1. The Benefits of the Islamic Prayer (Salaat)
For Our Physical
Besides the spiritual benefits of salaat, there are actual...
“Extends concentration, causes further relaxation of legs and back, generates
feelings of humility, modesty, and piety. In...
2. THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PESANTREN:
Struggling with Pesantren Tradition, Local Culture, and Political Interest of Kyai
Marz...
Martin van Bruinessen, a Dutch observer of pesantren and NU, argues that pesantrens
possess important potential for the cr...
methods and policies has become things of the past. Today pesantren live and breathe
alongside the public schools that sur...
3. Al-Ihya Al-Ulumaddin
A. History of the Boarding School Al Ihya Ulumaddin
Al Ihya Ulumaddin boarding school located in a...
For a moment we will explore the city Bangil. The town is located about 40 km from
the provincial capital of East Java. Wh...
Zubad, Fathul Qarib and Mabadi 'fiqhiyah. Also a wide range of other disciplines which
include Tasauf, Tafsir, Ulumul Qur'...
Qathi'ah Saiful. Wirid most dominant and is the most emphasized by caregivers are
reading segue Nariyah.
Boarding Dar Ihya...
E. Geographical Location
Address

: Jl. Musing No.59

Village

: Bendomungal

Sub

: Bangil

District

: Pasuruan

Provinc...
4. Aliyah (Two Years)
H. Circumstances Caregiver
Boarding School attendance is based on the spirit of religious preaching ...
Original Article:
A. Sejarah berdirinya Pondok Pesantren Al Ihya Ulumaddin
Pondok pesantren Al Ihya Ulumaddin berlokasi di...
petang nuansa santri begitu kental. Di kota bordir ini, banyak di jumpai toko-toko kitab
agama yang menjadi jujukan para s...
memiliki bangunan permanent, terdiri dari tujuh ruangan kamar, tujuh ruang kelas, satu
ruangan kantor dan satu ruangan mus...
2. Misi
a. Menciptakan masyarakat yang Islami;
b. Menyediakan bekal ketrampilan yang cukup;
c. Menyampaikan pengetahuan ag...
03: 00-04:00 Qiyamullail
04: 00-05:15 Sholat -Pembacaan Wirid- Alquran
05:15-07:00 Sarapan- Persiapan Ta'lim
07:30-0930 Ta...
Saat ini Ponpes Al Ihya di asuh oleh Dewan Kyai, yang Pengasuh saat ini KH.
Chasbullah Badawi, KH. Imdadurahman Al-‗Ubudy,...
4. HALAL AND HARAM FOODS IN ISLAM
Halal (Arabic:

ḥalāl, "permissible") is a term designating any object or an action

whi...
It is not permitted to eat the meat of animals that possess canine teeth or fangs.
Examples of such animals that are somet...
2. If possible, the instrument used to slaughter should be made of iron.
3. The creature to be slaughtered must be made to...
5. VERSES AND HADEETH ABOUT HIJAB
1. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
―And tell the believing women to lower th...
Allaah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you
want, ask them from behind a s...
Zam‘ah, the wife of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), went out at
‗Isha‘ time and she was a tall wo...
6. PERFORMING WUDU
Cleanliness (Taharah) is an important precondition of Islamic worship. Wudu is an
essential part of Cle...
5,6 Wash your face three
times from right ear to left ear
and from forehead to throat.

7. Wash your right arm and
then yo...
10. Finally, wash both feet to
the ankles starting from the
right, making sure that water
has reached between the toes
and...
7. SHIA ISLAM
, Shīʿ
ah) is the second largest denomination of Islam.

Shia Islam (Arabic:

Adherents of Shia Islam are ca...
warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I
have grasped his hand, ...
8. THE HISTORY OF MADINA CHARTER
Soon after Muhammad arrived in Medina in 622, he made a covenant between the
people Emigr...
4. The Bani Awf will decide the blood money, within themselves, according to their existing
custom.
5. In case of war with...
21. Conditions of peace and war and the accompanying ease or hardships must be fair and
equitable to all citizens alike.
2...
34. Those in alliance with the Jews will be given the same treatment as the Jews.
35. No one (no tribe which is party to t...
Reasons for Fasting in Ramadan
At present, nearly two billion human beings on planet earth are counted among the
Islamic f...
Fasting in Ramadan, #6: Humility and Selflessness
By fasting in Ramadan, a Muslim realizes how totally dependent we are up...
Human Responsibilities
The dignity of man derives from his acceptance, before the Creator of the Universe, of
the responsi...
a thousand years because various "rulers" understood that concentrated political power
requires concentrated property owne...
The Purpose Of Man’s Creation (Responsibilities Of Man)
As we know, human is not made for nothing or for fun, but with a p...
when this task was offered to the man, they take it. It is mention in (surah Al-Ahzab
33:72).

1.

2.

3.

4.

10

Indeed,...
THE HARMS OF ALCOHOL
STORIES REGARDING ALCOHOL
On the other hand some of the other Sahâbâhs

resumed that this verse did n...
"O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, idolatry and arrows (for seeking help
on

decision)

