The purpose of this presentation is to comprise a slideshow that depicts the concept of what is referred to as the “Millennial Generation”. The Millennial generation will be defined. The members of this group or generation is where the emphasis, for this presentation, will be placed. The presentation will include images and text that explain how this generation is different from other generations or persons born about the same time. The final component of this presentation will allow viewers to observe and comprehend, via images and texts, how the members of the millennial generation use technology for learning, structured-based/formal and relaxed/informal.
There is so much debate, among demographers or persons who studied and defined the statistics associated with the beginning and ending years of the Millennial generation. According to Sweeney (2006) “this generation was born, during the years, 1979 through 1994, a fifteen year span.” (p. 1) Main (2013) concludes: “The term Millenniums generally refers to the generation of people born between the early 1980s and early 2000s. Perhaps the most commonly used birth range for this group is 1982 to 2000, an eighteen year span.” (p. 1) In an article published by Carter, (2008-2009) “the years, 1982 – 2002, a time span of twenty years, serve as the time frame for this generation.” (p. 1) Sandeen (2008) maintained, in her article, “the Millennials were born between 1982 and 2003, a twenty-one year span.” (p. 1) Lastly, Rouse (n. d.) suggests: “Millennials, an abbreviation for millennial generation, is a term used by demographers to describe a segment of the population born between 1980 and 2000 (approximately), another twenty year span.” (p. 1)
With consideration being given to the periods or years when this group was born, the members, it has been determined, are “today’s college-going population” (Bonfiglio, 2008, p. 1). “ Millennials are a very large generation, the second largest in US history, only smaller than the baby boomers (born 1946 – 1964). More than half of the Millennials are already voting age adults. Many Millennials are already in graduate schools or into careers. We assume that the vast majority of Millennials, who are now at least 23 years old (i.e. those born 1979 through 1983 in 2006) and who will go to college, have already graduated. Millennials, born 1984 through 1994, who will go to college, are either already in college or will be entering by 2012” (Sweeney, 2006, p. 1). The Millennial generation is now well represented in the University and college settings” (Carter, 2008, p. 1). “The members of this generation are graduating from college and are entering graduate school or the workforce” (Sandeen, 2008, p. 18)
“The current, so-called ‘Millennial” generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. Members of this generation are generally felt to be technologically savvy, interested in fairness, attracted to teamwork and community building, and accepting of diversity. Millennials demonstrate a tendency toward abnormal love and admiration for themselves or narcissism (Twenge 2009), and an interest in connection or affiliation and achievement rather than the prior generation’s interest in power (Borges et al. 2013). They have the power of the Internet at their fingertips and literally “with” them via smartphones and other devices 24 hours a day. The power of this technology is boundless or infinite and often overwhelming. Today’s learners or the millennial generation will always be able to provide “content-based” answers simply by regurgitating or bring up information from the Internet. In contrast, tasks that require synthesis, application, analysis, reasoning, interpretation, and other more complex thinking and processing engage students in deeper learning and enhance critical thinking skills. Millennials tend to have a strong sense of self-liking that can be viewed by others as narcissistic, and skepticism of hierarchy, which can be challenging for faculty. Millennial learners benefit from consistency, reassurance, and reminders that they are learning within a framework that is fair and reasonable. Once the rules are set, they should not be changed midstream. Similarly, it is important to remain as impartial and unbiased as possible when faced with decisions affecting learning” (Roberts, Newman, & Schwartzstein, 2012, pp. 275 & 278). “According to the U.S. census bureau, around forty percent of the millennial generation is African American, Latino, Asian or of a racially-mixed background. There are about 76 million millennials in the United States (based on research using the years 1978 – 2000). Millennials are the last generation born in the 20th century. Twenty percent of millennials have at least one immigrant parent. A number of studies, including one by the Center for American Progress, anticipate that millennials will be the first American generation to do less well economically or financially than their parents. Millennials are sometimes called the Net generation because (at least according to some people) they don’t remember a time when there was no Internet. As a result of growing up with the Internet and associated devices, millennials are often said to be the most technologically shrewd, knowledgeable or savvy generation to date” (Rouse, n. d., pp. 1-2).
