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Vaccine preventable diseases

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Vaccine Preventable Disease - Pneumonia and Measles
From Epidemiological Perspective

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Vaccine preventable diseases

  1. 1. PREVENTABLE DEATH DISEASES PNEUMONIA MEASLES PREVENTION SYMPTOMS TETANUS IMMUNIZATION VACCINE ELDERS RISK COMMERCIAL VACCINATIONS UNDER5 LEAD SOCIAL SECRET SPEED PREVENTION HEALTH PLANNING MEASLES EDUCATION PNEUMONIA STUDY INTERNET COMMUNITY VACCINE DATA IMPROVE COMMERCIAL RESOURCE INDIA MUMPS POLITICAL TRAINING IMPROVE VACCINE GLOBAL VILLAGES HEALTH CURE RISK DETERMINANTS DATA WHO SLUM AREAS CHILDREN PNEUMONIA RESOURCE MEDIA ECONOMIC DIVERSE YES WHO GAPPD CONTROL TUBERCULOSIS UNICEF PLANNING FACT FICTION UNITED WEB COVERAGE MIRROR BLOG TEXT INTERNET MENINGITIS TIME WORLD CAUSES MEASLES DOCTORS SMART UNICEF INFECTIONS ACCESS YES CLOCK NO FACT TOWER ECONOMIC UNITED COVERAGE BLOG FICTION EXPAND HEALTH INTERNET INFORMATION ERADICATION VIDEO DOCTORS DETERMINANTS SOCIAL NEWBORN PERTUSSIS RURAL 1
  2. 2. 2 KABAK TAMAR SHIRISH TIWARI SONU GUPTA PURABI RATH HRITU SHRIVASTAV GROUP MEMBERS
  3. 3. VACCINE PREVENTABLE DISEASES A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists.(1) 25 Diseases – WHO. (2)  Diphtheria  Pneumonia  Hepatitis B  Measles  Meningitis  Mumps  Pertussis  Poliomyelitis  Rubella  Tetanus  Tuberculosis  Yellow Fever 3
  4. 4.  A CHILD DIES EVERY MINUTE FROM PNEUMONIA IN INDIA.(3)  1.4 MN – Children dies every year globally.  1.4 MN > (AIDS + Malaria + TB).(3)  436/1000 Live births – Under-5 children mortality due to Pneumonia.(4) PNEUMONIA WHY IT IS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE?? 4
  5. 5. CAUSES - Infectious Agents - Bacteria - Virus - Fungi  COMMON SYMPTOMS - Cough - Chest Pain - Fever - Difficulty Breathing - Diarrhea MODE OF TRANSMISSION - Virus & Bacteria present in nose & throat - Cough/sneeze - Blood WHAT IS PNEUMONIA? Pneumonia is an infection or Inflammation in one or both lungs.(6) 5
  6. 6. WHY PNEUMONIA IS PREVALENT? 50% of World’s Pneumonia deaths occur in India which means approximately 3.7 lakh children die of Pneumonia annually in India.(7)  VULNERABILITY OF CHILDREN - Undernourished Children/ Less Breastfed.(8) - Other illness like AIDS or measles.(8) - NO/Low vaccine coverage. - Environmental factors like slum, crowding, parental smoking.  SOCIAL DETERMINANTS - Region – Urban or Rural - Gender – Male < Female(8) - Mother’s Education(9) - Income Level of Family(9) - Political Stand - Community Approach 6
  7. 7. Fig. Pneumonia Proportional Mortality in India. Morris SK, Bassani DG, Awasthi S, Kumar R, et al. (2011) Diarrhea, Pneumonia, and Infectious Disease Mortality in Children Aged 5 to 14 Years in India. PLoS ONE 6(5): e20119. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020119 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020119 CONTRASTING CONDITION OF PNEUMONIA IN INDIA  Gender Bias – Girls mortality is more high than the boys.(8)  Geographical Inequities – North, West and North-East, Highly prevalent.(8) 7
  8. 8. DESPITE MANY EFFORTS, WHY IT STILL PERSISTS? WHO UNICEF GAPP IMNCI IAP GoI-MOHFW  KEY POINTS UNADDRESSED - Lack of Social Awareness. - Lack of Proper Primary Prevention. - No Vaccine Coverage(UIP). - Improper Implementation of Prevention and Treatment Guidelines issued. - Less attention from Government 8  INTEGRATED EFFORTS • IMNCI - Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses - UNICEF • UIP – Universal Immunization Programme - MOHFW • GAPP – Global Action Plan For Pneumonia - WHO
