon have more of waste than productive land. • Large-scale deforestation particularly during post independence period has badly affected the weather facing almost each year more of break than the normal weather. At the same time, over-grazing has reduced the regenerative capacity of the forests to a negligible point. • Deforestation and over-grazing have been causing tremendous land erosion and landslides. On an average India is losing about 6,000 million ton of top soil annually due to water erosion in the absence of trees. The loss worked out from the top soil erosion in 1973 was Rs. 700 core, in 1976, 1977 and in 1978 was Rs. 889 core, Rs. 1,200 core and Rs. 1,091 core respectively. • At Present India, is the poorest in the world so far the per capita land is concerned. Deforestation in India
  • 21. • The per capita forest Land in India is O.1O hectare compared to the world average of 1 hectare, Canada 14.2 hectare, Australia 7.6 ha and USA 7.30 ha. Indian forests comprise only 0.50 per cent of the world forest area. India is losing about 1.5 million hectares of forest cover each year. • If this trend continues we may in the next 20 years or so reach to zero forest value in our country. During a period of 25 years (1951-1976) India has lost 4.1 million hectares of forest area. Large-scale deforestation has been done for fuel, fodder, valley projects, industrial uses, road construction etc. India consumes nearly 170 million ton of firewood annually, and 10-15 million hectares of forest cover is being stripped every year to meet fuel requirements. • Actual firewood consumption went up from 86.3 million ton in 1953 to about 135 million ton in 1980, forests have been cut for agriculture (24.32 laky hectares) Thus total of 3.4 million hectares of forests were lost during this period. Nearly 1 per cent of the land surface of India is turning barren year due to deforestation. In the Himalayan range, the rainfall has declined 3 to 4 per cent due to deforestation. Deforestation in India
  • 22. Reducing emissions • In evaluating implications of overall emissions reductions, countries of greatest concern are those categorized as High Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (HFHD) and Low Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (LFHD). • Afghanistan, Benin, Botswana, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, Indonesia, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe are listed as having Low Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (LFHD). • Brazil, Cambodia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Malaysia, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Venezuela, Zambia are listed as High Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (HFHD). • Control can be made by the companies. In 2018 the biggest palm oil trader, Willmar, decided to control his suppliers for avoid deforestation. This is an important precedent. Control
  • 23. Reducing emissions Payments for conserving forests • In Bolivia, deforestation in upper river basins has caused environmental problems, including soil erosion and declining water quality. An innovative project to try and remedy this situation involves landholders in upstream areas being paid by downstream water users to conserve forests. • The landholders receive US$20 to conserve the trees, avoid polluting livestock practices, and enhance the biodiversity and forest carbon on their land. They also receive US$30, which purchases a beehive, to compensate for conservation for two hectares of water-sustaining forest for five years. • Honey revenue per hectare of forest is US$5 per year, so within five years, the landholder has sold US$50 of honey. The project is being conducted by Foundation Nature Bolivia and Rare Conservation, with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network. Control
  • 24. Land Rights • Transferring rights over land from public domain to its indigenous inhabitants is argued to be a cost effective strategy to conserve forests. • This includes the protection of such rights entitled in existing laws, such as India's Forest Rights Act. • The transferring of such rights in China, perhaps the largest land reform in modern times, has been argued to have increased forest cover. • In Brazil, forested areas given tenure to indigenous groups have even lower rates of clearing than national parks. Control
  • 25. Farming • New methods are being developed to farm more intensively, such as high-yield hybrid crops, greenhouse, autonoums building gardens, and hydroponics. These methods are often dependent on chemical inputs to maintain necessary yields. • In cyclic agriculture, cattle are grazed on farm land that is resting and rejuvenating. Cyclic agriculture actually increases the fertility of the soil. • Intensive farming can also decrease soil nutrients by consuming at an accelerated rate the trace minerals needed for crop growth. • The most promising approach, however, is the concept of food forests in perm culture, which consists of agroforestal systems carefully designed to mimic natural forests, with an emphasis on plant and animal species of interest for food, timber and other uses. • These systems have low dependence on fossil fuels and agro-chemicals, are highly self-maintaining, highly productive, and with strong positive impact on soil and water quality, and biodiversity. Control
  • 26. Monitoring Deforestation • There are multiple methods that are appropriate and reliable for reducing and monitoring deforestation. One method is the “visual interpretation of aerial photos or satellite imagery that is labor-intensive but does not require high-level training in computer image processing or extensive computational resources”. • Another method includes hot-spot analysis (that is, locations of rapid change) using expert opinion or coarse resolution satellite data to identify locations for detailed digital analysis with high resolution satellite images. • Deforestation is typically assessed by quantifying the amount of area deforested, measured at the present time. From an environmental point of view, quantifying the damage and its possible consequences is a more important task, while conservation efforts are more focused on forested land protection and development of land-use alternatives to avoid continued deforestation. • Deforestation rate and total area deforested, have been widely used for monitoring deforestation in many regions, including the Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring by INPE. A global satellite view is available. Control