one

an

abomination

of

...
How To Pray in Islam
Face the Qiblah (toward Mecca), and make sure you‘re
in a clean area, now you are about to start one ...
salamu 'ala an-Nabiyy wa rahmat-ullahi wa
barakatuhu As-salamu 'alaina wa 'alaa 'Ibaadillah-issalihin. Ash-hadu-al-la-ilah...
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  1. 1. 1. The Benefits of the Islamic Prayer (Salaat) For Our Physical Besides the spiritual benefits of salaat, there are actual physical and mental benefits to the form of the Islamic prayer. I was not surprised to discover that benefits would include such things as a higher level of concentration and mindfulness. But I had not thought about the fact that Allah may have given us even more, distinct benefits to us – our bodies and minds – that are derived from the physical act of making salaat in the prescribed manner. Kabir Edmund Helminski, in Living Presence: A Sufi Way to Mindfulness & the Essential Self, writes: “The Islamic ritual prayer, practiced five times a day, is a sequence of standing, bowing, prostrating, and kneeling, accompanied by prescribed verbal affirmations and lines from the Qur’an selected and recited by the individual. The prayer is understood to be invalid without a mindful witnessing of the presence of God. Physically, it exercises the major joints (especially the spinal column), massages the intestinal tract, transmits a reflex to the liver, regulates the breath, and stimulates the frontal cortex of the brain as it is brought to the ground, while momentarily leaving the heart in a higher position than the brain. Salaat is a form that integrates mindfulness, mental precision, affirmation, devotion, and stretching. Done five times a day for a lifetime, it has profound effects on the body and soul.” This is discussed in greater detail during the description of the salaat that is found in Chapter 9 – Salat: The Postures of the Prophets in The Book of Sufi Healing by Shaykh Hakim Moinuddin Chishti (of the Chishti Order of Sufis). Below is what Shaykh Chishti writes in describing the physical and mental benefits of the postures of salaat. (Please note that I am not here attempting to give description or instruction on the form and postures of the prayer. I am only giving the general description of certain postures for which Shaykh Chishti has written the benefits.) 1. Niyyat – when one begins by saying ―Allahu akbar‖ “Body feels relieved of weight owing to even distribution on both feet. Straightening back improves posture. Mind is brought under control of intellect. Vision is sharpened by focusing upon floor, where head will prostrate. Muscles of upper and lower back are loosened. Higher and lower centers of brain are united to form singleness of purpose.” 2. Qiyām – during which one recites Al-Fatiha and additional surahs of the Qur‘an 1
  2. 2. “Extends concentration, causes further relaxation of legs and back, generates feelings of humility, modesty, and piety. In the recital of the above verses, virtually all of the sounds that occur in Arabic are uttered, stimulating dispersal of all of the ninety-nine divine attributes in perfectly controlled degrees throughout the body, mind, and soul. The sound vibrations of the long vowels ā, ī, and ū stimulate the heart, thyroid, pineal gland, pituitary, adrenal glands, and lungs, purifying and uplifting them all.” 3. Rukū – bending at the waist “Fully stretches the muscles of the lower back, thighs, and calves. Blood is pumped into upper torso. Tones muscles of stomach, abdomen, and kidneys. Over time, this posture improves the personality, generating sweet kindness and inner harmony.” 4. Qauma – rising from rukū “The fresh blood moved up into torso in previous posture returns to its original state, carrying away toxins. Body regains relaxation and releases tension.” 5. Sajdah – prostration “Knees forming a right angle allow stomach muscles to develop and prevents growth of flabbiness in midsection. Increases flow of blood into upper regions of body, especially the head (including eyes, ears, and nose) and lungs; allows mental toxins to be cleansed by blood. Maintains proper position of fetus in pregnant women. Reduces high blood pressure. Increases elasticity of joints. Annihilates egotism and vanity. Increases patience and reliance upon God. Increases spiritual stations and produces high psychic energy throughout body. This posture of supreme submission and humility is the essence of worship.” 6. Quūd – assuming the sitting position after sajdah “For men, the heel of the right foot is curled up and the weight of the leg and part of the body rests upon it. This aids detoxification of the liver and stimulates peristaltic action of the large intestine. Women keep both feet, soles up, underneath their bodies. The body returns to even greater relaxation, and the posture assists digestion by forcing the contents of the stomach downward.” 7. Repeat of Sajdah “Repetition of the deep prostration within a few seconds cleanses the respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems. Gives experience of lightness of body and emotional happiness. Oxygenation of entire body is accomplished. Balances sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.” 2