Millennials have been described in a number of ways. Main (2013) cites some examples, from varied sources: On the negative side, they’ve been described as lazy, having an excessive or erotic interest in oneself and one’s physical appearance or narcissistic and prone to jump from job to job. A story in Time magazine said polls show that Millennials “want flexible work schedules, more ‘me time’ on the job, and nearly nonstop feedback and career advice from managers.” Another Time story in May 2013 was harsher. Titled “The Me MeMe Generation,” it begins: “They’re narcissistic. They’re lazy. They’re treated in an indulgent (too ready to satisfy one’s own desires) or protected way or coddled. They’re even a bit delusional. Those aren’t unfounded negative stereotypes about 80 million Americans born roughly between 1980 and 2000. They’re backed up by a decade of sociological research. Millennials, according to a 2012 study are more civically and politically separated or released from something to which they are attached or connected, more focused on materialistic values, and less concerned about helping the larger community than were GenX (born 1962 – 1981) and Baby Boomers (born 1946 to about 1961) at the same ages,” according to USA Today. “The trend is more of an emphasis on the essential nature of someone or something; coming or operating from outside, extrinsic values such as money, fame, and image, and less emphasis on belonging naturally, intrinsic values such as self-acceptance, group affiliation and community.” They have also been described in positive ways. They are generally regarded as being more open-minded, and more supportive of gay rights and equal rights for minorities. Other positive adjectives to describe them include confident, self-expressive, liberal (concerned with the rights of the oppressed favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority; especially that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom) upbeat and receptive to new ideas and ways of living. The jury is still out as to whether Millennials are self-entitled narcissists or open-minded do-gooders.” (p. 2)
Millennials have been assigned a label known as “Digital Native” because, according to Maulich, Papp, & Haytko (2008), they “are used to the instantaneity of hypertext, downloaded music, phones in their pockets, a library on their laptops, beamed conversations and instant messaging. They have been networked most or all of their lives” (Prensky 2001, p. 3). Unfortunately, these Digital Native learners are largely being taught by “our Digital Immigrant instructors, who speak an outdated language (that of the pre-digital age), [and] are struggling to teach a population that speaks an entirely new language” (Prensky 2001, p.2). Today’s millennial generation or 21-year olds has spent 10,000 hours playing video games, 20,000 hours watching TV, 10,000 hours talking on their cell phones, sent 250,000 emails and spent only 5,000 hours reading (Oblinger 2005). As a result of this exposure to a multimedia environment, their brains have developed to respond to such stimulation and they therefore process information differently then their professors, parents, and just about anyone older than them. Their brains are “wired” differently than that of their professors, hence their development and experiences guide how they process information and experience the world. Howe and Strauss (2000) use seven descriptors to characterize Millennial learners. They say, First, they have been taught by their parents that they are “special.” Second, they are sheltered. Third, despite the sheltered upbringing, they are confident that they can change the world. Fourth, these learners are socially oriented, and tend to work as part of teams. Fifth, they are achievers, but not in the ways that instructors think. Sixth, these millennials feel stressed by the pressure to grow up, the pressure to perform, and the pressure to face the world. Finally, they like convention, i.e., to know exactly what to expect in any situation. They need checklists, formulas, and recipes, not only for learning, but also for life. This group expects student-centered learning, which requires new learning environments and teaching innovations.” (pp. 1-2)
