Shaykh Bulala's Biography

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Many Muslims often criticize the Mystics, most especially those renowned with ecstatic statements. Shaykh Jamiu Bulala belonged to this realm, many have yearned about his biography, thus, this is an excerpt from my Undergraduate Thesis. It is hoped that after thorough analysis of the Sage, one will be left to decide as to whether Tasawwuf is Shari'ah compliant or Bid'ah. ENJOY!

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Shaykh Bulala's Biography

  1. 1. THE BIOGRAPHY OF SHAYKH JAMI`U BULALA. HIS BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. Shaykh Jami`u was born in Offa,but his date of birth is obscure.While some claimed that he was born around March 1919,others say he was born in 1916,it was even gathered that Shaykh himself claimed that he was born in 19161. However,be that as it may be,majority of the historians were of the opinion that he was born in 19192.There were many mysteries connected to his birth,among which are;that he laughed on the day he was born which is a strange occurence among new born babies.It was also gathered that he possessed two navels when he was born but disappeared immediately to avoid public notice3. Though Shaykh was born at Offa,he was a native of Ogbomoso in Oyo state of Nigeria.His father Akanmu Iji was reported to have belonged to Baale Lagbedu’s compound in Ogbomoso and this explains the reason why he was able to marry a princess.Shaykh’s mother was Princess Oyebimpe,daugher of Oba Atoloyetele of Offa(1888-1906).Both parties met when Akanmu was in Offa for his daily livelihood.He was a railway worker in the town by then.Both parents were pagans.His mother especially was an Osun worshipper.This could be the reason for naming their son Osundare4. Before and after the birth of a child in Yorubaland in those days,it was the practice then to consult the Oracle to know what the future held for the child.It was predicted to Shaykh’s parents that the pregnancy carried by the mother would be a male child who would acquire knowledge of the new religion(as Islam was being called then).Also that the child in question will have the ablility to know what he was not even taught and many people would be blessed through him5. Shaykh didn’t tread the path of his parents contrary to their belief system.Shaykh in his own case was a Muslim who lived according to the dictates of the Qur’an.He believed in the oneness of Allah.One shouldn’t be surprise that a pagan might give birth to a saint.We have seen such example in the personality of prophet Ibrahim;
  2. 2. And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father Azar:``Do you take idols as alihah(gods)?Verily,I see you and your people in manifest error.(Q6:74)6 Suffice is to say that Shaykh was born ten years after his parents married,and he was the first child of the parents,the eldest among his siblings.Shaykh’s father died when little Shaykh was at a tender’s age7. Some degree of preconsciousness was found in him at a tender age.Infact,a great deal of mystery surrounded his childhood,the reason is not far fetched because as a youth he was renowned for obedience,hardworking and ambitiousness.He started performing many wonderful things unlike his contemporaries like doing the job that might take many able bodied men to do for hours in just an hour,fasting for many days in the month and loved being in seclusion any time he was fasting without anybody teaching or directing him to do so.Also he was fond of drawing many beautiful things on a slate without anybody teaching him how to draw it.These among others are the distinguished instincts that were noticed in him during his childhood8. HIS EDUCATIONAL CAREER. As aforementioned that both Shaykh’s parents were pagans hence they could not influence their child Islamic wise.In addition,they didnot have interest in western education also instead they wanted the young boy to be following them to farm. However,due to the death of his father at the tender age,Shaykh was put in the care of his maternal uncle by name Mallam Lawal Adedeji Adegoke at Ojude’s compound in Offa.Since this uncle was a Muslim,it was he who converted Shaykh to Islam9.It was there that he started his Qur’anic education from a learned man who hailed from Ilorin but settled at Arogun’s compound in Offa by name Alfa Ismail Jeje.He taught Shaykh the recitation of the Qur’an.The traditional method of teaching was in vogue then whereby a student will start by oral chanting and memorizing of unvocalized Qur’anic verses10.