  3. 3. 2. THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PESANTREN: Struggling with Pesantren Tradition, Local Culture, and Political Interest of Kyai Marzuki Wahid Fahmina Institute of Islamic Studies, Cirebon I Definition of pesantren, pesantrens may look uniform, but they are in fact immensely, they may appear conservative, but both quietly and openly, they are transforming themselves in accordance with the pulse of the times. Pesantrens are indeed unique and exclusive. In many ways, pesantrens present an ambidextrous face. They are a classical education institutions probably the most traditional in this country, they remain proud of their traditionalism and it is impossible to ignore the fact that they continue to survive and offer an alternative model of education. The pesantren leadership follows a traditional model that large extent depends on and makes use of the charisma of kyai. However, through its basis in classical Islamic literature, what we can see is that pesantrens display an extraordinarily high level of independence in what are very vast social relations. Indeed, in this respect, they exceed institutions that proclaim themselves to be independent in building social relations. Pesantrens can be read according to a number of aspects. They can be understood in their capacity as a system and institution of education, they can be categorized as a subculture of the santri community, they can be mapped as a mazhab, or school of traditional religious thinking, and they can be seen as an embodiment of the syncretism of Islam, which is universal. They wear these multidimensional faces will always be interesting and always significantly provide fresh discussions or evaluations. Aside from possessing specifications that are worthy of study, research and the creation of a discourse of self-determination, the basic values of pesantrens are also worthy of attention because they are naturally always in flow. This description emphasizes the fact that pesantrens are plural in character. One indicator of the plurality of pesantrens is the non-existence of uniform regulations related to management, administration, bureaucracy, structure, culture or curriculum, much less political alliances. II 3
  4. 4. Martin van Bruinessen, a Dutch observer of pesantren and NU, argues that pesantrens possess important potential for the creation of civil society as a pillar of democratization in this country. Van Bruinessen still believes that traditional communities in developing countries. Pesantrens which are consistent in their tradition have access to a broad public sphere to carry out community empowerment, especially of oppressed and marginalized communities and those who do not benefit from the constellation that is the political in this country. III Pesantrens are have been recognized as playing an important and meaningful role in society. In their position as institutions for education of the people, as promoters of religious values and teachings and as advocates for the community, the role of pesantrens will always be valued positively and their strong self-preservation and self belief will allow them to weather the storms of modernism and nationalism. Although they must continually negotiate the ideologies of modernism and state interventionism, they can still display traditional colour and characteristics as non-governmental communities. However, the final role of pesantren that is they role in political arena requires separate consideration. On the political stage, which these days consumes enormous quantities of energy and concentration, the role and focus of pesantrens is far from clear. Pesantrens are soon identified as a ―static culture‖, a frozen culture of mechanical ritualism with no prophetic dynamic or social structural meaning within and outside itself. IV In a general and simple portrait (one that is in many ways shameful to admit): a portrait of pesantren in this post-reformasi era it since reformasi, the political desire of the pesantren community – that had previously forgotten its cultural struggles of the past – has awoken again and is actively looking for outlets. Studies of classical Islamic texts, both in type and method, religious ritual, kyai-santri relations, the specific layout of spaces, and distinctive symbols of santri-ness – all are part of the static portrait that it is possible to encounter there. If there are changes from this ―inheritance of static culture‖, this is the result of the New Order in the project of ―pesantren modernization‖. The left-overs of this project spliced together some ordinary schools, both state and private, and pesantren economic institutions, into the pesantren education system. There was some pesantrens that some decades ago forbad their santris to go to public schools but now instead have become pioneers of incorporating public school in pesantren through Madrasah Tsanawiyah Terbuka (MTsT). The opposition of kyais to state education 4
  5. 5. methods and policies has become things of the past. Today pesantren live and breathe alongside the public schools that surround them. V The same applies to intellectual discourse and tradition. Pesantrens are still consumed by a classical intellectual discourse and tradition, and it is not yet apparent that there is a significant collective wish to make this rich classical intellectual heritage into a starting point for the renewal of Islamic thinking. This inheritance is still treated as a ―static culture‖, one that is transmitted consistently from generation to generation without the courage to change so much as a coma. All in all, only reinforces Abdurrahman Wahid‘s idea that pesantrens are a subculture.‖ If Abdurrahman Wahid explains ―subculture‖ as a world of pesantren that is unique and is untouched by elements outside itself, now pesantrens have made contact with external realities and have returned to their own establishment, creating an exclusive subculture. 5
  6. 6. 3. Al-Ihya Al-Ulumaddin A. History of the Boarding School Al Ihya Ulumaddin Al Ihya Ulumaddin boarding school located in an area of 4 hectares of land area Kesugihan Kidul village, District Kesugihan, Cilacap. Precisely on 24 November 1925/1344 H, a prominent cleric KH. Abdullah Hanafi establishes Kesugihan boarding school in the village. At that time the village was isolated Kesugihan and around the cottage there is a place for cockfighting, gambling, and burn incense at the funeral citizens (petilasan). Boarding School attendance is based on the spirit of religious preaching that aims to engage the intellectual life of the nation especially the Dutch colonial times at the time. He utilize the KH Mosque. Fadil to initiate pioneering schools, mosque or violated is known as the "broken vertex". At first boarding school was known as Kesugihan boarding school in 1961, Boarding School changed its name to the Islamic Religious Education and Teaching (PPAI) and in 1983kembali boarding