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New and innovative services in university library


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New and innovative services in university library

  2. 2. Library :Is a place in which literary andartistic materials, such asbooks, periodicals, newspapers,pamphlets, prints, records, andtapes, are kept forreading, reference, or created with the intention ofproviding free public access toreading material, with the altruisticgoal of educational enlightenmentand the better welfare of thepeople.
  3. 3. University Librarymore important in aUniversity, because a librarycan do without a Universitywhere as a University cannotfunction without a library. Thenumber of universities in Indiahas gone up from a meretwenty in 1947, to more than sixhundred in 2013 (11th Feb.)Central Universities (44)State Universities (298)Deemed Universities (130)Private Universities (148)Autonomous Institutes(IITs, IIMs, NIT, NISER, IISc. etc.)
  4. 4. University Library:The growth is signified bythe students enrollments,creation of a no. of new departments /specializations,no. of mission oriented projects ofresearch other social and intellectualfactorsInstitutions likeIITs, IISc, IIMs, NISERs, AgriculturalUniversities, Open universities Thesefactors have effected university libraries
  5. 5. Role of University Library:Today, university libraries have a very large anddifficult role to play in order to meet a variety ofdemands of information and knowledge by far largernumber of people on far larger number of subjects atfar higher prices and negligible grants.The unique function of libraries is toacquire, organize, offer for use and preserveavailable material irrespective of the form in which itis packaged (print, cassette, CD-ROM, digital /electronic, network form,) in such a way that, when& where it is needed, it can be found and put to use.Libraries are especially important now when thewhole idea of education is stressing more and more
  6. 6. Education Policy (GOI-1986), National Book Policy (1986) &Science Policy (1958), has a brief recommendations onlibraries as follows:"Together with the development of books, a nation-wide movement for theimprovement of existing libraries and the establishment of new ones willbe taken up. Provision will be made in all educational institutions forlibrary facilities and the status of librarians improved".“The availability of books at low prices, improvement of the quality ofbooks, books for children and other special groups, bookproduction, book promotion, etc. These issues are relevant to collectionbuilding programmes in libraries”.“to encourage individual initiative for the acquisition and dissemination ofknowledge, in an atmosphere of academic freedom”; Development ofLibraries and - in general, to secure for the people of the country all thebenefits that can accrue from the acquisition and application of scientificNational Policies of other Sectors having Implications forLibraries
  7. 7. University Education Committees on libraries :The University Education Commission (Dec. 1948 toAugust 1949; Chairman: Dr.S.Radhakrishnan), discussed the importance of thelibrary in the academic system and recommendedencouragement to self-study and library work tosupplement class instruction. The report stated thattraining in higher branches of learning is mainly aquestion of learning how to use the tools, and if thelibrary tools are not there the students arehandicapped in learning how to use the tools. Itconcluded that learning the techniques of using thelibrary and searching for information is highlyessential.
  8. 8. The report of the Education Commission (1964-66;Chairman: Dr. D.S. Kothari), entitled, Education andNational Development, also discussed the role oflibraries in higher education. While advocating self-study by the students, the report highlighted theskill to use books and documents independently bythe students in the learning process. The EducationCommission offered some useful suggestions forthe improvement of university and college libraries.It also addressed itself to the role of libraries in adulteducation and recommended the establishment of anetwork of public libraries. It wanted school librariesto be integrated with public libraries for purposes ofUniversity Education Committees on libraries :
  9. 9. The UGC Library Committee, chaired by Dr. S.R.Ranganathan (1959) has touched upon all aspectsof university and college library organisation andservices and formulated a set of comprehensiverecommendations. These recommendations had afar-reaching effect on the development ofuniversity libraries later. The committee provided aframework to the UGC to implement its grants-in-aid programmes and guidelines to universityauthorities.The recommendations includes library financewhich helped libraries to secure enough finance byannual grants from the universities themselves andof development grants from the UGC. It alsosuggested library personnel and staff required for
  10. 10. National Commission on Libraries:A permanent, independent and financially autonomousNational Commission on Libraries should be eventually setup by the Central Government as a statutory body toaddress all the information and learning needs of thecitizens of India.The role of libraries in providing widespread and inclusiveaccess to knowledge is widely acknowledged. In todayscontext, libraries have to play two distinct roles - to serve asa local centre of information and knowledge, and be a localgateway to national and global knowledge. In order toachieve this goal, existing libraries must modernize theircollection, services and facilities, become more pro-activeand collaborate with other institutions, agencies and NGOsin order to develop a community based information system.
