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Energy efficiency in Green Building

A green building is one which uses less water, optimizes energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants as compared to a conventional building

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Energy efficiency in Green Building

  2. 2. What is a Green Building? A Green Building, also known as a sustainable building, is a structure that is designed, built, renovated, operated, or re-used in an ecological and resource efficient manner. “A green building is one which uses less water, optimizes energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants as compared to a conventional building”.” Objectives of a green building:  Protecting occupant health  Improving employee productivity  Using energy, water and other resources more efficiently  Reducing overall impact to the environment  Optimal environmental and economic performance  Satisfying and quality indoor spaces
  3. 3. Benefits of Green Buildings Environmental Benefits • Reduce the impacts of natural resource consumption Economic Benefits • Reduced operating costs • Marketing advantages • Increased building valuation • Optimizes life-cycle performance cost Health and Safety Benefits • Enhance occupant comfort and health Community Benefits • Minimize strain on local infrastructure and improve quality of life
  4. 4. Whole designWhole design HVAC design Lighting design Water system design Architectural design/Site planning Energy management and control design
  5. 5. Architectural design & Site planning
  6. 6. Bioclimatic architectural principles • Orientation • Thermal mass • Surface to volume ratio • Positioning of windows,shading • Selection of materials for wall,roof,windows,including insulation • Landscaping Buildings in hot climate… • Orientation to cut off sun protected insulated windows external wall insulation • Lower surface to volume,lighter finishes,water as landscape element Buildings in cold climate… • Large windows to capture sun • Thermal mass to store heat • Minimum Shading • Insulated walls and windows • Darker finishes
  7. 7. Effect of efficient materials • Roof and wall insulation reduced cooling load by 23% • Insulated windows reduced cooling load by 9% (window to wall ratio 7%) Use onsite sources • Day lighting • Natural Ventilation(night cooling)
  8. 8. Lighting Design
  9. 9. The passive solar practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural sunlight provides effective internal illumination. • Use of effective solar control strategies (overhangs) and high performance glazings limit associated solar gains. • Achieving this daylight credit will likely increase energy savings in the Energy and Atmosphere credits. This is largely due to savings in the electric lighting that results from well daylit spaces. • Minimize site lighting where possible • Full cut off-luminaries • Low-reflectance surfaces • Low-angle spotlights
  10. 10. Water System design
  11. 11. Reduce potable water consumption for landscape by 50% over a theoretical baseline design for the specific region. Successful Strategies: • Drought tolerant plants • Drip irrigation,moisture-sensing irrigation technologies • Recycled rainwater system • Municipally-provided non-potable water source use Water Use Reduction, 20% and 30% Reduction Successful Strategies: • Dual flush water closets • Ultra low-flow water closets and urinals • Waterless Urinals • Sensor-operated, Low-flow lavatories • Rainwater collection reuse systems • Gray water reuse systems Landscaping & Water use reduction
  12. 12. Energy management system
  13. 13. • Photovoltaic (Solar electric) is a device which produce free electrons when exposed to light resulting in power generation. • Photovoltaic does not release any of the green house gases when in use. • Photovoltaic uses a non-conventional, renewable source of energy which has no adverse effects on the environment. • solar photovoltaic system 55% energy savings over base building Photovoltaic
  14. 14. • Replace asphalt with concrete where possible • Plant trees in vegetation strips around parking lots or sidewalks. • Bioswales • Filtration basins (filters) • Detention Ponds / Retention Ponds • Vegetated filter strips • Pervious paving • Vegetated/Garden Roofs • Energy Star rated roofing systems • High reflectivity coatings Sustainability at Site
  15. 15. Heat, Ventilation & Air conditioning
  16. 16. The main purpose of commercial HVAC (Heat, Ventilation & Air conditioning) systems is to provide the people working inside the building with “conditioned “ air . "Conditioned" air means that air is clean and odour-free, and the temperature, humidity, and movement of the air are within certain comfort ranges • Systems may be clustered at a central location and serve an entire campus of buildings • Locate system away from acoustically sensitive areas of the building • Selecting efficient air conditioning based on your climate. • Selecting the proper type of and efficient heating system for your climate • Designing and sealing air distribution systems properly.
  17. 17. • Replace CFC-based refrigerant. • Consider non-refrigerant based cooling such as evaporative cooling in dryer climates. • Consider photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal, wind, biomass, and bio- gas energy technologies • Sophisticated Electrical Management Systems, Building Automation Systems or Direct Digital Control systems inherently include most of the required monitoring points. • Combine carbon dioxide monitors with demand based ventilation. • Consider adjustable under floor air diffusers, or thermostat controlled VAV boxes.
  18. 18. Composite Commercial Building in 2020 • Solid state lighting integrated into hybrid solar day lighting systems • Smart windows • Photovoltaic roof shingles, walls, and awnings • Solar heating and super insulation • Combined heat and power- gas turbines and fuel cells • Intelligent building systems
  19. 19. THERE ARE THREE PRIMARY RATING SYSTEMS IN INDIA.   A.GRIHA • Green Rating for integrated habitat assessment (GRIHA) is India’s own rating system jointly developed by TERI and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.Commonwealth Games village, New Delhi, Fortis Hospital, and New Delhi, CESE (Centre for Environment Sciences) & Engineering Building, IIT Kanpur, Suzlon one earth, Pune and many other buildings has received GRIHA rating. .
