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  1. 1. Streaming videos is content sent in compressed form over the Internet and displayed by the viewer in real time. With streaming video, a Web user does not have to wait to download a file to play it. Instead, the media is sent in a continuous stream of data and is played a it arrives. YouTube is one of the most biggest and popular music video streaming program. There are dozens of musicians who allow there music videos to be viewed by fans and viewers on streaming programs (YouTube). Many artists prefer streaming as they can still earn a lot of money through the number of views. However some artisit’s argue that the amount of income they receive For example Musician Zoë Keating is also in favour of streaming music videos. Google Doc revealed that nearly 97% of Keating's income came from sales of her music on iTunes, Amazon and her own Band camp website.
  2. 2. Streaming music videos means that music videos are now targeting the niche market through the use of internet. This means that music videos have also been able to become unique, challenging and diverse, so they no longer have to appeal to everyone; instead they can reflect the genre of their music and push the boundaries. Zoe Keating is a non-mainstream artist and she specifically targets audiences who like to listen to Contemporary classical and cello rock Keating mainly uses the music-streaming service called Spotify
  3. 3. A new button within the Spotify app allow users to bounce whatever music they're playing to compatible speakers on their Wi-Fi network. This is because Spotify streams directly to the speaker from its server, it doesn't necessarily need the device that was used to initiate the streaming to remain near it, or even to remain on. This means that any device linked to the Wi-Fi network can connect to the speakers. It also means it doesn't drain the battery or prevent you from doing certain things with your phone while you're listening to music at home
  4. 4.  Record labels are losing the control they have over the distribution of music videos due to losing control over audiences accessibility. This is because audience no longer have the need to watch the most expensive and dynamic videos such as buying albums, instead audience can watch music videos on YouTube or Daily Motion
  5. 5. Audiences are no longer controlled; they watch what they watch to watch; instead of watching/listening to radio stations or music channels such MTV which selects which tracks and music videos to play. The increasing number of fans have emphasised the power and popularity of music videos. For example the `Gangnam style` hit 1 billion YouTube views. Streaming also gives unsigned artists the chance to be noticed and discovered- For example; Scooter Braun “found” Justin `Bieber` on YouTube  Allows unknown and new artists to be known-gives them reorganisation e.g. streaming sites such as Spotify and Itune recommend videos (sometimes new artist's music-helps them to be discovered) to users
  6. 6. Spotify online applications allows users to stream music to computer devices or mobile devices for £9.99 a month Problems •Musician Zoe Keating earned only $808 from 201, 412 Spotify streams (she worked hard to create her music & got little out of it)-0.4% for every song that was streamed Opportunity •Allows users to access more music when they want •Allows artists to sell more as a wider range of audiences can access their music from online platforms such as Spotify-also it give underground artists who are not well known in the mainstream music market (e.g. their CD albums are not available in shops which sell album records such as like H&M) to sell more through targeting a niche market online
  7. 7. •Launched in 2008 (2006 originated in Sweden) •Unlimited on-demand music-18 million tracks •10 million users (2008) •20 million users in Dec 2012) • Listening limit: 10 hours per month •80% of the users are using free account •In the UK only 250,000 paying customers
  8. 8. Is a video-sharing site, created in February 2005 by three PayPal employees Problems •Harder to get famous like this (distribution platforms)-wide range of people posting videos (diverse); you are competing in a large market (online market) with a wide range of other people (many who are talented and more skilful than others) •When you are a partner with YouTube you still don’t get paid that much for the views and you need very high views make a profit e.g. `Gangnam Style` got 1,780,225,831 views and the Korean artist Psy received $8 (works out to be around 0.44p per views-very less moneys for a single view) Opportunity •Allows all users from all around the world to get together with the use of the web (really great way for non-professionals to get famous –promotes you for free) •Also you get paid for all your views (if you get a lot of views or a lot of subscriptions to your channels)-monetising your video/s
  9. 9. •Record albums make more money from YouTube (protected- some content can’t be viewed in some countries and some videos are disabled in certain countries due to copyright issues) •Unlike traditional music media such as music channels or radio YouTube is more fast and easy to access (audience can listen to the music they want and during whenever they want); in the old days you had to wait until a particular music channel put on your favourites music videos (and sometimes they weren’t put on) and you had to call up for your music to be played on the radio (but you had to wait until it was your time-time consuming). However if your music video wasn’t’ played on the music channel than it wouldn’t have played and you had to just buy the album, but now you can just watch it online and not wait for it •If your somewhere across the world (e.g. Jamaica) you don’t have to wait until it comes to your country. You can just watch it on YouTube (if someone tells you did you see that video than you would search the music online and find it on YouTube e.g. the news of the new music video `Gangnam Style` spread so fast through social networks and people starting to watch this video on YouTube as it was the most spoke about (hot music topic) topic during that time-create way to promote underground artist really fast such as Psy, •Artists can use `VEVO` on YouTube to protect their work and to promote themselves.