school changed its name to Al-Ihya Ulumaddin. The name change made by KH. Mustolih Badawi, son of Kh. Abdullah Hanafi. The changes are done in memory of his late father who greatly admires the monumental work of Imam Al-Ghozali (book Ihya 'Ulumaddin) renewal of Islam. Boarding School Al Ihya 'Ulumaddin Kesugihan, the economy is in a plural society (diverse) that from of fishermen, traders, self-employed farmers and servants. In terms of geographical location close to downtown schools Cilacap. This condition is a bit much influence the development of schools in maintaining and preserving the noble values of religious traditions. This balance can be thought due to the presence of the charismatic influence Kyai Kesugihan region, which is identical to the City of Rasta. Such geographical location, inspiring Boarding School Al Ihya 'Ulmaddin participate in empowering communities, tend to use the approach of agricultural and marine products. It is intended to be more pronounced in the presence of boarding school plays a role as a change agent (agent of change). B. Profile 6
  7. 7. For a moment we will explore the city Bangil. The town is located about 40 km from the provincial capital of East Java. Which famous as the students of the religious behavior, Bangil portrait of a homogeneous area, the religious community. Every morning to evening students feel so thick. In this embroidery city, many shops have encountered the religious references book the students in some boarding school in East Java. Lined also some shops selling religious equipment, accessories, and boarding students. It strengthens the position of the city as a city Bangil students. Among some of the Sunni schools of commitment to faith congregation is Sunnah wal experts Ma'had Dar Ihya 'Li'ulumiddin Kauman Bangil, boarding is fitted exactly in the heart of the north of the mosque Jami' and the square. To reach these schools have crossed a lot of alleys, the faces passing by Indo-Arabic, because the location is in the township Arab descent. Similarly, these schools are also in custody by a Habib who is no stranger to the Bangil i.e. Al-Fadhil Al-Habib Ahmad bin Husein Assegaf. Ma'had ul Ihya 'may be relatively new Ulumiddin between the rows of name schools are mushrooming in the city's students. But the name of Habib Ahmad was quite friendly, especially for the students who like the Koran and close to the Habaib. Methods Tarbiyah Salaf Boarding Dar Ihya 'Li'ulumiddin directly in foster care by Habib Ahmad, is an educational institution that adhere to the teachings of the Salaf. Therefore, the cottage Darul Ihya 'Li'ulumiddin focused teaching of classic books [the yellow book]. Various disciplines are taught, from the field of Arabic grammar [Nahwu / shorof], includes the book of Ibn 'Aqil, Mutammimah Ajurumiyah, Imrithi, Amtsilah Tashrifiyah and Nadhom Maqsud. Field which includes the book Fiqh Fathul Mu'in, Anwarul masalik, Matan 7
  8. 8. Zubad, Fathul Qarib and Mabadi 'fiqhiyah. Also a wide range of other disciplines which include Tasauf, Tafsir, Ulumul Qur'an, Hadith Musthalahul, Hadith, Usul Fiqh, Mantiq, balaghah, Tajweed, Tasawwuf, Faro'idl and materials' Arud [science grammar of Arabic poetry rhythm]. Habib Ahmad in their daily routine to lead Dirasah Ihya Ulumiddin held every morning at his residence. Most of those attending was Dirasah senior students-students of Darul Ihya 'that has the ability to read and understand the book of the underdog. In addition to fostering study Ihya, Habib Ahmad also maintains recitation Hikam book on Friday afternoon which was attended by hundreds of pilgrims from different areas, both within the city and outside the city Bangil. Ponpes that have been running over the past ten years and continues to grow rapidly forward with the progress of time. Boarding Dar Ihya 'Li'ulumiddin have permanent buildings, consisting of seven indoor rooms, seven classrooms, one office and one room mushalla. Until now jumalah Dar Ihya boarding school students' reach about one hundred and thirteen people, who come from different parts of the archipelago such as, Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Palembang, Jambi and Jakarta. In order to improve the quality of teaching and learning, Ponpes Dar Ihya 'implements routines directly coordinated with the schedule determined by the caregiver. In this case, it held events Muhadharoh [lectures and speeches] were held every night on Monday and is core activities in order to foster the students to be able to engage in the carry propagation in the society. The cottage is also a forum for open discussion Bahtsul Masail and to train the students to solve problems that occur in the community fiqhiyah understood with reference to clear and reliable. And to facilitate the talents of the students, boarding school Darul Ihya 'also has madding wall {magazines}, published three times a month. In order to meet the daily needs of the students, boarding school Dar Ihya ‗fosters enterprise in the form of kiosks and cooperative. As usual salaf pesantren, lodge also uses halaqah system which is a fundamental part in the learning process and the ability to adjust the level of students formed four I'dadi 1 year, 3 years Ibtidai, Tsanawi Aliyah 3 years and 2 years. While for graduation students depend on caretaker‘s cottage Abuya Alhabib Ahmad ibn Husayn Assegaf. Besides reading aurad also a routine that must be followed by all students without exception. Starting from reading Wirdul al-Latif, Hizbul Bahar, Ratib al-Haddad and other aurad organized in a treatise compiled by the caregiver and his name Al-Anwar al-wa Shathi'ah 8