  3. 3. Shaykh only studied half of the holy Qur’an with this cleric, i.e. thirty Ahzāb.before leaving him. It was on record that this cleric never taught Shaykh anything twice throughout his Qur’anic education.He had a photographic and magnetic brain.He used to read aloud from his sleeps.The first words that usually came out of his mouth whenever he was woken up by anybody was the very verse that he learnt last the previous day11. Due to enthusiasm about Islamic education.Shaykh left Offa for Ilorin consequent upon his completion of the Qur’an in the former12.He learnt from various Islamic scholars in Ilorin prominent among whom is Shaykh Bashar Adangba.He acquired ‘ilmi from this man.He lived with this cleric and from there he used to go to other teachers to learn.He learnt Tafsirul-Qur’an from Alfa Baba,Agbalayiya’s compound,Oke leru.He also learnt Hisāb(arithmetics) from him,all within a year13. He learnt how to write Arabic words known as Khatt which later became his means of livelihood,within six days from Alfa AbdulKarim Mosalasi Gogoro in Ilorin.Shaykh was also reported to have said that he learnt from Alfa Ade Agbede and Alfa Musa Atere,although he didn’t disclose the branch of knowledge he acquired from them14. In all,he was said to have spent about fourteen years in Ilorin.He returned to Offa in 1945 consequent upon the plea of his mother to stay with her.He therefore remained in Offa till he breathed his last.15 HIS CONTRIBUTION TO TIJANIYYAH BROTHERHOOD. The rites of the order. The Tijaniyyah order was founded by Shaykh ’Ahmad Tijani (d.1815 C.E) at Abu Samghun,North Africa,in 1781 C.E..Earlier Shaykh ’Ahmad At-Tijani had been a member of various Turuq such as Nasiraniyyah,Fazuliyah,Khalwatiyyah, and Qadiriyah.He however left all these Turuq after he had founded his own.16.He founded his own Tariqah consequent upon his claim to have had a mystical experience whereby the holy prophet(SAW) was said to have appeared to him in broad day-light while he was fully conscious.He claimed that the prophet gave him a fresh form of wird to replace the former ones in his possession.The new set of wird
  4. 4. consisted of istighfār (seeking forgiveness),al-salat ‘ala -nabbiy (seeking blessing for the prophet) and Tahlil i.e. Lā’ilāh illa Allah.(there is no god but Allah).17These sets of prayers are known as awrad which are prescribed as an obligation to the members of Tijaniyyah order.Those who are initiated into the order are known as Murid(he who has made up his will),while those who initiate them are known as Muqaddam (one who guides another). The daily obligatory prayer are :the awrād al-lāzimah (the obligatory wird) which should be performed twice daily,the second daily obligatory prayer which can be observed congregationally under a leader known as Muqaddam.And lastly,the obligatory prayer known as the Dhikr al-Jumu’ah,which is observed every Friday after Salat al-`asr till salat al-maghrib.18 His initiation into the order. As aforementioned that Shaykh Jami`u had started leading an ascetic life from his youthful age,sources had it that he started developing himself spiritually at the age of fifteen.This he was able to undertake by engaging in fasting,being in seclusion,and chanting of Dhikr for many days.The first Khalwah he did was at this age for about one year19.From this,one may rightly deduce that Shaykh was divinely guided, in lieu of this verse thus; Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills,and guides to Himself who turns to Him in repentance and in obedience.(Q42:13)20 The reason for this submission is that;firstly,he was too young for that,secondly,nobody was reported to have given him a set of prayer to be doing there and thirdly,he came from a predominantly pagan family. According to Tirmidh,in his ``The Theory of saints and sainthood’’,the God’s annointed people includes messengers,prophets and masters of saints such as Muhaddathun,Siddiqun and seal of saints.They are usually chosen rightly from their cradle21. Hence,we could say that Shaykh Jami`u belonged to the God chosen ones,since spiritual greatness was noticed in him right from his childhood.