  11. 11. Issues under consideration of National Knowledge Commission are:► Institutional framework of libraries;► Networking;► Education, training and research;► Modernization and computerization of libraries;► Maintenance of private and personal collections and► Staff requirements to meet changing needs.Revamp LIS Education, Training and Research facilities :The proposed Mission/ Commission on Libraries must assess as soon aspossible the manpower requirements of the country in the area of LISmanagement, and take necessary steps to meet the country’srequirement through LIS education and training. To keep the LIS sectorabreast of latest developments, necessary encouragement should begiven to research after evaluating the research status in this field.Establishing a well equipped institute for advanced training and researchin library and information science and services would provide thenecessary impetus to this task.
  12. 12. Functions of a University :•Learning and teaching;•Research and generation of new knowledge;•Dissemination and publication of research results;•Conservation of knowledge and ideas; and•Extension and services.Objectives of a University Library• Development of a collection in a wide variety of subjectsfor learning, teaching, research, . publication, etc.;• Getting the stock of knowledge materials organised andmaintained for use;• Organise and provide a variety of library, documentationand nformation services, both responsive and anticipatory.
  13. 13. User Community :• Students of different disciplines & different categories ;• Teachers, imparting instructions and guiding students atdifferent levels and in different subjects;• Research students working for M.Phil. or Ph.D degrees;• Post-doctoral research scholars working on specificprojects;• Professors and experts guiding research projects andmanaging research activities of the university;• Members of AC & EC of university, Management;• Scholars in general, who get special privileges of using theuniversity library ; and• Research Associates.So the university libraries have a big responsibility and a veryimportant role to play not only in shaping students for higherlearning and research, but also in providing a variety of
  14. 14. Library Services in University LibrariesLibrary Servicesi) Lending:ii) Information and Reference,iii) Reading Room;iv) Assistance in the use of the library; andv) Display of current additions or preparation of lists of currentaccessions.Current Awareness Servicesi) Current contents of journals;ii) Alerting services to important literature in select fields;iii) Selective Dissemination of Information; andiv) Newspaper clipping service.Bibliographic Servicesi) Literature search;ii) Compilation of bibliographies on specific topics; andiii) Index to current literature.
  15. 15. Library Services in University LibrariesCondensation Servicesi) Preparation of abstracts on specific topics;ii) Digest Services;iii) Preparation of reviews/progress/advances on specific subjects;andiv) State-of-Art-reports.Other servicesi) Document supply services;ii) Reproprographic services;iii) Translation services; andiv) Computer-based information retrieval.Specialised Servicesi) User education;ii) Exhibition and special displays;iii) Special lectures and demonstrations; andiv) User oriented seminars, workshops, etc.
  16. 16. Role of Library ProfessionalsLicensing Electronic journals related to theperiodicals section which is labour intensive andtime consumingLinking the electronic journals to the library homepageConducting user education as to the use of newservices and facilitiesImparting reader’s service by electronic meansDeveloping & maintaining institutional repositoryDigital LibrarianProactive Information specialist / searchintermediary / Technology MediatorKnowledge Manager / Researcher / Interface
  17. 17. Skills Required•Leadership and other Managerial skill•Interpersonal skills•Skills of negotiation, evaluation andanalysis•ICT Skills•Communication, marketing andcustomer service•Getting the best out of the staff (HRMSkills)
  18. 18. Collaborative Librarianship in Social NetworkingLibrary is the most important aspect in any of the educational university.We as librarians witnessed that the users’ walk-ins into university librariesare steadily decreasing over the past few years by many reasons. Itshould be the aim of librarians to play the role of trusted advisors to helpacademic users in higher education and research and get motivated towork for adding value to users community, as well he should also take theresponsibility of inspiring his employees or colleagues or the people withwhom he works. The internet has brought many changes in the peoplelooks for and access to information and libraries are competing for userattention for current challenge is to provide immediate, seemless accessto sources of and information in order to remain in the field.Information & Communication Technology (computers, networks, internetand social media) continues to drive much of the ultramodern thinkingwithin university libraries and will certainly help today libraries and libraryprofessionals, which will further greatly enhance their capabilities inproviding scholarly service and reaching out the users of universitylibrary.