  10. 10. Spotify Net income= 25 m 51%= £13.25 given to music industry Does not very much support unknown or new artists in terms of making a profit (receive low income due to low views in comparison to the large views on mainstream popular music Artist such as Dave Steward are against Spottily 70% of Spotify’s revenue is paid out in royalties  Problem isn’t Spoftiy failing to pay royalties (money given to artist-paying for their songs every time it is streamed) but actually the record labels that work out as the middle man to the artists who take too huge amounts of cut from their profit Due to Spoftify there is now a reduced piracy in Sweden ever since 2006 by 25% (dropped) YouTube YouTube makes money from advert Numerous websites have popped out to allow and download YouTube content e..g the most known and popular one is YouTube Downloader
  11. 11. Distribution VEVO have a partnership with Sony Music Entertainment as well as Universal Music group- so the awareness of these music videos are viewed to attract from all over the world (wide promotion method-audience view it more) Exchange ITunes became the biggest music seller in 2008 Sony invested in VEVO due to their increasing popularity
  12. 12. X Artists have to work harder-more merchandises etc X You have to work hard to e know first- you can’t expect to release a song & everyone to buy it. You have to do tours etc e.g. going and performing at festival contest/concerts with new artists
  13. 13. Invention of computers, smart phones and devices such as tablet computer which allow people to access the internet; Record selling shops such as H&M face more competitors due to the introduction of online album shopping businesses such as Amazon and Ebay (which are thriving) as a result of computers and internet being invented New/Unknown/Underground Artists can make a money due to a n online niche audience accessing their music and than streaming and buying from streaming sites and online album shops. Challenges for Record companies due to online piracy-the music industry is not being paid back for their work and investment put into their work Consumer power has increased-customers can taste music on YouTube and Spotify for free (or through illegally downloading) before they buy the album (so that they know that their money will be well spent and that the album is worth it purchase and spend money on it) Given opportunity for non-professionals and non-pro musicians initially, to be discovered through using cheap such as Final Cut Express, YouTube Editor (Post-production) and distributing on online platforms such as YouTube e.g. Justin Bieber
  14. 14. •The unauthorized use or reproduction of copyright or patented material •Packaging of pirate companies may or may not be different from original Why it’s illegal •Companies (record companies), individuals and artists have invested in making their music –by downloading for free or illegally you are stealing their work without paying for it (therefore artist's don’t receive money for their work every time it is downloaded for free) •It is killing sales growth + profit for the music ($12.5 billion) •Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America have the highest piracy (Least piracy in North America) •The more free availability there are the less people buy- not paying music industry for their own things •Artists have to merchandise or tour to get money (otherwise for illegal downloading they don’t get royalties or fees) Positive •Some people who illegally download because they want to have a taste of the music/music video (this is why ITunes are quite good as they can compete with piracy) to know what they are going buy (music changes e.g. someone may want to know if their favourite band are still they same or have changes e.g. their genre): then they can buy the album-restriction on consumer power by the music industry •Most downloads are teens ; they can’t afford to buy it, but it will keep them interested in the music industry; so when they grow older they will be able to buy it
  15. 15. •Committed through illegally downloading music (not paying) –impacts on music industry in a cost of profits (artist’s doesn’t get money for every music/music video downloaded illegally meaning that some people who downloading their work illegally are not paying them for it) •Piracy cot industry over $14.6 billion per year •`OECD` study- 2.6 billion songs downloaded every month •`Copyright law` created to protect ownership of original creative ideas. According to law copyright protection is granted to `ownership right` and no one else Music Piracy: How does the artist get their money from it •Shakaira hits back at musician Lilly Allen (who is against illegal downloads) claiming that it `brings me closer to fans` •Helps artist-people who mostly take part in piracy are young (teenagers 14-19) and do not earn enough income as they are usually not working. However when these teenagers turn into adults and start to work and have jobs they give back to the music industry and artists; because they now earn income they can afford to buy albums and record from shops (e.g. H&M, Tesco, Sainsbury etc) and online businesses (e.g. Amazon/Ebay) because they want to support their favourite artists (otherwise if no-one buy the artist’s music than they will be forced out of the music industry as they will be making no money) •SOPAR is an American Copyright law