  20. 20. B. IGBC: IGBC rates green buildings in four different categories: •IGBC green homes •IGBC green factory building •LEED India for new construction •LEED India for core and shell.
  21. 21. • Bee (Bureau of Energy Efficiency) its own rating system for the buildings based on 1 to 5 stars scale. More stars mean more energy efficiency. Bee has developed the Energy Performance Index (EPI). The unit of kilo watt hours per square meter per year is considered for rating the building and especially targets air conditioned and non-air conditioned office building • The Reserve bank of India’s buildings in Delhi and Bhubaneswar, the CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business centre and many other buildings has received BEE 5 star ratings.
  23. 23. • Hyderabad, the city of architecture& pearls, now boasts of one of the greenest buildings in the world. CII – Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (CII Godrej GBC),cozily nestled close to Shilparamam, is the first LEED Platinum rated green building in India. The building is a perfect blend of India’s rich architectural splendor and technological innovations, incorporating traditional concepts into modern and contemporary architecture. • Extensive energy simulation exercises were undertaken to orient the building in such a way that minimizes the heat ingress while allowing natural daylight to penetrate abundantly. • The green building boasts a 50% saving in overall energy consumption, 35 % reduction in potable water consumption and usage of 80% of recycled / recyclable material. Most importantly, the building has enabled the widespread green building movement in India
  24. 24.   Energy Efficiency State-of-the- art Building Management Systems (BMS) were installed for realtime monitoring of energy consumption. The use of aerated concrete blocks for facades reduces the load on air-conditioning by 15-20%. Double-glazed units with argon gas filling between the glass panes enhance the thermal properties. Zero Water Discharge Building All of the wastewater, including grey and black water, generated in the building is treated biologically through a process called the Root Zone Treatment System.The outlet-treated water meets the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) norms. The treated water is used for landscaping
  25. 25. The building design was conceived to have minimum disturbance to the surrounding ecological environment. The disturbance to the site was limited within 40 feet from the building footprint during the construction phase. This has preserved the majority of the existing flora and fauna and natural microbiological organism around the building. Extensive erosion and sedimentation control measures to prevent topsoil erosion have als been taken at the site during construction.   Materials and Resources 80% of the materials used in the building are sourced within 500 miles from the project site. Most of the construction material also uses post-consumer and industrial waste as a raw material during the manufacturing process. Fly-ash based bricks, glass, aluminum, and ceramic tiles, which contain consumer and industrial waste, are used in constructing the building to encourage the usage of recycled content.Office furniture is made of bagasse based composite wood. More than 50%of the construction waste is recycled within the building or sent to other sites and diverted from landfills.
  26. 26. 20% of the building energy requirements are catered to by solar photovoltaics.The solar PV has an installed capacity of 23.5 kW. Indoor Air Quality Indoor air quality is continuously monitored and a minimum fresh air is pumped into the conditioned spaces at all times Fresh air is also drawn into the building through wind towers. The use of low volatile organic compound (VOC) paints and coatings, adhesives, sealants, and carpets also helps to improve indoor air quality.
  27. 27. • Fenestration maximized on the north orientation • Rain water harvesting • Water-less urinals in men’s restroom • Water-efficient fixtures: ultra low and low-flow flush fixtures • Water-cooled scroll chiller • HFC-based refrigerant in chillers • Energy-efficient lighting systems through compact fluorescent light bulbs(CFLs) • Roof garden covering 60% of building area • Large vegetative open spaces • Swales for storm water collection • Maximum day lighting • Operable windows and lighting controls for better day lighting and views
  28. 28. This was the first green building in the country. Hence, the incremental cost was 18% higher. However, green buildings coming up now are being delivered at an incremental cost of 6-8%. The initial incremental cost gets paid back in 3 to 4 years. Benefits achieved so far:  Over 120,000 kWh of energy savings per year as compared to an ASHRAE 90.1 base case  Potable water savings to tune of 20-30% vis-à-vis conventional building  Excellent indoor air quality  100% day lighting (Artificial lights are switched on just before dusk)  Higher productivity of occupants
  29. 29. Location Hyderabad, India Name CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre Developer The project is a unique and successful model of public-private partnership between the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Pirojsha Godrej Foundation, and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), with the technical support of US aid. Architectural Design Karan Grover and Associates, India Size 4.5 acres (total site area) 1,858 m2 (total built up area) 1,115 m2 (total air-conditioned area)
  30. 30. Size 4.5 acres (total site area) 1,858 m2 (total built up area) 1,115 m2 (total air-conditioned area) Type Office building Building details Office building Seminar hall Green Technology Centre displaying the latest and emerging green building materials and technologies in India Large numbers of visitors are escorted on green building tour Ratings Awarded the LEED Platinum Rating for New Construction (NC) v 2.0 by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in November 2003
  31. 31. Energy Savings 55% reduction, with ASHRAE 90.1 as the baseline 120,000 kWh / year Reduction in CO 2 emissions ~ 100 tons / year(building is functional since January 2004) Water savings 35% reduction in potable water consumption