There are a lot of Millennial behaviors or ways they conduct themselves in today’s society. “The key behaviors and preferences are those which are different in kind or degree from previous generations at the same age and which are likely to become part of their lifelong culture. There are a number of researchers who have studied and critically examined the behaviors of the millennial generation. The focus, most conclude “ is upon those which most impact their learning, education, communications and consumer behaviors. They are as follows:MILLENNIAL BEHAVIORS1. More choices; More Selectivity They have grown up with a huge array of choices and they believe that such abundance is their birthright. 2. Experiential and Exploratory Learners Millennials strongly prefer learning by doing. 3. Flexibility/Convenience Millennials prefer to keep their time and commitments flexible longer in order to take advantage of better options; they also expect other people and institutions to give them more flexibility. 4. Personalization and Customization Once Millennials do make their choices in products and services, they expect them to have as much personalization and customization features as possible to meet their changing needs, interests, and tastes. 5. Impatience Millennials, by their own admission, have no tolerance for delay. They require constant feedback to know how they are progressing. 6. Practical, Results Oriented Millennials are interested in proessess and services that work and speed their interactions. Millennials are furious when they feel they are wasting their time; they want to learn what they have to learn quickly and move on. 7. MultitaskersMillennials excel at juggling several tasks at once since this is an efficient, practical use of their time and, as already noted, they are very impatient. 8. Digital Natives Millennials clearly adapt faster to computer and Internet services because they have always had them. 9. Gamers Millennials have spent thousands of hours playing electronic, computer and video games. They love the constant interactivity, full motion multimedia, colorful graphics, the ability to learn and progress to higher levels, and the ability to collaborate with friends in their learning and competitions. 10. Nomadic Communication Style Millennials have more friends and communicate with them more frequently using IM (instant messaging), text messaging, cell phones as well as more traditional communication channels. They are present in large numbers or prolific communicators. 11. Media/Format Agnostic Millennials most enjoy interactive full motion multimedia, color images and audio although they can use any media, even text. 12. Collaboration & Intelligence After many years of practicing collaboration at schools, day care, soccer teams, orchestras, peer-to-peer networks, games, and other programmed activities, Millennials know how and when to work with other people more effectively. 13. Balanced Lives They don’t want to work 80 hours a week and sacrifice their health and their leisure time, even for considerably higher salaries. Yet they expect to earn incomes exceeding their parents. 14. Less Reading Millennials, disturbingly, are not reading literature or newspapers as much as previous generations of the same age. In fact, reading is down for most age groups but the decline has been greatest among the youngest adult population. 15. Other Characteristics They are direct, often to the point of appearing rude. They believe that they are all “above average”; to be average is really to be mediocre. They are very confident, perhaps because their Boomer parents constantly told them that they would succeed at whatever they did” (Sweeney, 2006, pp. 2-6).
“By Internet research count, 75,000,000 Millennials are preparing to join or joining the workforce. These are, considered, desirable employees. The Millennials that joined the workforce were born between 1980 and 2000, or 1981 and 1999, depending on the author. Unlike the Gen-Xers and the Baby Boomers, the Millennials have developed work characteristics and tendencies from doting parents, structured lives, and contact with very different or diverse people. Millennials are used to working in teams and want to make friends with people at work. Millennials work well with diverse coworkers, unlike the Generation Xers, (1961-1981) and Baby Boomers (1943-1960). Millennials have a “can-do” attitude about tasks at work and look for feedback about how they are doing frequently-even daily. They want a variety of tasks and expect that they will accomplish every one of them. Positive and confident, millennials are ready to take on the world. They seek leadership, and even structure, from their older and managerial coworkers, but expect that you will draw out and respect their ideas. Millennials seek a challenge and do not want to experience boredom. Used to balancing many activities such as teams, friends, and philanthropic activities. They desire to promote the welfare of others, expressed especially by the generous donation of money to good causes. They need to see where their career is going and they want to know exactly what they need to do to get there” (Heathfield, n. d., p. 2). As a result of their characteristics, and to meet the needs of the Millennial generation, employers must provide an environment that allows for “structure, leadership and guidance, sense of feeling great faith in oneself or one’s abilities---self-assuredness, working in groups or teams, listening to their ideas and opinions, addressing a challenge and change, multi-tasking, technology usage, capitalizing on spontaneous networking, and a fun, employee-centered workplace” (Heathfield, n. d., p. 2 & pp. 4-5).