  16. 16. How it effects audience Word of mouth is interesting-people are sharing through social network websites e.g. Facebook + Twitter, Hotmail people are sending videos to each other and putting up their music videos on their Facebook page/wall. Also artists have their own twitter/Facebook page to promote their latest music video X Some companies such as Apple have restrictions for example Audience have to go through ITunes first and therefore can’t directly share How it is affecting music institutions People share on social networks- `word of mouth` is increasing + record labels get free publicity and their work get promoted for free X Music institution makes less profit as they can get it for free Music production process Music discovery doesn’t affect production process but affects post-product process Marketing Ed Sheeran made it to the top (made it big/become famous quickly) without the use of record label; become very popular + received lots of views because he had large views and big followers (`I DON’T NEED YOU BUT YOU NEED ME`) this lead him to become signed by a record company
  17. 17. In the 1970s Disco become one of the biggest genre of the decade, especially across North America, Europe and Oceania. Other popular genres were smooth jazz, soul, funk and hip hop. Rock (punk rock, heavy metal, hard rock and art rock) was mostly popular in the Western countries.
  18. 18. Disco is the genre music which is most associated with the 1970s. Discos music videos consisted of first appearing in dance clubs using popular dance movement such as “The Hustle” by Van McCoy Many Disco Divas at the time were singers such as Diana Ross, Donna Summer, Gloria Gaynor and Anita Ward. The film `Saturday Night Fever` was released in December 1977, starring John Travolta and featured the music of the `Bee Gees` and several other artists. It had the effect of setting off disco mania in the United States. The `Bee Gees' soundtrack to Saturday Night Fever became the best- selling album of all time.
  19. 19. Hip hop music (influenced by disco) was mostly consumed through block parties/street parties (a large public party where members of the neighbourhood gathered to observe an event of some importance or for mutual enjoyment) which became increasingly popular in New York during the 1970s Hip Hop become popular in the 70s for many reasons. One reason was because of the hip hop music dance movements such as break dancing and the beats used which were enjoyable. These sort of dance movements, became an entertaining hobby and was a form of a healthy exercise which kept people fit and entertained- therefore hip hop was used as competition, a chance to show off their talent and win prizes (think about films like step up, honey and 8 miles) Another reason for the rise of popularity of Hip hop music during the 1970s is because it was described as an outlet and a "voice" for the disenfranchised youth of low-economic areas, as the culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives (genre audience; mostly in New York City-Bronx). The lyrics told stories which artists went through and through Hip Hop music they presented their values and believes (which were similar/shared by a lot people living in New York at the time) Rapping roots from African-American music. African-American traditions of signifyin, the dozens, and jazz poetry all influence hip hop music, as well as the call and response patterns of African and African-American religious ceremonies. Hip Hop music and culture was formed during 1970s in block parties; It was introduced first in New York by immigrants from Jamaica and from the Caribbean (including DJ Kool Herc0considered father of Hip Hop). It then became increasingly popular in New York City, especially among African American youth residing in the Bronx
  20. 20. The Hip Hop subculture is a world wide influence (majority of its audience are non-black-75%) and it is one of the most popular genre in the USA. Hip Hop grew its popularity through being played at parties, basement parties and on the streets of New York. Busy Bee Starki, DJ Hollywood and DJ Afrika Bambaataa are known for inventing the term `Hip Hop. In 1979, hip hop rose awareness through the production of Sugar Hill Gang's "Rapper's Delight." This was the first enormously successful hip-hop song. As hip-hop began to evolve, rap became a rhythmic form of expression against "the system" such as the police. Subsequently, this prompted the music and film industry to endorse rap and to collaborate with it. In 1985, Krush Groove was released. This movie depicted the life of rap music, earned $17 million and took rap to the next level: such as becoming mainstream.
