A differential study Psychology and Psychiatry Presented by SYNER GISTS
<ul><li>A branch of science that is concerned with the study of mental processes, behavioral characterstics, emotions, intelligent strategic actions and arguments used to manipulate or influence others, is called Psychology. -or- </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology is the scientific study of human and animal behaviour and how they are affected or affect an individual or group physical and mental state. </li></ul>Psychology Psychology is a " Greek ” Word Psych- means mind, spirit and soul -ology stands for “ science of therapy ”
<ul><li>A branch of medicine that is concerned with the assessment, diagnosis, management and prevention of mental illnesses or psychopathologies. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a positive and empirical study which deals with the behavior of an organism in its environment It is positive because it deals with the study of facts of mind as they are. It is empirical because it deals with the study of solution of these facts. </li></ul>Psychiatry Psychiatry is a “ Medical Specialty ” Deals with mental disorders -chiatry stands for “ medical treatment ”
Branches of Psychology Psychometrics involves the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits while Mathematical Psychology involves the modeling and analysis of mental and motor processes concerned with mathematical learning.
Branches of Psychiatry In the United States, psychiatry is one of the specialties which qualify for further education and board-certification in pain medicine , palliative medicine and sleep medicine .
<ul><li>A psychologist holds a doctoral degree of PhD (DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY), Ed.D (DOCTOR OF EDUCATION), Psy.D (DOCTOR OF PSYCHOLOGY) from a university or professional school. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, if he or she is in clinical practice, the degree will be in Clinical Psychology (although it might be in Counseling Psychology). With the exception of the Psy.D. (a purely clinical degree), all psychologists have had extensive training in research, having completed an original scientific study - called a doctoral dissertation - as a major part of their training. A psychologists particularly a clinical psychologist can not prescribe any medicine to his patient. A psychologist focuses the psychological cause of mental pathology more than the biological reasons. </li></ul>Psychologist Psychologist is supposed to have had experienced “ personal psychotherapy ” at least for one year. As students, future psychologists also receive training in psychological testing.
<ul><li>A psychiatrist holds an M.B.B.S degree with specialization in psychiatry. A psychiatrist unlike a psychologist can prescribe medicine to patient where needed. A psychiatrist focuses the biological causes of ailment more than psychological causes interpreting the level of dysfunction as proposed by Sigmund Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>All physicians can diagnose mental disorders and prescribe treatments utilizing principles of psychiatry. Psychiatrists are either: </li></ul><ul><li>Clinicians: specialized in psychiatry and are certified in treating mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists: specialized in the academic field of psychiatry and are qualified as research doctors in this field. </li></ul>Psychiatrist Psychiatrists unlike psychologists are not required to have had experienced “ personal psychotherapy ” . As students, future psychiatrists receive training as physicians.
<ul><li>It is an Applied field used along with Clinical Psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an Academic field used to be taught at institutions as a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological knowledge is applied to various spheres of human activity, including the family, education, and employment; and to the treatment of mental health problems. Psychology includes many sub-fields that span areas as diverse as human development, sports, health, industry, media and law. Psychology incorporates research from the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities. </li></ul>Application of Psychology Psychology dates back to “ ancient civilizations ” It gained more clinical and experimental approach under the medieval Muslim Psychologists and Physicians
<ul><li>It is a practical Specialty for the medical graduates. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatric assessment involves the Mental State Examination (M.S.E) and uses the neuro-imaging and neuro-physiological techniques for diagnosis of Mental Disorders. It works in parallel with the criteria listed in diagnostic manuals such as the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) edited and used by the World Health Organization. </li></ul>Application of Psychiatry In 4th century BC, Hippocrates theorized that physiological abnormalities may be the root of mental disorders The first psychiatric hospitals were built in the medieval Islamic world in the 8th century. The first was built in Baghdad in 705 , followed by Fes in the early 8th century , and Cairo in 800 .
<ul><li>The referral of the patient depends upon the level of his functioning or level of disturbance. The referral pathway is general assumed from the Bio-Psycho-Social Model. However, some cases are by self referral or by primary-care physician, hospital medical staff, by court order, involuntary commitment or in UK and Australia, by sectioning under a mental health law. </li></ul><ul><li>The cases are generally referred in the following sequence: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Psychiatrist (Bio) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Psychologist (Psycho) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Medical Social Officer (Social) </li></ul>Referral of the patients Bio-Psycho-Social Model
<ul><li>A Psychologist provides Psychotherapy for psychopathologies. Among all psychotherapeutic methods Psychoanalysis and CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) are the most popular. Psychoanalysis is a theory of mental functioning and a specific type of treatment philosophy, developed by Sigmund Freud in the early 1900s. The basic premise of psychoanalysis is that most psychological symptoms are the result of our unconsciously avoiding many of the unpleasant truths about ourselves. Through a detailed “psycho” analysis (i.e., analysis of our thought process and mental images) we come to learn just how we consistently manage to lie to and deceive ourselves. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely used and is based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder. Systemic or family therapy is sometimes used, addressing a network of significant others as well as an individual. </li></ul>Psychological Treatment Freud, a physician and a professor of medicine, developed his theories about psychoanalysis while studying cases of hysteria and compulsion neurosis . Freud’s theories became popular because they discussed the subjects such as sexuality , repression , and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development-the taboos of the society.
<ul><li>A psychiatrist mostly applies psychopharmacology i.e. prescribing medicines to their patients. Psychiatric treatments are preferably administered after a session of M.S.E (Mental State Examination) by interview and physical assessment that determines the suitable management line for a particular psychopathology. Due to their basic training in Psychoanalysis, psychiatrists use it for treatment. The medical test including the therapeutic drug monitoring, Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), blood tests, MRI’s (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and Scans are used for diagnostic purposes. For serious patients hospitalization is also recommended by the psychiatrists. Anxiolytics, anti-depressants and anti-psychotics are the most prescribed drugs. Psychosurgery has also been suggested by some neurologists in rare cases. </li></ul>Psychiatric Treatment According to a report published by the U.S. National Council on Disability , forced drugging , " lack of insight " ,prescribing psychiatric medication and pharmaceutical companies have become increasingly controversial . It says that involuntary treatment is extremely rare outside the psychiatric system, allowable only in such cases as unconsciousness or the inability to communicate.
<ul><li>The aim of both psychology and psychiatry is to equip the patients to make him able to adjust more effectively to cope with routine normal stress and anxiety rather than isolating and rendering him dependent on others. The Medical Health Professionals therefore work in genuinely to rehabilitate their patients making them the positive contributors of society. </li></ul>Aim of Psychology and Psychiatry Right to health is the most right choice of a citizen to know and help it at the right moment .
<ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>H.Salman and Akhlaq Ahmed (as Psychiatrists ) </li></ul><ul><li>Zain-ul-Abideen and Muhammad Sheraz (as Psychologists ) </li></ul>Thanks for Patient hearing… www. en.wikipeia .org www. guidetopsychology. com www. worldencyclopedia .com www. aboutu .com