  • 27. Forest management • Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to collapse. • In Tonga, paramount rulers developed policies designed to prevent conflicts between short-term gains from converting forest to farmland and long-term problems forest loss would cause, while during the 17th and 18th centuries in Tokugawa, Japan, the shoguns developed a highly sophisticated system of long- term planning to stop and even reverse deforestation of the preceding centuries through substituting timber by other products and more efficient use of land that had been farmed for many centuries. • In 16th-century Germany, landowners also developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation. However, these policies tend to be limited to environments with good rainfall, no dry season and very young soils (through volcanism or glaciations). This is because on older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be economic, whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a risk of forest fires destroying a tree crop before it matures. Control
  • 28. Reforestation • In many parts of the world, especially in East Asian countries, reforestation and forestation are increasing the area of forested lands. The amount of woodland has increased in 22 of the world's 50 most forested nations. • Asia as a whole gained 1 million hectares of forest between 2000 and 2005. Tropical forest in El Salvador expanded more than 20% between 1992 and 2001. Based on these trends, one study projects that global forestation will increase by 10% an area the size of India by 2050. • In the People's Republic of China, where large scale destruction of forests has occurred, the government has in the past required that every able-bodied citizen between the ages of 11 and 60 plant three to five trees per year or do the equivalent amount of work in other forest services. • The government claims that at least 1 billion trees have been planted in China every year since 1982. This is no longer required today, but 12 March of every year in China is the Planting Holiday. • Also, it has introduced the Green Wall of China project, which aims to halt the expansion of the Gobi desert through the planting of trees. However, due to the large percentage of trees dying off after planting (up to 75%), the project is not very successful. Control
  • 29. Forest plantations • In order to acquire the world's demand for wood, it is suggested that high yielding forest plantations are suitable according to forest writers Bodkins and Sedro. • Plantations that yield 10 cubic meters per hectare a year would supply enough wood for trading of 5% of the world's existing forestland. By contrast, natural forests produce about 1–2 cubic meters per hectare; therefore, 5–10 times more forestland would be required to meet demand. • Forester Chad Oliver has suggested a forest mosaic with high-yield forest lands interspersed with conservation land. • Globally, planted forests increased from 4.1% to 7.0% of the total forest area between 1990 and 2015.Plantation forests made up 280 million ha in 2015, an increase of about 40 million ha in the last ten years. • Globally, planted forests consist of about 18% exotic or introduced species while the rest are species native to the country where they are planted. In South America, Oceania, and East and Southern Africa, planted forests are dominated by introduced species: 88%, 75% and 65%, respectively. Control
  • 30. References  Chakra arty, Summit; Ghost, S. K.; Suresh, C. P.; Dye, A. N.; Shula, Goal. "Causes, Effects and Control Strategies, Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management" (PDF). Intec. Intec. Retrieved 23 August 2017.  Clemens, K. E.; Bahr, A.; Ovaskainen, O.; Dahlberg, A.; Ebla, A.; Laplander, H.; Stolid, J.; Finlay, R. D.; Wardle, D. A.; Lindale, B. D. (2013). "Roots and Associated Fungi Drive Long-Term Carbon Sequestration in Boreal Forest". Science. 339 (6127): 1615–8. Bibcode:2013Sci...339.1615C. doi:10.1126/science.1231923. PMID 23539604.  Deforestation causes global warming, FAO  Fear side, Philip M.; Laurence, William F. (2004). "Tropical Deforestation and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions". Ecological Applications. 14 (4): 982. doi:10.1890/03- 5225. "Foundation Chirac ' Deforestation and desertification".  Find ell, Kirsten L.; Knutson, Thomas R.; Millie, P. C. D. (2006). "Weak Simulated Extra tropical Responses to Complete Tropical Deforestation". Journal of Climate. 19 (12): 2835–2850. Bibcode:2006JCli...19.2835F. Cutesier 10.1.1.143.9090. doi:10.1175/JCLI3737.1.  IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis", Section 7.3.3.1.5. p. 527  Memoir, Fiona (18 July 2006). "The Effects of Deforestation on our Environment Today". Panorama. TakingITGlobal.  NASA Data Shows Deforestation Affects Climate In The Amazon. NASA News. 9 June 2004.  Prentice, I.C. "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide". IPCC  Van Deer Warf, G. R.; Morton, D. C.; Defies, R. S.; Olivier, J. G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Jackson, R. B.; Collate, G. J.; Anderson, J. T. (2009). "CO2 emissions from forest loss". Nature Geosciences. 2 (11): 737–738. Bibcode:2009NatGe...2..737V. doi:10.1038/ngeo671.  Wertz-Kanounnikoff, Sheila; Rubio Alvarado; Laura Xiamen. "Why are we seeing "REDD"?". Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2016.