  19. 19. Web 2.0Tim O’Reilly & Dale Dougherty O’Reilly(2005)“applications that make the most of theintrinsic advantages of that platform:delivering s/w as a continually up-datedservice that gets better as more people useit, consuming & remixing data from multiplesources, including individual users, whileproviding their own data and services in aform that allows remixing by others, creatingnetwork effects through an “architecture ofparticipation”, and going beyond the page
  20. 20. Why Libraries Love Web 2.0The participatory web (It marks the progressionfrom static web pages to dynamic, interactive ones. Read/write web. Sharing, collaboration, & userinvolvement. Reviews. Comment on news stories. Upload photos. Share digital videos)The amateurization of the webThe social webThe user-focused web(participate, organize, read, write & play online).
  21. 21. Library 2.O“a model for modernized form of library service thatreflects a transition within the library world in theway services are delivered to users”. Services areconstantly updated & re-evaluated to best servelibrary users,Attempts to harness library user in design &implementation of library services by encouragingfeedback and participationThe application of concepts and technologies ofWeb 2.0 applied to the library services andcollections is named as “Library 2.0”
  22. 22. Web 2.0 – Tools & TechniquesWikisSocial NetworkingRSS FeedsBlogsInstant MessagingSocial bookmarkingPodcasting / Streaming MediaVodcastingMashups
  23. 23. MARKET SHARE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITESWorld wide visitors Unique Visitors PercentageFacebook 792,999,000 55.1 %Twitter 167,903,000 11.7 %LinkedIn 94,823,000 6.6 %Google+ 250,000,000 17.7 %MySpace 61,037,000 4.2 %Others 255,539,000 17.8 %
  24. 24. LIBRARY SERVICES USING SOCIAL MEDIAAnnounce library programs, eventsRespond to Reference questionsAsk a librarianTeach basic search tools, Provide library toursNew resource alerts, , Promote new library collectionsSend brief updates to patronsFacilitate collaboration & communication with users
  25. 25. LIBRARY SERVICES USING SOCIAL MEDIAPromoting of Library Resources & ServicesRelationship BuildingLibrary instruction, orientation, tutorialsPublicity & public relationsOnline book clubsOutreach services – off campus servicesReaders advisory
  26. 26. WikiA wiki is a collaborative web page that allows usersto create and easily edit any number of interlinked webpages using a traditional web browser (Achterman, 2006). Awiki can be developed through the WYSIWYG (what you seeis what you get) format that allows users to view itscontents very similar to the end result while it is created.Wikis allow users to have different levels of access to editor delete content. Creating or editing a wiki requires onlybasic computing knowledge – no programming knowledgeat all. Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, is a great exampleof a wiki that is created and constantly developed by itsusers.http://www.tikiwiki.orghttp://www.wikiwyg.nethttp://www.pbwiki.com
  27. 27. BlogsA blog, an acronym for web log, is an easier web publishing tool thatallows users to create and publish web pages with personal oranecdotal information to share with others. A blog takes in a user-friendly commentary format with separate postings rather than athreaded discussion board (Richardson, 2006). Users’ ability to leavecomments is the distinct feature of a blog. A typical blog combinestext, images and links to other web pages, blogs, and contents relatedto the topic. A blog usually provides news or comments on a particularsubject or a person’s opinion in text, picture, audio, and video formats.Creating or editing a blog requires only basic computing knowledge.Blogs can be visited by local and global communities.• Wordpress, Blogger, LiveJournal• Becoming more integrated with“official” websites• Wide variety of uses– Events– New books/reviews
  28. 28. RSSStands for:Really Simple SyndicationRich Site SummaryRDF Site SummaryDefinition:An XML format for distributing currentinformation on the webRSS is a defined standard based on XML withthe specific purpose of delivering updates toweb-based contentRSS was originally developed by Netscapeto distribute news, stories and information.
