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Buccal drug delivery system


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Buccal drug delivery system

  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONThe Buccal mucosa lines the inner cheekPlaced between the upper gingivae and cheekTreat local and systemic conditionsTypically large, hydrophilic and unstable proteins, oligonucleotidesand polysaccharides
  2. 2. An ideal dosage regimen in the drugtherapy of any disease is the one, whichimmediately attains the desiredtherapeutic concentration of drug inplasma (or at the site of action) andmaintains it constant for the entireduration of treatment
  3. 3. ADVANTAGES Avoids first pass effect Abundance of blood vessel Less hostile environment than GIT Ease of administration and termination Fast cellular recovery Directly & easily modify microenvironment Lower intersubject variability as compared to transdermal patches
  4. 4. Contd… Permeability enhancers Rapid absorption possible & hence relatively rapid onset of action In comparison to TDDS, mucosal surfaces do not have a stratum corneum thus, the major barrier layer is absent
  5. 5. DISADVANTAGES Relatively small absorptive surface area (0.01 sq m vs 100 sq m for GIT) Movement affects mucoadhesive systems Less permeable than the small intestine Salivation and swallowing Taste of the drug
  6. 6. BUCCAL MUCOSA: ENVIRONMENTThe cells of the oral epithelia are surrounded byan intercellular ground substance, mucusThe oral cavity is marked by the presence ofsaliva produced by the salivary glandsMucus which is secreted by the major and minorsalivary glands as part of saliva
  7. 7. Role of Saliva• Continuous mineralization / demineralization of the tooth enamel• Protective fluid for all tissues of the oral cavity• To hydrate oral mucosal dosage formsRole of Mucus• Bioadhesion of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems• Made up of proteins and carbohydrates• Cell-cell adhesion• Lubrication
  8. 8. DRUG DELIVERY PATHWAYSTwo possible routes of drug absorption through oral mucosa
  9. 9. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY AND MUCOADHESIVITYMucoadhesion of the device is a key elementThe term ‘mucoadhesive’ is commonly used for materials that bind to the mucin layer of a biological membraneAchieve systemic delivery of drugs include tablets, patches, tapes, films, semisolids and powders
  11. 11. MUCOADHESIVE POLYMERS GENERAL PHYSIOCHEMICAL FEATURESPredominantly anionic hydrophilicity with numerous hydrogen bond-forming groups Suitable surface property for wetting mucus/mucosal tissue surfaces andSufficient flexibility to penetrate the mucus network or tissue crevices
  12. 12. POLYMERCarboxymethyl Carbopol PolycarbophilcelluloseSodium Alginate Hydroxyethyl cellulose Hydroxypropyl methylcelluloseChitosan Gelatin Pectin
  13. 13. CONSIDERATIONThe drug must resist, or be protected by salivary and tissue enzymesThe drug and adhesive materials must not damage the teeth, oral cavityNo keratinolysis, discoloration, and irritation
  14. 14. FACTORS AFFECTING DRUGDELIVERY VIA BUCCAL ROUTE Hydrophilic macromolecules such as peptides, absorption enhancers have been used Smaller molecules greater transport No ionized forms have greater transport More lipid soluble higher its permeability More partition coefficient more permeability Lipid-soluble drug stores in Obese individuals
  15. 15. DESIGN OF BUCCAL DOSAGE FORMMatrix type: The Buccal patch designed in a matrix configurationcontains drug, adhesive, and additives mixed together Bi-directional patches release drug in both the mucosa and the mouth …………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………. Drug + Mucoadhesive Matrix
  16. 16. Contd…• Reserviour type: The buccal patch designed in a reservoir system contains a cavity for the drug and additives separate from the adhesiveImpermeable backing is applied to control the direction of drugdelivery; to reduce patch deformation and disintegration while inthe mouth; and to prevent drug loss ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Backing Layer ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Drug + Mucoadhesive Matrix
  17. 17. BUCCAL MUCOADHESIVE DOSAGE FORMS Three types based on their geometry • single layer device with multidirectional releaseType-l • significant drug loss due to swallowing • impermeable backing layer is superimposedType-ll • preventing drug loss into the oral cavity • unidirectional release device, drug loss is minimalType-lll • achieved by coating every face except contact face
  18. 18. BUCCAL FORMULATIONBuccal tablets Buccal patches• Most commonly investigated • laminates consisting of an dosage form for Buccal drug impermeable backing layer, a• Tablets are small, flat, and oval, drug-containing reservoir layer, a with a diameter of approximately bioadhesive surface for mucosal 5–8 mm attachment• Tablets can be applied to different • similar to those used in sites in the oral cavity transdermal drug delivery• Drawback : lack of physical • Backing layer control the flexibility, poor patient direction of drug release, prevent compliance drug loss, minimize deformation and disintegration
  19. 19. Contd… Buccal films Buccal gels • Most recently developed dosage • Semisolid dosage forms, have the form for Buccal administration advantage of easy dispersion • Preferred over adhesive tablets in throughout the oral mucosa terms of flexibility and comfort • may not be as accurate as from • Flexible, elastic, and soft, yet tablets, patches, or films adequately strong • Poor retention of the gels at the • Effective in oral disease site of application has been overcome by using bioadhesive formulations
  21. 21. IN VITRO EVALUATION Percentage increase in weight Swelling properties of films Shear stress method Folding endurance Diffusion study Thickness study
  22. 22. IN VIVO EVALUATION1 2 3 4 5 Intelli Drug Device
  23. 23. ACTIVE INGREDIENTS DELIVERED VIA A BUCCAL ROUTE Insulin nicotin nifedipine Flurbiprofen Acyclovir pindolol oxytocin Diclofenac sodium Arecoline Propolis Omeprazole MelatoninCarbamazepine Fluride Danazol TestosteroneChlorhexidine Metoprolol Chlorhexidine Morphine sulphate diacetate tartrate diacetate
  24. 24. RECENT & FUTURE OF BDDS Buccal nitroglycerin, can use for acute therapy for an anginal attack as well as for chronic prophylaxis Novel liquid aerosol formulation of insulin Development of suitable delivery devices, permeation enhancement, and Buccal delivery of drugs that undergo a first-pass effect, such as cardiovascular drugs, analgesics, and peptides Research yield some successes Promote further research; more companies Rest depend on delivery technology
  25. 25. CONCLUTIONBuccal drug delivery is a promising area for systemic delivery of orally inefficient drugs as well as an attractive alternative for noninvasive delivery of potent peptide and perhaps protein drug molecules
  26. 26. REFERENCES Michael J Rathbone, in: Oral Mucosal Drug Delivery M.S. Wani*, Dr. S.R. Parakh, Dr. M.H. Dehghan, S.A. Polshettiwar, V.V. Chopade, V.V. Pande, in: Current Status In Buccal Drug Delivery System: A review Amir H Shojaei, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8, in: Buccal Mucosa As A Route For Systemic Drug Delivery: A Review Yie W. Chien, in: Novel Drug Delivery System Hitesh R. Patel*, Dr. M.M. Patel, in: Draw Attention Towards Mucoadhesive Buccal Drug Delivery System Bio-Images Research Ltd, in: Applications of gamma scintigraphy in oral drug delivery