  9. 9. Qathi'ah Saiful. Wirid most dominant and is the most emphasized by caregivers are reading segue Nariyah. Boarding Dar Ihya 'Li'ulumiddin standing in canoes forming Muslim personality sublime moral and civilized religion with a broad knowledgeable and still adhere to the teachings of the Salaf that based on ideology Ahlussunnah Wal Jama'ah. C. Vision And Mission Boarding School Al Ihya Ulumaddin 1. Vision "Ponpes Al Ihya lumaddin is scored generations sholihah, akhlaqul karimah, and broadminded" 2. Mission a. Creating an Islamic society; b. Provide adequate skills provision; c. Delivering knowledge of religion, adequate public. D. The Rules in Pp. Dar Ihya 'Liulumiddin 1. OBLIGATIONS a. Obey the Shari'a rules and Boarding School b. Following the teaching and learning activities in accordance with. c. Perform prayers five times a day with the congregation d. Following activities ubudiah the terms set forth e. Paying syahriah appropriate set f. Maintain order, safety and cleanliness of cottage g. Be polite and akhlakul karimah when inside or outside the cottage h. Arabic terms set forth 2. BANS a. Violating the Shari'ah rules and cottage b. Smoking and or use drugs c. Intercourse (dating) with women d. Out or home without permission e. Fights with anyone f. Stealing other people's stuff or hasab g. Carrying or storing sharp objects that are used to fight h. Bringing HP or Tape Recorder 9
  10. 10. E. Geographical Location Address : Jl. Musing No.59 Village : Bendomungal Sub : Bangil District : Pasuruan Province : East Java Phone Number : (0343) 742086 Date Established : 12 - Rabiul Awal 1422 H / 04-Jun-2001 F. Activities cottage 03: 00-04:00 Qiyamullail 04: 00-05:15 wirid-Pray-Reading the Koran 5:15 to 7:00 Breakfast-Preparation Ta'lim 07:30-0930 Ta'lim 09:30 to 10:00 a.m. Break 10:00 to 11:15 Ta'lim Conditional 11:15 to 12:00 Noon Prayer-sholawat Nariyah 12:00 to 15:30 Lunch-Break 15:30 to 16:00 Asar Prayer-wirid 16:00 to 5:00 p.m. Ta'lim 17:00 to 17:30 Maghrib Prayer Conditional 17:30 to 18:15 Maghrib Prayer – wirid 18:15 to 19:00 halaqoh Hadromiyah 19:00 to 7:15 p.m. Isha Prayer 19:15 to 20:00 Dinner 20:00 to 21:00 Mutolaah Independent In addition to Officer of the Watch Night 22:00 to 03:00 Istirah Night {Sleep} 17:30 to 19:00 Friday Night Readings Mawlid 20:00 to 21:30 Sunday Night Speech Exercises} {Muhadhoroh Friday Night Marawis {Entertainment} 6:00 to 07:00 every day led caregivers Readings} {Dars Ihya ' G. Educational Qualification Madrasiah 1. I'DADIYAH (One Year) 2. Elementary schools (Three Years) 3. Tsanawiyah (Three Years) 10
  11. 11. 4. Aliyah (Two Years) H. Circumstances Caregiver Boarding School attendance is based on the spirit of religious preaching that aims to channel religious values, especially the Koran. Board asatidz: 1. Madrasah Mts TTQ 16 people; 2. Madasah Aliyah 14 people; 3. And Madrasah Diniyah 8 people Currently Ponpes Al Ihya Kyai in custody by the Board, the current caretakers KH. Chasbullah Badawi, KH. Imdadurahman Al-'Ubudy, and KH. M. Syuhud Muchson, Lc I. Other 1. Syahriah monthly money. Students who go home because of illness, and so on, as long as not resign then paid as usual. 2. Students who quit or are terminated and still have arrears / debt then obligated to repay. 3. Money monthly Syahriah Ramadan holiday home students who still get paid as usual. 4. For those students who are not in boarding / home: a. If it does not come back for a month afterwards without giving news then declared a halt. b. If back then he was obliged to re-register. 5. For students who live (follow the lessons in the month of Ramadan) no additional charge. 11
  12. 12. Original Article: A. Sejarah berdirinya Pondok Pesantren Al Ihya Ulumaddin Pondok pesantren Al Ihya Ulumaddin berlokasi di areal tanah seluas 4 Ha Desa Kesugihan Kidul, Kecamatan Kesugihan, Kabupaten Cilacap. Tepatnya tanggal 24 November 1925/1344 H, seorang tokoh ulama KH. Badawi Hanafi mendirikan pondok pesantren di Desa Kesugihan. Pada saat itu Desa Kesugihan masih terisolir dan disekitar pondok terdapat tempat untuk adu ayam, perjudian, dan bakar kemenyan di pemakaman warga (petilasan). Kehadiran Pondok Pesantren ini dilandasi dengan semangat keagamaan berdakwah yang bertujuan untuk ikut serta mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa khususnya pada zaman penjajahan Belanda pada saat itu. Beliau memanfaatkan Mushola peninggalan KH. Fadil untuk mengawali perintisan pesantren, Mushola atau langgar tersebut dikenal dengan nama ―langgar dhuwur‖. Pada awalnya pondok pesantren ini dikenal dengan nama pondok pesantren Kesugihan pada tahun 1961, Pondok Pesantren ini berubah nama menjadi Pendidikan dan Pengajaran Agama Islam (PPAI) dan pada tahun 1983kembali berubah nama menjadi Pondok Pesantren Al-Ihya Ulumaddin. Perubahan nama dilakukan oleh KH. Mustolih Badawi, Putra Kh. Badawi Hanafi. Perubahan tersebut dilakukan untuk mengenang almarhum ayahnya yang sangat mengagumi karya monumental Imam Al-Ghozali (Kitab Ihya ‗Ulumaddin) tentang pembaharuan Islam. Pondok Pesantren Al Ihya ‗Ulumaddin Kesugihan, secara ekonomi berada pada masyarakat plural (beragam) yang vterdiri dari nelayan, pedagang, petani wiraswasta dan Pegawai Negeri. Dari segi geografis lokasi pesantren dekat dengan pusat kota Cilacap. Kondisi ini sedikit banyak mempengaruhi proses perkembangan pesantren dalam upaya menjaga dan melestarikan nilai-nilai luhur tradisi keagamaan. Keseimbangan tersebut dapat tercipta karena masih adanya pengaruh karismatik para Kyai di wilayah Kesugihan, yang kemudian identik dengan Kota Santri. Letak geografis semacam itu, memberikan inspirasi Pondok Pesantren Al Ihya ‗Ulmaddin dalam ikut memberdayakan masyarakat sekitar, cenderung menggunakan pendekatan agraris dan kelautan. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar kehadiran Pesantren lebih nyata dalam memainkan peran sebagai agen perubahan (agent of change). B. Profil Sejenak kita akan menelusuri kota Bangil. Kota yang berada sekitar 40 km dari ibukota propinsi Jatim. Yang terkenal sebagai kota santri dari sisi perilaku keberagamaan, Bangil potret daerah yang homogen, yaitu masyarakat yang agamis. Setiap pagi hingga 12
