B21B-0263: i-Tree: tools to assess and manage structure, function, and value of community forests Introduction Tools Background & CompositionTrees in urban communities can mitigate many adverse effects associated with anthropogenic i-Tree software suite is composed of 11 components, i-Tree Eco, Streets, Hydro, Vue, Species,activities and climate change (e.g. urban heat island, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and floods). Storm, Pests, Design, Canopy, Landscape, and Forecast. Each of the components wasTo protect environmental and human health, managers need to make informed decisions based developed based on state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed models and techniques developed by theon model results about urban forest management practices. However, it is difficult for them to get USDA Forest Service. For instance, i-Tree Eco is an adaptation of the Urban Forest Effectsthe appropriate model results due to obstacles such as difficulties in preparing inputs, limited (UFORE) model and i-Tree Streets implements the STRATUM model. These models will beaccess to needed models, and unsuitable outputs or user interfaces. Here we introduce the i-Tree combined into one tool in a future version. i-Tree Design and Vue utilize the results produced bymodels developed through a consortium of partners including USDA Forest Service, Davey Tree these models.Expert Company, National Arbor Day Foundation, Society of Municipal Arborists, International All tools work with a server-client architecture (web server - web client or Windows server -Society of Arboriculture, and Casey Trees, which helps communities of all sizes strengthen urban Windows client) and most of the national standard data are stored in the server, which providesforest management and advocacy efforts by quantifying the structure of community trees and the users an easy access to the input data of the models. Analyses can be performed at variousenvironmental services that trees provide. i-Tree is in the public domain and freely available for scales, i-Tree Design works for individual trees (points), i-Tree Streets for street trees (lines), anddownload or use through the i-Tree web site (www.itreetols.org). i-Tree Eco, Vue, and Canopy for any sized area. To enhance the user-friendliness of the tools, Windows-based or web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) is provided. While most i-Tree System Overview applications employ a spatially lumped approach, i-Tree landscape employs a spatially distributed approach that allows users to map changes in canopy cover and ecosystem services through timeInput: and space. These new i-Tree tools will provide an advanced platform for urban managers toNationwide data for the US are stored in a server and retrieved by a user’s computer at run-time. assess the impact of current and future urban forests.These data include US Forest Service’s location-related parameters, NOAA’s Integrated SurfaceHourly (ISH) (www7.ncdc.noaa.gov/CDO/cdo) and radiosonde (www.esrl.noaa.gov/raobs/) data, Spatial Scheme Lumped DistributedUSGS’s streamflow data (waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/sw), and US EPA’s Air Quality System(AQS) data (www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/detaildata/downloadaqsdata.htm). Nationwide remote-sensed images (e.g. NLCD and Google Maps) are also employed to estimate tree canopy System Architecture Web Windows Client/Server GIScharacteristics. i-Tree Design allows users to input tree data on Google Maps, and i-Tree Vueallows users to import tree cover maps from NLCD. i-Tree Eco and Streets use field survey data Design Speciesof community tree and street tree populations, respectively. PointFunction:Two major functions of i-Tree are 1) to analyze current forest structure (e.g., species composition,number of trees), and 2) to estimate the environmental benefits provided by the trees (e.g., Streets Pest Stormcarbon storage and sequestration, energy conservation, air pollution removal, and storm water Forest Linereduction). The forest structure needs to be first identified with i-Tree Design, i-Tree Streets, i-TreeVue or Eco depending on forest types, then ecosystem services and values can be estimated with Analysis Pest Storm Speciescommon models and protocols i-Tree Canopy allows users to estimate tree cover using Google Domain Canopy Vue Eco LandscapeMaps. i-Tree Hydro estimates tree and impervious cover effects on stream flow and water qualitywithin a watershed. Two more i-Tree applications, i-Tree Forecast and i-Tree Landscape are now Areaunder development i-Tree Forecast simulates forest structure and services through time based on Landscapeplanting, growth and mortality rates. i-Tree Landscape employs a spatially distributed approachthat allows users to map changes in canopy cover and ecosystem services through time and Hydrospace. WatershedOutput:Output data in several forms (texts, tables, charts and automatically created report) can be Hydroaccessed via client side application. System Diagram • Uses Google maps • Photo-interpret Google • Individual tree benefits: Input Function Output aerial images Air pollutants • Estimates tree and other removed cover types in the image CO2 removed Energy saved Field Survey Google Map Forest Topology Table Define Canopy Structure Stormwater reduced Point Line Area • NLCD and Google maps • Urban forest benefits: • Uses field survey data Air pollutants • Street trees benefits: removed Air pollutants CO2 removed removed