  29. 29. Parts of RSSFeeds (A data format used forproviding users with frequentlyupdated content that are producedby web authors.)Aggregators (An aggregator is aprogram or site that collects thefeeds for reading)
  30. 30. Benefits of RSSLess clicking and more readingHelps to keep track of frequently ANDinfrequently updated sitesLittle spam or adsInformation presented how YOU want itOpt-In – users select which feeds which theysubscribe to.Content – steady stream of fresh webcontentAggregation – users can quickly scanmultiple content streams and click on itemsof interest saving timeTraffic – increased exposure and traffic for
  31. 31. Mapping• Google Maps, Platial, Picasa etc.• Create original maps unique to your library (sitesnearby)• Reimage print maps in your collection digitally• Create mashups by combining geographictagging with photos
  32. 32. Instant MessagingInstant messaging or IM, is a form of real-time, virtually instantaneous communicationbetween two or more people using textual format.General Messaging service : MSNMessenger, Skype and Google TalkSpecialized Service: Trillion, Meeboreal-time reference” services, / Liver referenceService and allow co-browsing, file-sharing, screen-capturing, and data sharing andmining of previous transcripts.
  33. 33. Social Networking ToolsSocial networking sites are the Web 2.0 - basedapplications that allow users to share personalinformation with each other in convenient ways.These sites focus on building and reflecting uponsocial relations and interactions among peoplewho possess the same interests. Social networksites essentially represent individuals’profiles, social links, and a variety of additionalservices. They enable users to shareideas, opinions, activities events, and interestswithin their individual networks over the internetthrough e-mailing and instant messaging.Facebook, Hi5, LinkedIn, MySpace, Nexopia, Twitter, and YouTube are popular applications of socialnetworking services. They emphasize online
  34. 34. PodcastingA podcast is a series of digital media files in audio orvideo format. It allows users to publish their audio andvideo recordings on the web episodically and todownload them through multiple devices including cellphones, iPods, net books, laptops, desktops, andsimilar handheld devices (Richardson, 2006).Some audio storage services are:, Podomatic( and Castpost(
  35. 35. Images, Photographs and VideosFlickr,, is a web site that enablesstoring, organising, searching, selling and sharingphotographs and videos on line. Currently Flickr has alarge community of users who share the photographsand videos that they create. The popularity of Flickr ismainly due to its capacity for administering imagesusing tools that enable the author to label theirphotographs and explor and comment on other users’images.Picasa, http://audioboo.fmPikeo http://www.pikeo.comWebshots (
  36. 36. RFID in LibrariesRFID plays vital role in redefining the library process to makeeveryone’s job easier right from patron to library staff. RFIDprovides a platform to automate most of the process performed bythe library staff like Check in – check out, sorting, stockmanagement and inventory.Fastest, easiest, most efficient way to track, locate & managelibrary materials.Efficient Book circulation management.Automatic Check-in and Check-out.Library inventory tracking in minutes instead of hours.Multiple books can be read simultaneously.Unique ID of the RFID tag prevents counterfeiting.Automated material handling using conveyor & sorting systems.Facilitate inter library & intra-library borrowing
  37. 37. RFID in LibrariesProcurement of Hardware: i.e. Readers, Tags & Antenna.Tagging books:Integrating Middleware:Performing Test Cases:Training Staff:Process Improvement: The errors and improvements found outfrom the test cases will be revisited to make system perform inbetter way.Benefits – Libraries, Staff & PatronsRFID Standards in LibraryRFID hardware products for library should be compatible withglobal protocols such as SIP2, NCIP, ISO 18000-3, ISO15693, ISO 14443A & ISO 28560
  38. 38. N E W A N D I N N O V A T I V E L I B R A R Y A C T I V I T I E S A N DS E R V I C E S I N A U N I V E R S I T Y L I B R A R YLibrary RFID Management system
  39. 39. Mobile Library ServicesThe number of mobile & smart phone users isdrastically rising, so the demand for mobile libraryservices is becoming stronger and more diversified.The rapid increase in the internet and mobilepenetration helping library professionals to keepinnovating newer ways of effectively reaching theirtargeted users and create relevant favorablerelationship with them. Especially, in the universitylibraries because of teenage users, the demand formobile based library services that facilitate the libraryeducational resources and services provided isindispensable. The widespread mobile technology isemerging the need to integrate mobile libraryresources (e-resources, digital content as well as
  40. 40. Why Need to Use Mobile Phones to ProvideLibrary ServicesThe users need information but do nothave sufficient time to visit libraries.Rather they expect the libraries to reachthem.In changing informationenvironment, librarians need to thinkabout the range of services and methodsto outreach the users to way out formanaging change.Libraries in other countries of the worldare successfully providing libraryservices through mobile phones
  41. 41. mo·bil·i·tyNoun1.The ability to move or be moved freely and easily.2.The ability to move between different levels in society or employment.Synonyms agility
  42. 42. MOBILE LIBRARY WEBSITESVirginia Tech University Libraries a simple but effective layout offers importantinformation such as library hours, contact information, library maps and floor plans,mobile research tools includes Annual Review, EBSCOhost, IEEE Xplore mobile, MobileMedlinePlus, JSTOR,WorldCat, catalog search and library maps.