  5. 5. Shaykh Jami`u continued to worship Allah devotedly,until later that he felt dissatisfied with his religious pace and decided to travel to Ilorin where he hoped to meet great Sufi masters who he believed would lead him to achieve his aim.He met Shaykh Bashar Adangba when he got to Ilorin and this Shaykh initiated him in to Tariqatul-Tijaniyyah.22 Shaykh Bashar was one of the early Tijaniyyah Muqaddam in Ilorin.He was renowned for his spiritual prowess and indept perception about Tasawwuf. Having been Shaykh Bashar’s murid for sometime,this great Shaykh sensed a great deal of spiritual prowess in the young Shaykh Jami`u and thus he granted Shaykh’s freedom.This can be deduced from some of this excerpts; Alfa Offa,you have learnt enough and what we didn’t even teach you,I know you have instinctively known them.I bless you and nobody shall be your teacher again from today.But never you forget your wirid in the way of Tariqat Tijaniyyah.23 Shaykh Jami`u further went to renew his initiation(Tajdid) for the reason best known to him from Shaykh AbdulRahman Alabidun,who is also one of the leading Tijaniyyah Muqaddam in Ilorin.This Shaykh’s contemporaries were Alfa AbdulQadir Ayunre and Alfa Sulayman Alabi.24 However there is controversy on whether Shaykh Jami`u did Tarbiyah(spiritual training) or not.It is generally believed by the Sufis that man cannot know God by senses because God is immaterial.It is only through illumination,revelation and inspiration that man can know Him25.Hence,the Sufi has a way of training a murid spiritually so that such a murid could become a gnostic. Majority of the sources had it that Shaykh never did Tarbiyah from any Shaykh and the consequences of this is obvious because he later turned to a majdhub to the extent that people thought that he was mad.26 His contribution to the order in Offa. Shaykh Jami`u returned to Offa after accomplishing his aim in 1945 and continued his normal way of worship in seclusion.He was reported to have stayed indoors(Khalwah) for the periods of
  6. 6. eight years,five years and eight years respectively27.One may be skeptical as in how far truthful this is, since he has not married then.However,a verifiable sources had it that, one of his loyalists i.e. Late Alhaji Muhammad Lawal Adeoye Oloruko of Arole’s compound, was the one taking care of him during all these periods28. Although prior to the return of Shaykh to Offa,there was Tijaniyyah brotherhood in Offa.The order was introduced by one Alhaji Popo around 192629.After the demise of this man,the order did not function effectively again because his successor did not show much enthusiasm towards its proselytization.This could be envisaged because he deemed it fit to be performing it individually. However,it was Shaykh Jamiu who resuscitated the order consequent upon his return back to Offa30.But contrarily,he didnot initiate anybody into the order,instead,he directed prospective Muridun to his Shuyūkh in Ilorin for initiation.He turned his residence into Zawiyah. Prominent among his loyalists who later became Muqaddamūn include; -Late Alhaji Muhammad Awwal IbukunOlorun(d.2008), -Late Alhaji Raji Opeloyeru(d.2012), -Late Alhaji AbdulGaniy Azarailu(d.2010), -Alhaji Mustapha Jeje Arogun, -Alhaji AbdulRasheed Nkrumah31. All these Muqaddamun played a long role in the proselytization of the Tijaniyyah order as everyone of them has his own Zawiyah under the parasol of Shaykh Jami`u Bulala. Suffice is to say that most of Shaykh’s loyalist held him in high esteem,to them Shaykh Jami`u was the leader of saints after the demise of Shaykh Ibrahim Niasse of Senegal.This is more of the reason why he was referred to Amir l awliya’ i.e(leader of saints).In one of the excerpts from his speeches,he referred to himself as the ‘’Gawth’’ i.e a Succor32.
  7. 7. TRANSLATION. 1. Shaykh Jami`u is a unique person, The Chief succor pleading with the exalted Lord33. 2. I am Abdul al-Jami`, a gnostic, I saw the apostle of Allah (Muhammad) without any doubt 3. I am the (spiritual) sun of Nigeria;others are mere stars whenever the sun surfaces the stars disappear34. CHARACTERISTICS OF HIS LIFESTYLE. There is no controversy that Shaykh Jamiu lived an ascetic life.This can be deduced from his way of life whereby he renounced all worldly ephemeral things and stuck to the remembrance of Allah instead. However, some mysteries surround his personality,which can be deduced because some see him as a devoted Sufi saint while others see him as a mad man.The later are of the opinion that a saint ought not to be behaving abnormally as the Shaykh used to do when he was alive35. Shaykh’s abnormal behaviours range from his apparent negligence of five daily ritual prayers,his estactic statements(Shatahat) and his mode of dressing.First and foremost,concerning his negligence of five daily prayers,sources had it that he used to observe them whenever he was in Khalwah(spiritual retreat),but after completion of it,he would foresake them,instead he would direct those that are with him to go for them,claiming that he had already observed his in Makkah36.Thus;