  9. 9. WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE? MEASURES PREVENTION TREATMENT 9 PRIMARY PREVENTION CARE SUPPORT TREATMENT STRATEGIC INFORMATION INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING SYSTEM  LOW COST & EASY PREVENTION - Washing hands with soap - Controlling Indoor Air Pollution - Exclusive Breastfeeding - Oral Rehydration - Zinc Supplementation - Availability of Vaccines RECOMMENDATION
  10. 10. 10 MEASLES
  11. 11. MEASLES: CONTAINING THE CONTAGIOUS WHYMEASLES NEEDS ATTENTION?  A CHILD DIES IN EVERY FOUR HOURS IN INDIA  92,000 – Dies every year in India.  122 000 - Deaths globally.  330 deaths every day or 14 deaths every hour.  Less than 80% - First Dose Vaccine coverage. 11
  12. 12. WHAT IS MEASLES? “Any person with fever ,maculo-papular rashes and coryza/cough/ conjunctivitis.” - WHO  CAUSE - Myxovirus - Vitamin A deficiency - Malnourishment  SYMPTOMS - Fever - Rashes - Cough - Conjunctivitis - Diarrhea  MODE OF TRANSMISSION - Droplet, direct contact with nasal and throat secretions. 12
  13. 13. WHY MEASLES IS NOT LEAVING US? Each year 60000-100000 children die of measles in India. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS - Poor living condition. - Poverty. - Co-morbid disease - Suppressed immunity - Unvaccinated community leading to OUTBREAK - Inaccessibility to healthcare coverage - Onset of Winter season. 13
  14. 14. WHAT IS ITS MAGNITUDE AND TRENDS? VACCINES IMMUNIZATION  PRE-VACCINATION ERA - Prior to 1960: 8 MN children death/year - 135 MN/year globally. - 100-400 times - likely to cause death in developing countries than developed. MEASLES VACCINATION PERIOD: - Measles mortality reduces more than three-quarter in all WHO regions except SEAR. 14
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  16. 16. WHO STRATEGY: “CATCH-UP, KEEP-UP, FOLLOW-UP” HOW TO STOP MEASLES? MEASURES PREVENTION CONTROL STRATEGIES  Planning and Coordination : central, state and DTF  Routine Immunizations : 9mnths of age(6mnths-outbreak)  SIA : catch-up + follow-up campaign  ACSM: multi-sectoral , NGOs , CBOs , professional bodies , religious institutions, media etc.  Human resource management : training, remuneration and capacity buildings 16
  17. 17. WHERE ARE THE CHALLENGES LIES?  Lack of trained professional  Lack of trust in MCV  Poor health care delivery system  Issues of Social Determinants  Measles outbreak  HARD TO REACH Population  Unpredictable Funding HOW CAN WE MOVE  Improve Vaccine coverage (quality and quantity)  Effective treatment measures to prevent AHEAD? complications  Outbreak preparedness  Targeted interventions –hard to reach populations  Ensure social equities  Building trust to the communities through multi-sectoral approaches 17
  18. 18. MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MDG4 GOALS: FOR PNEUMONIA AND MEASLES  Reduce child mortality by two-thirds by 2015 (Vs. 1998).  More than 90% Immunization coverage.  Vaccination Coverage: 90% national and 80% district level. 18
  19. 19. 19 REFERENCES 1. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/vpd-list.htm 2. http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/en/ 3. Times of India - http://tinyurl.com/pazhgme 4. The Hindu - http://tinyurl.com/pnrl9zv 5. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/pneumonia.html 6. IAP Recommendations – Page 1. / www.iapindia.org 7. WHO - http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs331/en/ 8. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020119 9. Pneumonia: The Forgotten Killer of Children by UNICEF (pdf) 10. Indian pediatrics, vol.49-may16,2012 11. Global eradication of measles,WHO executive board ,126th session ,26th nov 2009 12. Millenium development goal India , country report 2011, www.mospi.nic.in 13. Operational guidelines for measles catch – up campaign-MoHFW-GoI june 2009 14. Control of communicable diseases, David l heyman 18th edition p 379-385
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