  13. 13. petang nuansa santri begitu kental. Di kota bordir ini, banyak di jumpai toko-toko kitab agama yang menjadi jujukan para santri di beberapa pondok pesantren di jawa timur. Berjejer juga beberapa toko yang menjual peralatan ibadah, aksesoris santri dan pesantren. Hal itu memperkuat posisi kota Bangil sebagai kota santri. Di antara beberapa pesantren sunni yang komitmen terhadap akidah ahli sunnah wal jama'ah adalah Ma'had Darul Ihya' Li'ulumiddin Kauman Bangil, pesantren ini berada pas di jantung kota tepatnya di sebelah utara masjid Jami' dan alun-alun. Untuk menuju pesantren ini harus melintasi gang-gang yang banyak, wajah-wajah indo-arab berlalu lalang, karena lokasi berada di perkampungan arab keturunan. Demikian pula pesantren ini juga di asuh oleh seorang Habib yang tidak asing lagi bagi masyarakat Bangil yaitu Al-Fadhil Al-Habib Ahmad bin Husein Assegaf. Ma'had darul ihya' ulumiddin mungkin tergolong baru di antara deretan nama pesantren yang menjamur di kota santri ini. Namun nama Habib Ahmad sudah cukup bersahabat, utamanya bagi masyarakat santri yang gemar mengaji dan dekat dengan para Habaib. Metode tarbiyah salaf Pondok Pesantren Darul Ihya' Li'ulumiddin yang langsung di asuh oleh Habib Ahmad, merupakan sebuah lembaga pendidikan yang berpegang teguh terhadap ajaran Salaf. Oleh karena itu, Pondok Darul Ihya' Li'ulumiddin memfokuskan pengajaran dari kitab-kitab klasik [kitab kuning]. Berbagai macam disiplin ilmu yang diajarkan, mulai dari bidang grammar bahasa Arab [nahwu/shorof], meliputi kitab Ibnu 'Aqil, Mutammimah Ajurumiyah, Imrithi, Amtsilah Tashrifiyah dan Nadhom Maqsud. Bidang Fiqh yang meliputi kitab Fathul Mu'in,Anwarul masalik, Matan Zubad, Fathul Qarib dan Mabadi' Fiqhiyah. Juga berbagai macam disiplin ilmu lainnya yang meliputi Tasauf, Tafsir, Ulumul Qur'an, Musthalahul Hadist, Hadist, Ushul Fiqh, Mantiq, Balaghah, Tajwid, Tasawwuf, Faro'idl serta materi 'Arud [ilmu tata irama puisi Arab]. Habib Ahmad dalam kesehariannya rutin memimpin dirasah kitab Ihya ulumiddin yang dilaksanakan setiap pagi di kediaman beliau. Sebagian besar yang menghadiri dirasah itu adalah santri-santri senior Darul Ihya' yang memiliki kemampuan membaca dan memahami kitab yang diunggulkan. Selain membina pengajian kitab Ihya, Habib Ahmad juga membina pengajian kitab Hikam pada Jum'at sore yang dihadiri ratusan jamaah dari berbagai kawasan, baik dari dalam kota maupun luar kota Bangil. Ponpes yang telah berjalan lebih sepuluh tahun ini berkembang dengan pesat dan terus maju seiring kemajuan zaman. Pondok Pesantren Darul Ihya' Li'ulumiddin telah 13
  14. 14. memiliki bangunan permanent, terdiri dari tujuh ruangan kamar, tujuh ruang kelas, satu ruangan kantor dan satu ruangan mushalla. Hingga sekarang jumalah santri Pondok Pesantren Darul Ihya' mencapai sekitar seratus tiga belas orang, yang berasal dari berbagai daerah di nusantara seperti, Kalimantan, Sumatera, Sulawesi, Palembang, Jambi dan Jakarta. Dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas belajar mengajar, Ponpes Darul Ihya' menerapkan rutinitas yang terkordinir dengan jadwal yang langsung ditentukan oleh pengasuh. Dalam hal ini, maka diadakan kegiatan Muhadharoh [ceramah dan orasi] yang dilaksanakan setiap malam ahad dan merupakan kegiatan inti dalam rangka membina para santri untuk dapat terjun dalam melaksanakan dakwah di tengah masyarakat. Pondok juga mengadakan forum bahtsul masail dan musyawarah untuk melatih para santri memecahkan masalah-masalah fiqhiyah yang terjadi di masyarakat dengan refrensi yang jelas dan dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. Dan untuk mewadahi bakat para santri ,Pondok Pesantren Darul Ihya' juga mempunyai mading {majalah dinding} yang terbit sebulan tiga kali. Demi memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari para santri, Pondok Pesantren Darul Ihya' membina badan usaha berupa wartel dan koperasi. Seperti lazimnya ponpes salaf, Pondok ini juga menggunakan sistem halaqah yang merupakan bagian mendasar dalam proses belajar mengajar dan untuk menyesuaikan kemampuan santri dibentuk empat jenjang I‘dadi 1 tahun, Ibtidai 3 tahun, Tsanawi 3 tahun dan Aliyah 2 tahun . sedangkan untuk kelulusan santri tergantung kepada pengasuh pondok Abuya Alhabib Ahmad bin Husein Assegaf. Selain itu pembacaan aurad juga merupakan rutinitas yang harus diikuti semua santri tanpa terkecuali. Mulai dari membaca al-Wirdul Lathif, Hizbul Bahar, Ratib al-Haddad, dan aurad lainnya yang terhimpun dalam sebuah risalah yang disusun oleh pengasuh dan beliau beri nama Al-Anwar ashShathi'ah wa Saiful Qathi'ah. Wirid yang paling dominan dan merupakan yang paling ditekankan oleh pengasuh adalah pembacaan Shalawat Nariyah. Pondok Pesantren Darul Ihya' Li'ulumiddin berdiri dalam rangkan membentuk kepribadian muslim yang berakhlak dan beradab luhur dengan berpengetahuan agama yang luas serta tetap berpegang teguh dengan ajaran para Salaf yang berazaskan faham Ahlussunnah Wal Jama'ah. C. Visi Dan Misi Pondok Pesantren Al Ihya Ulumaddin 1. Visi ―Ponpes Al Ihya lumaddin adalah mencetak generasi yang berakidah sholihah, berakhlaq karimah, dan berwawasan yang luas‖ 14
  15. 15. 2. Misi a. Menciptakan masyarakat yang Islami; b. Menyediakan bekal ketrampilan yang cukup; c. Menyampaikan pengetahuan agam, umum yang memadai. D. Tata Tertib Pp. Darul Ihya’ Liulumiddin 1. KEWAJIBAN a. Mentaati peraturan syariat dan Pondok Pesantren b. Mengikuti kegiatan belajar mengajar sesuai ketentuan. c. Menunaikan solat lima waktu dengan berjamaah d. Mengikuti kegiatan ubudiah menurut ketentuan yang ditetapkan e. Membayar uang syahriah sesuai yang ditetapkan f. Menjaga ketertiban, keamanan dan kebersihan Pondok g. Menjaga sopan santun dan berakhlakul karimah ketika didalam atau diluar Pondok h. Berbahasa Arab menurut ketentuan yang ditetapkan 2. LARANGAN a. Melanggar peraturan syariat dan Pondok b. Merokok dan atau memakai NARKOBA c. Berhubungan intim (berpacaran ) dengan wanita d. Keluar atau pulang tanpa izin e. Berkelahi dengan siapapun f. Mencuri atau mengghasab barang orang lain g. Membawa atau menyimpan benda tajam yang digunakan untuk berkelahi h. Membawa HP atau Tape Recorder E. Letak Geografis Alamat Pesantren : Jl. Musing No: 59 Kelurahan : Bendomungal Kecamatan : Bangil Kabupaten : Pasuruan Provinsi : Jawa Timur No Telepon : (0343) 742086 Tanggal Berdiri : 12- Rabiul Awal-1422 H / 04-Juni-2001 F. Kegiatan Pondok Ket. PUKUL Kegiatan 15