  8. 8. They say:Oh you,you have abandoned your ritual prayers, Not knowing that I observe mine in Makkah37. This statement is not peculiar to Shaykh Jami`u alone,Shaykh AbdulQadir Jilani was also reported to have claimed that he observed his prayer at Makkah.To some extents,this statement may sound obscure because firstly,both countries are far apart and operating in different time zones and secondly one is bound to observe one’s prayer regardless of where such prayer catches up with such individal.The Qur’an is explicit in this regard Verily As salat(the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours’’.(Q4:103)38. Suffice is to say that some Sufi considered their devotional exercise which is supererogatory as obligatory because to them the dhikr of Allah gives them joy and peace of mind.Prominent among these Sufis include the Ibāhātis and the Fārisis39.Hence,one can say that Shaykh’s lifestyle is synonymous with these groups. Moreso,among the features peculiar to Shaykh’s lifestyle that generated heated controversy is his ecstatic statement(shatahat).It is noteworthy to admit here that the Sufis are criticized for their shatahat which is generated when they are in the stage of fanā’(self annihilation).This is because a mystic who has attained a state of fanā’ is aware of absolute Tawhid(unity),as he sees unity everywhere,nothing else40. Shaykh Jami`u is not the only gnostic renowned for these ecstatic statements,some early Sufi masters were also renowned for their obscure statements.Prominent among these Sufis are Tayfur Abu Yazid Al-Bistami(804-878 C.E),Abu al-Mughit Husayn ibn Mansur Al-Hallaj(858-922 C.E).These people witnessed severe persecution during their days because the orthodox scholars were those in authorities in their respective communities.For example,Al-Bistami was reported to has been hostilized for saying ``Glory be to me’’!How great is my majesty’’41.In the same vein, Al-Hallaj was crucified for saying`` I am the Truth’’42.The implication of which means he is Allah.This is blasphemous and sacrilegious.
  9. 9. In the same wise,Shaykh Jami`u was renown for obstructive statement.For example,he was reported to have said``Had it been that it rained,I would have revealed the secret of Allah’’43.Also in other occasions,he would call himself Uthman ibn Fodio,Taju l Adab,he was this,he was that.He was even reported to have told his loyalists not to pray for him because he already knew the time he would die.Hence,claiming the knowledge of the unseen.This claim according to the Sufi belief is authentic even though it seems irrational to ordinary men and even to other Muslims.Al-Tirmidhi in his book titled``The Theory of Saints and Sainthood’’ told us that Sufi believe that great saints who are conscious of their sainthood and have received the divine tidings of their future and what is hidden from the common run of men.They believe that the spirits of the saints are free of the darkness of material substance and have been released from the prison of their bodies,so that their illuminated hearts and their minds’ eyes can see what cannot be seen by others,even if they are in the same place.He thereafter cited among other examples of Caliph Umar who was in the mosque but at the same time talking to people who were in the war front in far distance place to him44. Furthermore,Shaykh used to behave abnormally,this ranges from his mode of dressing to his personnal behaviour.As aforementioned that most people considered Shaykh to be a mad man,this is because he was renowned for dressing abnormally like putting on a T-Shirt and a short knicker with tens of rosaries on his neck,walking about bare footed carrying along swords and horse whips(bulala),putting on five different wrist watches and ten different rings in a single hand45.All these behaviors are abnormal to a layman.Also Shaykh used to behave to the extent that any individual who is not acquainted with his lifestyle will take to his heels.This can be deduced from the way he behaved as if he did not know a well acquainted person whereas he knew him.He will some times humiliate such an individual by shouting on such individual Thief!Theif!Theif!!!. It is relevant to say here that the level of behavior of the Sufi saints is esoteric,because of this ,most of their actions are inexplicable to common men,even though such actions are meaningful to the actor.A good rider to this is what transpire between Prophet Musa and Khidr as recorded in Qur’an Q18:65-82.Also some Sufis do all these inorder to conceal themselves from the public.This kind of people who behave as such are known as Malamatis.46