“Informal learning and formal learning, Cross (2006) maintains, are at opposite ends of the learning spectrum. Informal learning is the unofficial, unscheduled, on the spur of the moment or impromptu way most people learn to do their jobs. Informal learning is like riding a bicycle; the rider chooses the destination and the route. The cyclist can take a detour at a moment’s notice to admire the scenery or help a fellow rider. Formal learning is like riding the bus; the driver decides where the bus is going; the passengers are along for the ride. People new to the territory often ride the bus before hopping on the bike. Formal learning takes place in the classrooms; informal learning happens in learnscapes. A learnscape is a way learning ecology, learning without borders. Learnscaping involves removing obstacles, seeding communities, increasing bandwidth, encouraging conversation, and growing networks. It’s a natural way to learn and grow.” (p. 1 & p. 5) “Formal learning is classroom-based. The students are usually around the same age. The teacher is the main source for information and instruction. The teacher has to meet or adhere to the outlined, educational standards, and he or she has to stick to a specified curriculum. There is no specific form for informal learning or education. This type of education or learning can take place in various settings. Flexibility and control, among the participants, is allowed with regard to informal learning or education. Examples of informal learning or education include; but is not limited to after-school groups, social settings, libraries and homeschooling. Formal learning or education means what you learned in school. Informal means what you learned from experience or by studying with your ability to act independently or initiative” (“Difference Between Informal and Formal Education”, n. d., p.1). “The terms formal and informal learning have nothing to do with the formality of the learning, but rather with the direction of who controls the learning objectives and goals. In a formal learning environment the training or learning department sets the goals and objectives, while informal learning means the learner sets the goals and objective (Cofer, 2000). Formal learning is normally always intentional or on purpose. Informal learning is intentional if the learner sets an objective or goal for him or her self that is incidental or occurred by chance. Bell (1977) used a metaphor, of brick and mortar, to shed some light on the difference between formal and informal learning. “Formal learning acts as bricks fused into the emerging bridge of personal growth. Informal learning acts as the mortar, facilitating or making easy the acceptance and development of the formal learning. He also noted, “informal learning should NOT replace formal learning activities as it is this synergy or potential ability for people or groups to be more successful working together than on their own that produces effective growth” (“Knowledge Jump: Informal and Formal Learning, n. d., pp. 1-3).
“Informal learning takes place at home or in informal learning institutions (e.g., museum, library, clubs). Learning can take place in different settings, e.g., children can engage in learning when their parents take them to summer camps, museums, or when they travel overseas. Using technologies in informal settings is more motivating and engaging than using technologies in school settings. Informal learning often engages students in real life problems and uses community resources. In formal learning: 1. it is instructor-based. 2. students must ‘check’ their technology at the door. 3. activities are geared toward facts, established knowledge. 4. activities become boring over time. 5. students are less motivated, feel less creative, come to like school less over time. 6. boys (especially) are dropping out at all levels. The number one, major, problem for Millennial students, in formal learning, is the high dropout rates, especially for boys” (Knezek, Christensen, & Wing Lai, 2009, pp. 1-2). To alleviate this problem, the number one consideration, with regard to the learning environment, is that it must be designed so that it reflects the views associated with Constructivism. “Constructivism is a view of learning based on the belief that knowledge isn’t a thing that can be simply given by the teacher at the front of the room to students in their desks. Rather, knowledge is constructed by learners through an active, mental process of development; learners are the builders and creators of meaning and knowledge” (Gray, n. d., p. 1). When and if this type of setting is implemented, the learning environment will be ideal for the millennial student. It will be student-centered, technology-rich, allowed flexibility, with regard to classroom activities, students will relate items, in and around the classroom, to real world items, and, most importantly, physical, active movement is, literally, permitted.
The use of technology in, both, informal and formal learning can, according to Knezek, Christensen, & Wing Lai (2011) help in several ways: Technology can actively engage the learners and increase their motivation to learn.Student attitude toward learning consistently increased in technology-rich environment (Sivin-Kachala & Bialo, 1994).Real world stimulation software programs tend to be highly motivating for students (Means et al., 1993).Student motivation is enhanced through projects that require online collaboration (Means et al., 1997).Technology can provide authentic, hands-on learning experiences.Technology can accommodate gender preference: - Elementary school girls enjoy computers as much or more than boys (Christensen et al., 2005). - High school boys (more than girls, 30% vs. 5%) prefer games as #1 free time tech use. - High school girls (more than boys, 46% vs. 27%) prefer social networking (Knezek & Christensen, 2009). - Laptops + middle school boys approaches or exceeds achievement of girls (Dunleavy and Heinecke, 2008).Technology may be more useful if its mission is altered away from bringing every child up to a minimal competency level, and instead targeted on an individual basis for each child’s unique development needs.” (p. 2)
Computers allow users access to the Internet. The Internet has many capabilities available to its users. “The Internet, aside from being the cornerstone of online learning/alternative delivery, the following are some of the benefits it offers to education. It allows access to other sites and sources of expertise.Sharing of resources (e.g., lesson plans)Collaboration (projects)Global communication” (Wright, 2005/2006, p. 19).