  16. 16. 03: 00-04:00 Qiyamullail 04: 00-05:15 Sholat -Pembacaan Wirid- Alquran 05:15-07:00 Sarapan- Persiapan Ta'lim 07:30-0930 Ta'lim 09:30-10:00 Istirahat 10:00-11:15 Ta'lim Kondisional 11:15-12:00 Sholat Zuhur-Sholawat Nariyah 12:00-15:30 Makan –Istirahat 15:30-16:00 Sholat Asar-Wirid 16:00-17:00 Ta'lim 17:00-17:30 Persiapan Sholat Maghrib Kondisional 17:30-18:15 Sholat Maghrib – Wirid 18:15-19:00 Halaqoh Hadromiyah 19:00-19:15 Sholat Isya 19:15-20:00 Makan Malam 20:00-21:00 Mutolaah Mandiri Selain Petugas Jaga Malam 22:00-03:00 Istirah Malam {Tidur} Malam Jumat 17:30-19:00 Pembacaan Maulid Malam Ahad 20:00-21:30 Latihan Pidato {Muhadhoroh} Malam Jumat Marawis{Hiburan} Setiap hari dipimpin pengasuh 06:00-07:00 {Dars}Pembacaan kitab ihya' G. Jenjang Pendidikan Madrasiah 1. I'DADIYAH (Satu Tahun) 2. IBTIDAIYAH (Tiga Tahun) 3. TSANAWIYAH (Tiga Tahun) 4. ALIYAH (Dua Tahun) H. Keadaan Pengasuh Kehadiran Pondok Pesantren ini dilandasi dengan semangat keagamaan berdakwah yang bertujuan untuk menyalurkan nilai-nilai agama, khususnya Al Quran. Dewan asatidz : 1. Madrasah Mts TTQ sebanyak 16 orang; 2. Madasah Aliyah sebanyak 14 orang; 3. Dan Madrasah Diniyah sebanyak 8 orang 16
  17. 17. Saat ini Ponpes Al Ihya di asuh oleh Dewan Kyai, yang Pengasuh saat ini KH. Chasbullah Badawi, KH. Imdadurahman Al-‗Ubudy, dan KH. M. Syuhud I. Muchson, Lc Lain-lain 1. Uang bulanan Syahriah. Santri yang pulang karena sakit dan sebagainya, selama tidak menyatakan berhenti maka dibayar seperti biasanya. 2. Santri yang berhenti atau diberhentikan dan masih memiliki tunggakan/ hutang maka diwajibkan untuk melunasi. 3. Uang bulanan Syahriah santri yang pulang liburan Ramadhan tetap dibayar seperti biasanya. 4. Bagi santri yang tidak berada dipondok / pulang : a. Jika tidak kembali lagi selama Satu bulan setelahnya tanpa memberi khabar maka dinyatakan berhenti. b. Jika kembali maka dia wajib mendaftar ulang. 5. Bagi santri yang menetap (mengikuti pelajaran di bulan Ramadhan ) tidak dikenakan biaya tambahan. 17
  18. 18. 4. HALAL AND HARAM FOODS IN ISLAM Halal (Arabic: ḥalāl, "permissible") is a term designating any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law. The term is used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law. Halal foods are foods that Muslims are allowed to eat under Islamic dietary guidelines. The criteria specify both what foods are allowed, and how the food must be prepared. The foods addressed are mostly types of meat/animal tissue.1 "O People, eat from the land what is permitted & good & do not follow in the footsteps of Shaitan, for he is an open enemy to you." (Al Baqarah, 2:168) Allah swt has given clear guidelines on what can and cannot be consumed. In addition we have also been instructed in manners and behavior of eating. Eating and drinking also becomes a way by which a Muslim remembers the bounties of Allah swt and by observing the rules of Shariah, he also shows his commitment to his religion. Foods can be primarily divided into two sections: 1. Plants, fruits, vegetables and grains: All these can be eaten as long as they are not harmful to human beings. This means that they must not contain poisonous or narcotic substances. 2. Living creatures. These can be divided into three: a. Sea creatures We are allowed to eat any fish as long as it has scales. All other sea creatures such as whales, sharks, turtles, lobsters and crabs are Haraam. The only exception is for prawns and shrimps, which can be eaten. In order for the fish to be Halaal, it must be removed alive from the water. It does not matter who has done the fishing or what method has been used to catch the fish. b. Land creatures This term covers all animals that live on the face of the earth. Allah has permitted the eating of some and forbidden others. The first five verses of Sura 5 Ma'idah give a summary of the commands regarding what is permitted to eat. Amongst domestic animals, camels, cows, goats and sheep are permissible to eat. They all possess a hoof or cloven hoof. From amongst wild animals, which mean animals that are not normally kept in enclosures, mountain sheep, wild cows and asses, gazelles and deer are permitted. It is Makruh (undesirable) to eat the meat of a horse, donkey or mule. 1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halal 18
  19. 19. It is not permitted to eat the meat of animals that possess canine teeth or fangs. Examples of such animals that are sometimes eaten by man are dogs, rabbits, elephants and monkeys. There are specific verses in the Holy Qur'an forbidding the eating of a pig. It is not permitted to eat reptiles such as snakes and tortoises. Insects such as fleas and lice are also forbidden. However, locusts are permissible. c. Birds Birds that comply with the following two conditions can be eaten. 1) The body is covered with feathers. 2) They are not classes as birds of prey (possessing talons). There are two other principles by which one can distinguish between birds that are permitted and those that are not: 1) Every bird which, when in flight glides more than the flapping of its wings cannot be eaten. 2) If a particular bird's movement is not known, then before eating one must check for the presence of one of the following: a craw (where grain collects in the throat), a gizzard (part of the stomach) or a projection (a fork-like extension on the bird's foot which performs the function of a talon). Thus chickens, turkeys, pigeons and all small birds are permissible to eat. Even ostriches and peacocks are allowed. Birds of prey like eagles, hawks and vultures are Haraam to eat. Crows, rooks and ravens should not be eaten either. Other animals, which fly but are not, classified, as birds such as bats, bees and other flying insects are Haraam. Note that in cases where one is in danger of dying through starvation, anything, including forbidden things, can be consumed to save life. However, this must be done as a last resort and only the absolute minimum must be eaten. Slaughtering (Zabiha) Method according to Shariah: All animals and birds that are permissible to eat are nevertheless forbidden to a Muslim unless they have been correctly slaughtered. The laws for hunting differ slightly and can be obtained from books of Islamic Laws of various jurists. The correct method of slaughtering involves the simultaneous cutting of the gullet, windpipe, carotid artery and jugular vein of the animal with a sharp knife. The conditions for the slaughtering are as below: 1. The one who carries out the slaughtering must be a Muslim. 19