  10. 10. HIS KARĀMĀT. One factor that leads people to believe in spiritual capacity of a Sūfī leader is his ability to perform miracle.Miracle according to Mckinnon ``is an event involving the suspension of the actual course of events,because its occurence is contrary to the actual course of events’’47.A miracle performed by a saint is termed Karamah that is ``favour’’ which God bestows48.The one performed by a prophet is called Mu`jizat i.e. an act which cannot be immitated by anyone49.It was used by the prophets as ``evidentary proof’’50 to their status as prophets,since it was possible for people not to believe in them if such a miracle was not performed. Despite the fact that saints are usually granted the power to perform miracles,some disliked its performance.To such saints,miracles are regarded as temptation e.g. Junayd of Bagdad(d.910C.E). There are many Karāmāt ascribed to Shaykh Jami`u.We shall attempt to mention some of them.This was detected in him right from his youthful days,he used to go to farm with his mates in a place inside the present day Oloje Ilorin,that he alone would do all the work that was expected of them to do that day.They should just leave their hoes in the farm.On getting to the farm,he read certain verses,and he alone weeded all the work that can take about ten people to do for hours in few minutes. Majority of Shaykh’s loyalists during the course of my interview with them observed that,most prominent of his Karamah was istijābah i.e. he possessed efficacious prayers which attracted many people to patronize him51. Perhaps one of the most revealing miracles by the Shaykh was the delaying of a train.A follower of Shaykh reported that he was travelling from Ibadan to Kano by train.On getting to Offa he decided to pay the Shaykh a brief visit.He chartered a taxi to take him to Shaykh’s house,since the train was to stop for a brief period of fifteen minutes at Offa.At Shaykh’s house he told the Shaykh his aim of coming.Shaykh appreciated his gesture and started to chat with him.Time was going,and the man started to be impatient,the taxi driver waiting outside could not wait anymore left for his business.Shaykh sensing the man’s feeling told him not to worry as the train would not move except by the permission of God which he had with him.In short,the man was delayed for almost four hours and thirty minutes.When the man later got to the station,he
  11. 11. saw the train being worked upon by a team of engineers looking for elusive faults.The moment the man entered the train,the engine started to work.The man then remembered what the Shaykh said and he was bewildered.52 In another occasion,one of his disciples who later became a Muqaddam reported to Shaykh that his wife had died at Offa General Hospital and that he had come to pick a motor to convey the corpse.Shaykh asked him to let him and the man go back to the hospital to see the corpse.On getting to the hospital,he asked for the doctor’s permission to see the corpse,which was already certified dead.The doctor said the corpse had become the husband’s property;he had no objection to seeing it.Shaykh Bulala entered,covered the body and prayed that God should kindly revive her.The woman coughed,stood up and regained her consciousness.53 Moreso,one of the unique characteristics of this gnostic which to some extent may be regarded as a miracle is his ability to look directly into the sun at noon for a long period without blinking his eyes54. Furthermore,a man narrated his ordeal to the present researcher before he was emancipated.This man had a psychological problem before,and after looking for ailment from one medical centre to another,he decided to resort to the General hospital in Offa,where he received medication.It was during his stay in the town that he dreamt that he saw Shaykh Jami`u praying for his recovery and directing him to go to that same hospital that he would meet a certain nurse who would give him a certain medicine and that he should adhere to that prescription.On getting there the following day,to this man’s astonishment, he saw a different nurse giving him a medication as earlier prophesied by the Shaykh.And from that time,he regained his memory back and when he came to visit Shaykh for appreciation,Shaykh had already known about it55. These are few among other miracles which Shaykh performed.It is noteworthy to admit that miracles are a boon from Allah.Numerous saints are unaware of their position and status,they invite people to the religion of Islam without miracles,and they did not consider it as an essential element of Sufism.