Topography Landcover Chart Energy saved CO2 removed Tree Damage Tree Species Stormwater reduced Energy saved • Uses field survey data Stormwater reduced Pest Storm Species • Urban forest benefits: Aesthetic Air pollutants removed CO2 removed • Additional function of i- Energy saved Air Quality Weather Report Tree Streets Stormwater reduced • Estimates potential risk to various pests and • Under development Air Estimate Ecosystem Services health symptoms related • Spatially estimates to various pests Air Pollution Carbon Temperature canopy structure and Pest ecosystem services across a region. Streamflow Web Landscape • Estimates street tree damages caused by a • Selects appropriate tree storm species to plant based Water Energy Other on environmental functions and Stormwater Energy Aesthetic geographic area Storm Species • Estimates water • Under development quantity/quality within a • Integrated within other i- watershed Tree applications Timeline • Simulates canopy Present Future structure through time Hydro Forecast
Satoshi Hirabayashi 1, David Nowak2, Scott Maco1, Theodore Endreny3 and Chuck Kroll 3 1 The Davey Institute, The Davey Tree Expert Company, Syracuse, NY, United States 2 Northern Research Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Syracuse, NY, United States 3 Department of Environmental Resources Engineering, SUNY ESF, Syracuse, NY, United States Share & Support User Base i-Tree tools are in the public domain and are Requests for i-Tree Tools (Cumulative) freely available by registering at www.itreetols.org. Visit this web site for more 12000 information such as: (Download & CD Combined) 10000 • News 8000 Unique Users • Manuals & workbooks 6000 Other Countries • Trainings & seminars 4000 US • Model descriptions & publications 2000 • Presentations & reports 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 • Support (Projected) Year • User forums Requests for i-Tree Tools has grown at an average rate of approximately 25% per year since launching in 2006. i-Tree has been downloaded by over 8,700 users in over 100 countries across the globe. Tool UsageDesign Canopy Streetsi-Tree Design links to Google maps and allows users to sketch i-Tree Canopy is a tool that allows users to easily photo-interprettheir home and see how the trees around their home affect Google aerial images to produce statistical estimates of tree andstorm water reduction, energy use and savings, air quality other cover types along with calculations of the uncertainty ofimprovements, and CO2 reduction. Users can use this tool to their estimates. This tool provides a simple, quick andassess which locations and tree species will provide the highest inexpensive means for cities and forest managers to accurately i-Tree Streets is similar to Eco, but focuses on street treelevel of benefits. This is a simple tool geared toward estimate their tree and other cover types. i-Tree Canopy can be populations using reference city street tree data. It includeshomeowners, school children or anyone interested in tree used anywhere in the world where high-resolution, cloud-free additional estimates of storm water impacts, property valuebenefits.. Google images exist. effects and cost-benefit analyses.Pest Storm SpeciesThe Pest Detection Protocol provides a systematic protocol forlong-term pest detection and monitoring. It allows users to inputhealth signs and symptoms of their trees to produce indications i-Tree Storm helps assess street tree damage in a simple andof potential pests, diseases and threats to their forest. The efficient manner immediately after a severe storm. It is adaptable i-Tree Species Selector is a free-standing utility designed toprotocol is incorporated within i-Tree Streets and will be in Eco to various community types and sizes and provides information help users select the most appropriate tree species based onsoon. on the time and funds needed to mitigate storm damage. desired environmental functions and geographic area.Vue Eco Hydroi-Tree Vue allows users to utilize freely available National LandCover Data (NLCD) maps to assess their community’s land i-Tree Eco uses sample or inventory data to assess forestcover, tree canopy and impervious cover. To overcome an structure, ecosystem services and values for any tree populationunderestimation of tree cover in NLCD maps, users can (including number of trees, diameter distribution, species i-Tree Hydro is a program designed to simulate the effects ofproduce adjusted cover maps and superimpose transparent diversity, potential pest risk, air pollution removal, carbon storage changes in tree and impervious cover within a watershed onnational cover maps (30 m resolution) on top of Google aerial and sequestration, VOC emissions, and building energy effects). hourly stream flow and water quality. It contains auto-calibrationimages. The program also quantifies and maps spaces It runs on local field data and hourly meteorological and pollution routines to help match model estimates with measured hourlyavailable for planting and broadly estimates some ecosystem data. The program includes plot selection programs, data entry stream flow and produces tables and graphs of changes in flowservices provided by the current trees and forests. The effects of programs or PDA data entry, table and graphic reporting and and water quality due to changes in tree and impervious coverchanges in tree cover on future benefits can also be illustrated. exporting, and automatic report generation. within the watershed.