Laptops are the smaller version of desktop computers. They can be used, almost, any where, at any time. They can be used for both, informal and formal learning because they are used in and out of the classroom. More educators are allowing students to use this technology in the classroom because they have determined, through observation, using laptops, for learning, “is an opportunity for more innovative teaching, and it increases student engagement during lectures. Students can pose questions through their laptops, the number of questions is higher than in traditional or formal learning classes. (Anderson et al., 2003; Caron & Gely, 2004; Samson, 2010). Instructors can take advantage of the skills students already have with the laptop and other devices to encourage active participation, engagement in online activities, in all subject areas, boost self-esteem, and meet the needs of all learners via tutorials, games, questionnaires, etc.” (Zhu, Kaplan, Dershimer, & Bergom, n. d., p. 1).
iPads are used in a variety of ways. They are used in and outside of the classroom. They are a type of tablet computer. iPads are a favorite with, both, teachers and students. They are mobile devices. Lessons can be more hands-on with this device. As a result of this, students have access to their lessons wherever they are or go. The teacher and student can see and talk to each other, literally. It has the capability to design lessons for each student. iPads are, the welcomed, replacement for textbooks. Students can record lectures on iPads.
Teachers are allowing students to use smartphones in the classroom as “a student agenda, to contact parents, to collaborate with team/club members, a dictionary, an Internet search tool, a voting device (with software like Polleverywhere) and as a camera. Teachers, in this 21st century or those directly engaged in the Millennial generation learning, understand that the use of smartphones in the classroom can be, and are, used to augment or increase student learning” (Birk, 2011, p. 1).
Sorrentino (2014) states: “Cell phones are a defining feature of the youth culture. Educators have labeled them a classroom disturbance, and they have been banned in most schools across the country. But, is it possible to think that there could be, in between the deafening ring tones and the obsessive text messaging, some redeeming educational qualities to these devices?Sorrentino cites a real live experience with a teacher, Liz Kolb, who was reluctant to allow cell phone usage in her classroom. This teacher has taught on the middle, high school, and college levels. One day “she was doing a blogging activity with a group of teachers when a message popped up on her screen telling her she could create an audio-blog with her cell phone. “It was the easiest podcast I ever made. I said, ‘Wouldn’t this be a great way to do podcasts as homework!’ She tried to find other resources on how to teach with cell phones. She was unsuccessful. She used her creative abilities to come up with ways on her own educators and parents could use cell phones to enhance learning outside of the classroom, and perhaps just keep students engaged. She cited an example with regard to a science lesson, where the student is learning about ecosystems, and is tasked with taking photos of insects on his phone to be studied later in class. “There is a genuine excitement about the lesson because they can use their own cell phone,” she says. And, says Kolb, when student’s can connect their own culture with what’s happening in school they’re education becomes immediately more meaningful to them. And, says Kolb, this type of technology integration will better prepare students for the 21st century workforce, where jobs are performed on mobile devices, such as cell phones. “We see it in places where we compete, such as China,” she says. “The fact is that they already value the cell phone as a professional tool. Now we need to teach students how to use a phone ethically in the work environment of the future” (Sorrentino, 2014, p. 1).
Web 2.0 are web-based tools used, online, for learning. “Although the term “Web 2.0 Technology” is used in many ways, most researchers agree that this technology include blogs, podcasts, wikis, social networking sites (I.e., Facebook, MySpace) social bookmarking sites (i.e., Diigo), and file sharing sites (i.e., Dropbox)” (Best, Buhay, McGuire, Gurholt, & Foley, n. d., p.1). These tools allow users to share information in a variety of ways. For example: “Blogs are used for publishing or posting thoughts or ideas around a theme or topic initiated by the teacher, student, or expert in subject area. They can be used to make announcements and provide feedback to students. A wiki is a collaborative website which entertains the easy creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages by anyone with access to it via a web browser using a simplified language. Wikis have a range of usage in a distance education context. They are most desirable for collaborative class projects involving groups of students for incrementally adding content, documenting tasks, editing material and can also be used for the development of student portfolios. Wikis also allow for the sharing of on-line resources. Web 2.0 technology allows for media-sharing services such as podcasting, used together with MP3/4s and other mobile devices (e.g. cell phone) allows the user to listen to audio content. Such content can be easily updated and placed on computers/servers for student access anytime, anywhere” (Paul, n. d., pp. 4-5).