  12. 12. HIS MARITAL LIFE AND CHILDREN. It is an attitude of most of the Sufis to live ascetic life,shunning all the worldly comfort which they considered obstacles on their way to God,and emphasizing on the worship of God.This is in line with this Qur’anicverse; Your wealth and your children are only a trial,whereas Allah! With Him is a great reward(paradise)(Q64:15)56 Thus,some Sufis capitalise on this verse and other related verses and this explains why people like Rabi’at al Adawiyyah remained a celebate throughout her life and also Shaykh AbdulQadir Jilani was reported to have remianed unmarried untill he was fifty years.Likewise,Shaykh Jami’u married at the age of fifty.He got married to his first wife,Alhaja Mu’minat,who is a native of Offa at Keke’s compound in 1968.Three years later, that is in 1971,he married his second wife,Alhaja Khadijat in 1971.He then married his third wife i.e Alhaja Radiyat in 197957,since Islam permits the marriage of up to four wives,thus; ....then marry(other) women of your choice,two,or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one......(Q4:3)58 Hence,Shaykh married three wives and was survived by nine children.These are their names in the order of seniority. 1. Alhaja Aishat Muhammad Jami`u(d.2010) 2. Khalifah Luqman Muhammad Jami`u.A product of Shaykh Abul Fatih Maiduguri, 3. Alhaja Hawawu Muhammad Jami`u.A business woman, 4. Alhaja Halimat Muhammad Jami`u.A business woman, 5. Alhaja Ganiyat Muhammad Jami`u.A business woman, Arabic school in
  13. 13. 6. Alhaja Fatimat Muhammad Jami`u.A business woman, 7.Alhaji Zakariyau Muhammad Jami`u Al-Ansory.A Thanawiy graduate, 8.Alhaji AbdulLatif Muhammad Jami`u.A Thanawiy graduate, 9. Alhaji Khidr Muhammad Jami`u.A Thanawiy graduate.59 HIS DEATH. Shaykh was reported to have indirectly predicted his death before he passed on.In the course of this research, the Muqaddam of Tijaniyyah in Offa,Shaykh Bello Yayi told me that Shaykh advised him not to travel again for some time,that it was after his demise that he understood that Shaykh wanted him to participate during his janazah.60 Shaykh Jami`u breathed his last at Offa on Sunday fifth of March,1989 at the age of seventy.He was buried at his back-yard in the presence of thousands of sympathizers61 and a Mausoleum has been built for him afterwards. AN ASSESSMENT OF HIS LIFE. Due to the controversial characters of Shaykh Jami`u, different people have different notions about him.In order to know the divergent views about him,three categories of people were interviewed.The first category are the members of the Tijaniyyah order,the second category are the ’Ahlus Sunnah,while the third category are Muslims who neither belong to the first nor the second category. The first category,that is,the members of the Tijaniyyah order spoke unanimously about their acceptability of Shaykh to be a waliyullah(saint). In his own submission,the Muqaddam of the Tijaniyyah order in Offa ,Shaykh Bello Yayi said that Shaykh Jami`u was a great
  14. 14. Shaykh because all the characteristics of being a Shaykh was witnessed in him right from his youth62. Shaykh Abubakar Abayawo,in his own submission, said that Shaykh Bulala’s behavior cannot be measured with reason since he was a majdhūb(being in the state of ecstacy).He said that most of his behavior were done in order to conceal him from people63. However,the Ahlus sunnah on the other hand,according to their Chief Imam in Offa ,i.e. Ustaz Husayn Dundun said that Shaykh Bulala lived a mysterious life,hence,he can’t admit whether he is a saint or not,but he was just a popular man since majority of people used to consult him when he was alive.He butressed his submission that a saint must always perform his ritual prayers stipulately whereas Shaykh Bulala did not perform his prayers adequately.When asked about his various miracles,he was of the opinion that all the miracles can not be termed as Karamah but instead they are superlative powers(Hawariqul ’ahadat)s64. Finally,the submission of the third group can be further divided into two subgroups.Some Muslims in Offa till date are of the opinion that Shaykh was a mad man because any normal human being can not be behaving as he used to.While the other factions were of the view that the Shaykh to an extent was a saint because of many reasons among which are; -the various miracles he performed when he was alive, -the success of his children after his demise and, - the emergence of an organization after his demise.65
  15. 15. NOTES AND REFERENCES. 1. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u:A major Sufi master in Offa,an unpublished long essay of the Department of Religions,University of Ilorin,1989,p.17. 2. A.K.O.Rufai,The History of Sheikh Bulala,Offa,Kola Salau Press,2003,p.17. 3. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u:..,p.15. 4. Ibid.,p.16. 5. Ibid. 6. M.T.Al-Hilal And M.M. Khan;Translation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur’an in English Language,Madinah,King Fahd Complex,``n.d’’p.180. 7. A.K.O.Rufai,The History of Sheikh Bulala.....,p.18. 8. Ibid.,pp.20-21. 9. Ibid.,p.19. 10. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u:..,p.19. 11. Ibid.,p.20. 12. Ibid.,p.21. 13. Ibid.,pp.21-22. 14. Ibid,. 15. A.K.O.Rufai,The History of Sheikh Bulala...,p.23. 16. Y.A.Quadri,The Tijaniyya in Nigeria:A Case study,an unpublished Ph.D thesis submitted to the Department of Arabic and Islamic studies,University of Ibadan,1981,p.25. 17. Ibid.,p.28. 18. Ibid.,p.28. 19. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u...,p.37. 20. M.T.Al-Hilal And M.M. Khan;....p.655. 21. I.A.Muhammad,``Al-Tirmidhi’s Theory of saints and sainthood’’ in The Islamic Quarterly,vol 15.No 1,1971,p.23. 22. A.K.O.Rufai,The History of Sheikh Bulala....,pp.19-20. 23. Ibid.,p.21. 24. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u:..,p.39. 25. R.A.Nicholson,The Mystics of Islam,London,Routledge and Kegan Paul Limited,1966,p.10.