  43. 43. MOBILE LIBRARY WEBSITESMIT Libraries Search for and request books, Manage Account, View librarylocations, maps and hours, Ask questions & submit comments orideas, research tools, bookmark, email, tweet, or save each story. Access : the apps &mobile site, you can:Search for and requestbooksManage Your AccountView library locations andhoursAsk questions & submitcomments or ideasDiscover mobile tools tohelp with your researchRead news from the MITLibraries on our blog
  45. 45. N E W A N D I N N O V A T I V E L I B R A R Y A C T I V I T I E S A N DS E R V I C E S I N A U N I V E R S I T Y L I B R A R Y
  46. 46. N E W A N D I N N O V A T I V E L I B R A R Y A C T I V I T I E S A N DS E R V I C E S I N A U N I V E R S I T Y L I B R A R Y
  47. 47. North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries containsicons representing categories such as room reservations, groupfinder, webcams and no. of computers available. Access:
  48. 48. • Anytime, Anywhere access• Increase flexibility for library services• Real-time data access• Instant up-to-date information
  49. 49. University Libraries having MOPACS:Ball State University Libraries( of Richmond Libraries( Carolina State University ( University Medical Centre ( Libraries having instructions and mobilecollections:Johns Hopkins University Libraries( University ( A & M Libraries ( State University Libraries( of Congress (
  50. 50. Ball State University Libraries (
  51. 51. N E W A N D I N N O V A T I V E L I B R A R Y A C T I V I T I E S A N DS E R V I C E S I N A U N I V E R S I T Y L I B R A R Y
  52. 52. N E W A N D I N N O V A T I V E L I B R A R Y A C T I V I T I E S A N DS E R V I C E S I N A U N I V E R S I T Y L I B R A R YMobile Access to Electronic Databases :Pubmed database ( ( Mobile( Mobile( Institute of Physics( Journals( and Francis ( of Science ( and iPod devices running OS 3.2 or later /iPad 3.2.2 or later /Android 2.2 or later / BlackBerry OS 6 (including the Torch 9800) /
  53. 53. N E W A N D I N N O V A T I V E L I B R A R Y A C T I V I T I E S A N DS E R V I C E S I N A U N I V E R S I T Y L I B R A R YMobile library tours:Wolfwalk ( University Libraries ( having SMS notification:UIUC Library ( College Library ( ReferenceAmerican University Library( University Libraries( Codes:University of Bath Library ( Library (
  54. 54. Mobile Library ServicesCatalog SearchComputer AvailabilityOpening HoursLocation & MapCampus DirectoryLinks to External Information ProvidersWebcam FeedsGroup FinderNews & EventsLink to campus mobile siteStudy room reservationsArticle searchingUser Surveys
  55. 55. Mobile Library ServicesVideo search / image searchReserve and renew items / checking account / GroupSMS (Google Voice)Virtual tours / downloading streaming audio booksRSS feeds with cover images for newestbooks, movies, music and eBooks in different subjectareas and languagesVirtual reference service / subject guidesMobile access to Course reserves / E-resourcesQuick access to the library’s Facebook and Twitterprofiles.Ask a librarian
  56. 56. Tools for library mobile web sites, MOPACs, andapplications:Android Developers for creating Android applicationsincluding tutorials, videos, developer’s guide offers a mobile version of innovative Interfaceslibrary catalogue includes features such as coverimages, integrated library locations with GoogleMaps, request and renew items. for public and academic libraries anduniversities. It deliver mobile applications that arecompatible with all web enabled phones.