Social networking is self-explanatory. The Millennial generation has mastered the skills, far and beyond, needed to interact with this technology. Facebook, MySpace, Twittering, email correspondence, and texting have become a way of life for most. Talking back and forth with their peers, parents, and surprisingly enough, teachers is how social networking is defined. Social bookmarking is an excellent tool used for learning purposes. Each time information is needed on an assigned topic the student doesn’t have to start a new search. He or she can retrieve the saved, bookmarked, page. “Internet users can store, organize, search, and manage bookmarks of web pages on the Internet with the help of metadata (Wikipedia) instead of storing bookbkmarks.jpgmarks or favorites on the computer. Social bookmarking tools enable users to store them on the web, organize them in a variety of ways, add “tags” or keywords to them, annotate them, and access them from any computer. In addition, users can share the bookmarks with others and can see what others have bookmarked. (Users also have the ability to mark some or all of the bookmarks “private” so that only they can access them. In addition the above-mentioned, “Social bookmarking websites enhance and improve the learning experience by encouraging group collaboration, making, organizing, and saving web resources faster and easier for students. Social bookmarking services offer greater scope for research, integration, and collaboration compared to the more traditional bookmarking applications such as browsers, which offer limited functionality. Classroom collaboration is an area that benefits directly from today’s Internet experience in that students can develop their potential for learning by becoming more actively involved. Indeed, they can learn to approach and solve problems by collaborating with other students and their teachers. Social bookmarking websites give them opportunities to discover and organize information” (Ruffini, 2011, p. 1).
According to Bradford (2013) tablets are necessary, with regard to students’ learning, especially at the high school and college levels. He maintained: “Back to school tablets are an essential part of a student’s back to school toolbox as a desktop or laptop. They can use tablets to take notes, do research, and help with study time. High school students and the Millennial generation or college students need tablets with good, pixel dense displays, speedy performance, and extras or accessories that will keep them productive both in the classroom and outside of the classroom. Bradford endorses one tablet, in particular, “Samsung Galaxy Note 8.0”. “With this Android tablet students can ditch the pen and pad for taking notes and go all digital. Thanks to the S Pen digitized stylus, it’s possible to write and draw on the screen with precision so notes and diagrams are clear and easily shared or uploaded to the cloud. Multi-window mode makes Android more useful when researching or working between two applications.” (pp. 1-2)
Smart boards and the Promethean interactive whiteboard can, both, be used for learning. The capabilities associated with the two boards are similar or identical. They both are used in the classroom. They allow for interaction by all learners. Students can play games on them, interact with click on and drag activities, and students can work in pairs or individually. “Millennial students can engage in a variety of activities that get the whole class involved and are fun at the same time. By using a smart board in the classroom, students can play jeopardy, participate in the dissection of a frog, view interactive displays of various maps, graphs, and tables. Smart board tablets (such as iPads) can be used in the classroom so that students can engage in a variety of interactive activities. Also, tablets allow for millennial students to work at their own pace” (Ramey, 2012, p. 1). The Promethean board does not have the touch screen capability as that of the smart board. The user has to use a special pen device on this board. “The board features a unique two-pen mode, in which one user can play the role of the teacher or facilitator, and the other user can play a participative role. The Promethean whiteboard has a component associated with it entitled “Promethean Planet”. “Promethean Planet has over 14,000 lesson plans that are already broken down by grade, subject, and standards. When it comes to integration of technology, in the classroom, there is no substitute for that kind of support” (Walsh, 2009, p. 2). All of the previous, above-mentioned, technologies---computers/Internet, laptops, iPads, smart phones, cell phones, Web 2.0 technologies, social networking, social bookmarking, tablets, smart boards, and the Promethean whiteboard can be implemented in the formal classroom setting, as well as the informal. The major concern, with regard to the formal setting, is that the teacher will be in charge of the students’ learning. The students will not be able to exercise their cognitive skills, which is vitally important for academic growth, presently and in the future. The teacher-centered setting would be a grave disadvantage for all students, but especially for Millennial students, given their characteristics, they will shut down, drop out of school, become bored, etc. They need and desire to be in charge of their learning.
Unit 1 ip edu 642
WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT?: THE MILLENNIAL
Shirley R. Bailey
American InterContinental University
Pick a door
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