  16. 16. 26. I gathered this information during my interview with Alhaji Bello Yayi, who is also Shaykh’s cousin,on 26th March,2012. 27. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u.........,p.44. 28. A.K.O.Rufai,The History of Sheikh Bulala........,p.36. 29. M.H.Oladotun,The History of Islam in Offa(1850-1989),Ilorin,Bisi Modern Printers,1989,pp.78-80. 30. Ibid.,p.80. 31. Ibid. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheikh_Muhammad Jamiu Bulala. Accessed on 16th June,2011. 33. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u:....,p.72. 34. Dr Hashir AbdulSalam narrated this to me in University of Ilorin on 8th August,2011. 35. In my interview with the cheif Imam of Ahlus Sunnah central mosque in Offa on 21st May,2012. 36. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u:...,p.46. 37. One of Shaykh’s loyalists named Alhaji Amao narrated this to me in Offa on 3rd June,2012. 38. M.T.Al-Hilal And M.M. Khan;Translation of the Meanings.........p.126. 39. A.A.Yusuf,The impact of Sufi Orders on Muslims of Saki town,an unpublished long essay submitted to the Department of Religions,University of Ilorin,2003,p.17. 40. M.Eliade(eds),The Encyclopedia of Religion,New York,Macmillian Press,1987,p.555. 41. Majlisul Ulama of South Africa(eds),Scattered Pearls:Selected Sayings and anecdotes of the illustrious Auliyaa,Actonvile,Young Men’s Muslim Association,2006,p.96. 42. A.R.M.Solagberu,A study of the Sufi works of Shaykh ’Abu bakr Atik,an unpublished Ph.D Thesis submitted to the Department of Religions, University of Ilorin,2009,p.68. 43. I gathered this in an interview I conducted with Muqaddam Qasim Bello,in his residence in Kaduna on 3rd September,2011. 44. I.A.Muhammad,``Al-Tirmidhi’s Theory of saints....,pp.31-32. 45. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u:......,p.50. 46. Ibid.
  17. 17. 47. A.Mckinnon,``Miracle’’ in R.Swinburne(eds),Miracles,New York,Macmillian Publishing Company,1989,p.49. 48. R.A.Nicholson,The Mystics of Islam,......p.129. 49. Ibid. 50. I.A.Muhammad,``Al-Tirmidhi’s Theory of saints .....,p.33. 51. Majority of my interviewees told me this during the course of my research. 52. S.A.Tiamiyu,Shaykh Muhammad Jami`u...,pp.74-75. 53. A.K.O.Rufai,The History of Sheikh Bulala....,pp.41-42. 54. I heard this from Professor Y.A Quadri during the course of his lecture i.e. RIS 421 in Unilorin on 3rd December,2011. 55. I gathered this during the course of my interview with Muqaddam Qasim Bello on 3rd March,2011. 56. M.T.Al-Hilal And M.M. Khan;Translation of the Meanings......(Q64:15),p.765. 57. Alhaja Khadijah Bulala,Shaykh’s wives, told me during the course of my interview with her on 24th of March,2012. 58. M.T.Al-Hilal And M.M. Khan;Translation of the Meanings....p.105. 59. Alhaja Khadijah Bulala........,same date. 60. Alhaji Bello Yayi told me during the course of my interview with him on 26th of March,2012. 61. Ibid,. 62. Ibid. 63. Shaykh Abubakar Abayawo told me this during the course of my interview with him in his residence at Abayawo in Ilorin on 19th of June,2011 64. Ustaz M.H.Dundun told me this during the course of my interview with him on 20th of May,2012. 65. Alhaji KokoroAsiki told me this during the course of my interview with him on 21st May,2012.

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