  57. 57. Tools for library mobile web sites, MOPACs, andapplications:Library Anywhere sold through LibraryThing and is a catalog forall kind of libraries includes mobile web and apps for iPhone,Black-berry, and Android. (Mobile Fusion) Build a mobile version of an existingweb site or blog. No technical or programming languagesrequired to use this tool.W3C MobileOK Checker it is compatible with current webstandards include severity, category, and description of the erroralong with best practices for fixing issues
  58. 58. Benefits of Mobile Library ServicesInteraction: The users can interact with libraryprofessionals, faculty and colleagues without restrictionof time and place.Flexibility: The library users can actually accesslibrary resources and services at the place and timethat they need it,Library users can directly download the notes, coursereserves, e-books, research articles and othermaterials in to the mobile phones / devices.Enhances knowledge: Content is adapting to meetuser needs and delivered on demand.Mobile libraries help to raise self-esteem and selfconfidence of library users.
  59. 59. DisadvantagesLimit of devices capacities such as small screens,memory size and computing power.Lack of common operating system and applicationprograms like browsers.Wireless networks may down with a large no. of userswhen using it.Health hazards
  60. 60. QR codes and University libraries :Reachingmobile usersA QR code is a matrix barcode readable bysmartphones and mobile phones with cameras. Theyare sometimes referred to as 2d codes, 2d barcodes,or mobile codes. Onmost phones purchased in the United States, one mustdownload a free app (application) in order to read theQR code, although some phones have onepreinstalled.QR code typically appears as a small white square withblack geometric shapes, though colored. QR code canbea URL, a phone number, an SMS message, a V-card,or any text. They are referred to as QR because they
  61. 61. QR codes and University libraries :Reachingmobile users LibraryThingLibraries can include a QR code thatLibraryThing generates and dynamicallyadds to each catalog page. Scan the QRcode with a smartphone scanning app (e.g.RedLaser, Scan) and the phone will jumpdirectly to that record in your mobile catalogon Library Anywhere.Then walk into the stacks with the record onyour phone, or just add it to your saved liston Library Anywhere. However you useit, it’s a direct link from the desktop catalogto the catalog on your phone.Try it out : QR codes up in a few catalogs sofar:Frisco Public LibraryWestport Public LibraryQR code of LOC
  62. 62. Library Services in ICT & WebenvironmentLibrary Automation & DigitizationInstallation of RFID / EM Security SystemWebOPAC / Personalized cataloguingRemote Access & Mobile Access to E-Books, E-Journalsand electronic databasesAccess to Course ReservesVirtual Reference Collection / Live Reference ServiceInstitution Repositories (Theses / Dissertations)Adaptive / Assistive technologies for persons withdisabilities (Softwares like Jaws, Kurtzweil, 1000, MagicMagnification Software Pro)Scholarly Publishing (Open Access and Copyright)Citation Management Softwares(EndNote, RefWorks, Zotero)
  63. 63. Library Services in ICT & WebenvironmentWeb 2.0 tools (Blogs, Wikis, Instant Messaging, RSSAlerts, Social networking, Podcasting &Podcasting, Social bookmarking, Mashups, Ajax)Developing Library / browser tool barNews & Announcements (Group SMS)Documents Delivery Service (DDS)Information Literacy / Instructional supportLibrary collections with QR codesEmail Alert Service (TOC / research alert service)Video / Audio SharingOrganising Author workshops / Book talks / BookExhibitionsGroupsFinder /Federated SearchingAsk Us / Location / Map / Tour / FAQ
  64. 64. Conclusion :Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s Five Laws of Library Scienceand his idea i.e., right book / information to the rightuser at the right time in right way is best possibleusing the new innovative technologies like web 2.0and mobile apps. The social networking in libraryservices and applications of other Web 2.0 tools maybring change in the relationship between users andtransform libraries by improving the involvement ofusers in the activities and services in a universitylibraries. Some of these tools may successfullyattract new users and help to retain existingmembers also. The library’s resources and itsservices become more interactive and fully
  65. 65. ResourcesBallard, Barbara. (2007). Designing the Mobile UserExperience. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley &Sons.Fling, Brian. (2009). Mobile Design and Development:Practical Concepts and Techniques for Creating MobileSites and Web Apps. Sebastopol, California: O’ReillyMedia.W3C Mobile Web Best Practices: CSS Mobile Profile:, K., Bridges, L. M., Rempel, H. G. (2009).“library/mobile: Tips on Designing and DevelopingMobile Web Sites”, The Code4Lib Journal, Issue 8.Retrieved from:
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