  21. 21. Music was mostly consumed through the Radio and record album & tape. `Rock` and `Roll` was one of the main genre during this era (some famous artists from this genre was Elvis and Chuck Berry) Chuck Berry made Rock & Roll influential by incorporating things that weren’t focused before the 1950s such as electric guitars, showmanship, guitar solos Subculture was based on youth; teen gangs in particular which emerged from the culture of being progressive, non-conformist, open about sexuality and resisting authority Musicians would constantly be seen on the road; to reach a wider range of new audiences; in order to be widely spread in being noticed UK major record companies established-several producers and artists launched for independent label as an outlet for their work but failed Before being famous, artists started small and worked their way up to be recognised; they started to perform locally at clubs and pubs and worked in low end jobs such as waiters in Tinsel Town
  22. 22. Beatles was a band which was part of the British invasion- developed a viable national music industry The British Invasion was a phenomenon that occurred in the mid- 1960s; when blue rock, beat sound, rock and pop music of British culture become popular within the US The rock era continued and American country music was also introduced Television broadcasted music award shows, which highlighted the best music of the month/that year; these shows helped albums to become popular and sales of certain records continued to rise Music during this era was more than R&B-at that time the music was about taping into what was happening politically e.g. `Happy Birthday` for Martin Luther King (for his birthday to become a national holiday) by Stevie Wonder `swinging 60s`
  23. 23. A lot of artists rose to fame because their music was tackling a lot of real life issue for example Elvis Presley’s song were often controversial or dealt with issues such as the `Civil Rights Movement` Very Political era-`Feminism` and Racial tension (equal pay rights and civil right act and). There was a shift from religion morals and traditional views such as men being the breadwinners whilst women are domesticated and stay at home as housewives. There was a thirst for change and progression (such as equality for all races and genders) Social impacts-people going out and socialising e.g. enjoying themselves with friends and partners at the Disco (social gatherings) Elvis Presley’s Unique selling Point-although he was white he sang like a black man (he could sing at a very fast pace e.g. like in rap songs) It was the beginning and the start of a modernising and developing society (which started to unfold itself during this era) towards progression for example the values of the society known were religious and strict; many parents of young girls who were fans of Elvis were worried. This is because Elvis use to have a sexually provocative performance style such as swinging his hips. Many young girls of that generation loved him and his pop star image. However, the generation before such as parents saw this as a concern; the new generation were less attached by traditional values and belief such as religion
  24. 24. Society started to become more progressive and less tied down by traditional values and beliefs e.g. Dance movement which were unacceptable during the previous eras now started to become more acceptable e.g. the Elvis Hip thrusting movement become a lot tolerable by parents and audience. Famous artist Michael Jackson (often referred as the `king of Pop`) not only influenced singers to just sing (in particularly Black Afro-Caribbean American artists) but also to perform and dance (Michael was one of the first artist to create music video-one of the reason why he is still a musician legend) Audiences consumed music through “tapes” and “cassettes” (fairly cheap- recording popular songs of the radio channels) and the TV such as `MTV` and `Top of the Pop` =easiest way to watch music videos `R&B` & `Pop` was very famous e.g. Abba, Queen (rock), Michael Jackson. Whitney Houston, Prince, Lionel Richie, Flash’s them Public gatherings & parties-artist recognised in bars & performance clubs (mouth-of-word) and therefore being noticed and signed by label records. + Going to concerts was high on the rise because it was a chance to see the artist Michael Jackson’s `Moon Walk`-everyone went wild for it; kids would stay up late to watch this, his music and dance style. A lot of Michael's song such as `Billie Jean` was targeted at younger audience than adult (more focused on a younger market) Music videos (very popular in 80s) took focus from radio-MTV (channel which aired music videos and music which were top of the chart) changed the essence of music (now no longer just songs but also visuals) and a lot of money was pumped into it because it was a big promotional method as it was visuals-communicates the power of visual art and how it had an impact on the music industry
  25. 25. `Hip Hop` continued to grow e.g. artist such as Britney Spears and rose to fame and `Pop` and `Punk` were another genre which continue to grow Era when different genres collaborated + reconstructed together e.g. `neo-soul` + `punk funk` Madonna (although was controversy at the time- sexualised and blasphemous) came into success and had influence over Western media culture. Rappers such as `2Pac` also came into fame (however 2Pac’s death occurred during this era) Hip Hop become the biggest selling Michael Jackson was named as the `King of Pop` Largely delivering music to public while selling CD remained popular Adoption of the internet-opened up other ways for people and audience to listen to CD and songs (e.g. online downloads and websites offering music) Although rap was seen as masculine; was dominated by female rappers such as `Queen Latifah` and `Salt-n-Pepa` Female rap artist such as `Foxy Brown` and `Little Song’s` were quite sexually explicit; sang and expressed rap through mentioning about sex: it was what male rapper would usually sing about (was seen as a masculine thing)= proved and showed that they can do the same thing despite them being women Women embracing their bodies and flaunting it for their own advantage= sexual liberalism
  26. 26. Girl power= `Spice Girl` made way for other female bands e.g. `Destiny’s Child` Spice Girls were one of the most successful girl band (all female band) and set the trend if the rise of female bands `Spice Girl` were one of the biggest girl band- that’s why they were more popular (Unique Selling Point) There was a rise in female singers and Female bands Spice girls help set a foundation of what a girl band should be-were one of the first who helped turn female bands into a genre e.g. different characters such as `Scary Spice`, `Posh Spice,` `Sporty Spice,` `Baby Spice` and `Ginger Spice` Spice girl=they led to a rise in all female bands= they were the most successful UK girl band in history and broke into the American market and championed the Girl Power movement. They had movies made about them, dolls featuring each group member; had a lot of merchandises
  27. 27. Reality shows which encouraged amateur singers to become professionals and to start a career as artists such as `Pop Idols,` `X Factor` and `The Voice` (allowed to create own singles an get the attention of the publicity Matrix came out-led a trend in introducing slow motion moves and fast- packed movement in music videos YouTube became very popular and becoming a very popular ground for allowing amateur singers to realise their own clips and be recognised by record label and than being able to pursue a career as a professional artist companies for example artists such as Justin Bieber and Sarah Nash High School Music- introduced the pathway of musical shows as well as setting the trend of incorporating music into soap dramas (Glee) and films (Camp Rock) Consumed through CD’s, music channels, online music webpage such as YouTube and Free YouTube convertor (also the car radio) Hip Hop remained popular and artists collaborated to create an image e.g. `Rihanna` ft. `Drake` and `Jennifer Lopez` ft `Pitball` UK genres= garage and electronic music initiated from early 90s e.g. Lissia Mactia, Ms. Dynamite-these music still get signed by record companies
  28. 28. Artists use social media to promote themselves e.g. fan page on Facebook. Twitter Indie Pop become increasingly popular Pop stars having more power over consumer such as setting fashion trends e.g, 2003-2004 Ian shogger hairstyle and beard become popular among young men in the UK Underground institutions targeted a niche market e.g. although Lady Gaga’s style of music and visual are unusual and very much underground she has also started to target a mainstream audience Mainstream institution target a wide market and follows values of what normal artists should feature in their music videos Selling merchandises such as T-shirts, posters, artist’s own makeup brand/ eye lashes has become increasingly popular e.g. Girls Aloud eye lashes set Pop stars being involved in other media and events (film premiers) other than music and videos to help further increase their popularity and `brand awareness` e.g. L'Oreal advert featuring Cheryl Cole and Rihanna staring in the film Battleship. Also popular artists such as Lady Gaga has been a special appearance in `Men in Black Film and popular musician bands such as one direction have created their own movies called `One Direction The Movie` `Sex` being promoted, represented displayed and expressed freely than ever before e.g. music videos with adult or sexual content e.g. Cry Me A River by Justin Timberlake. Music videos with adult content concerning homosexuals have also become acceptable e.g. music videos about lesbians such as I kissed a Girl by Katy, Rihanna’s te amo and Shakira - Can't Remember to Forget You ft. Rihanna