  20. 20. 2. If possible, the instrument used to slaughter should be made of iron. 3. The creature to be slaughtered must be made to face the Holy Ka'aba. 4. The person performing the slaughter must mention the name of Allah as he slaughters the animal. 5. Here must be a normal emission of blood from the animal after the slaughter. 6. The animal must show some sign of movement after being slaughtered, especially if there was some doubt whether the animal was alive before being slaughtered.2 2 http://www.islamic-laws.com/halalharamfooddrinks.htm 20
  21. 21. 5. VERSES AND HADEETH ABOUT HIJAB 1. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ―And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, headcover, apron), and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband‘s fathers, or their sons, or their husband‘s sons, or their brothers or their brother‘s sons, or their sister‘s sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of feminine sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful‖ [al-Noor 24:31] 2. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ―And as for women past childbearing who do not expect wedlock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower‖ [al-Noor 24:60] ―Women past childbearing‖ are those who no longer menstruate, so they can no longer get pregnant or bear children. We shall see below the words of Hafsah bint Sireen and the way in which she interpreted this verse. 3. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ―O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful‖[al-Ahzaab 33:59] 4. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ―O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet‘s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but 21
  22. 22. Allaah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah‘s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity‖ [alAhzaab 33:53] With regard to the Ahaadeeth: 1. It was narrated from Safiyyah bint Shaybah that ‗Aa‘ishah (may Allah bepleased with her) used to say: When these words were revealed – ―and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)‖ – they took their izaars (a kind of garment) and tore them from the edges and covered their faces with them. 2. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4481. The following version was narrated by Abu Dawood (4102): “May Allah have mercy on the Muhaajir women. When Allah revealed the words “and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)”, they tore the thickest of their aprons (a kind of garment) and covered their faces with them.” 3. Shaykh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shanqeeti (may Allah have mercy on him) said: This hadeeth clearly states that what the Sahaabi women mentioned here understood from this verse – ―and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)‖ – was that they were to cover their faces, and that they tore their garments and covered their faces with them, in obedience to the command of Allah in the verse where He said ―and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)‖ which meant covering their faces. Thus the fair-minded person will understand that woman‘s observing hijab and covering her face in front of men is established in the saheeh Sunnah that explains the Book of Allah. ‗Aa‘ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) praised those women for hastening to follow the command of Allah given in His Book. It is known that their understanding of the words ―and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)‖ as meaning covering the face came from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), because he was there and they asked him about everything that they did not understand about their religion. 4. It was narrated from ‗Aa‘ishah that the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to go out at night to al-Manaasi‘ (well known places in the direction of al-Baqee‘) to relieve themselves and ‗Umar used to say to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), ―Let your wives be veiled.‖ But the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not do that. Then one night Sawdah bint 22
  23. 23. Zam‘ah, the wife of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), went out at ‗Isha‘ time and she was a tall woman. ‗Umar called out to her: ―We have recognized you, O Sawdah!‖ hoping that hijab would be revealed, then Allah revealed the verse of hijab. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 146; Muslim, 2170. 5. It was narrated from ‗Urwah that ‗Aa‘ishah said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to pray Fajr and the believing women would attend (the prayer) with him, wrapped in their aprons, then they would go back to their houses and no one would recognize them. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 365; Muslim, 645. 6. It was narrated that ‗Aa‘ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: ―The riders used to pass by us when we were with the Messenger of Allah (S) in ihraam, and when they drew near to us we would lower our jilbabs from our heads over our faces, then when they had passed we would uncover them again. Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1833; Ibn Maajah, 2935; classed as saheeh by Ibn Khuzaymah (4,203) and by al-Albaani in Kitaab Jilbaab alMar‘ah al-Muslimah. 7. It was narrated that Asma‘ bint Abi Bakr said: We used to cover our faces in front of men. Narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah, 4/203; al-Haakim, 1/624. He classed it as saheeh and al-Dhahabi agreed with him. It was also classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Jilbaab alMar‘ah al-Muslimah. 8. It was narrated that ‗Aasim al-Ahwaal said: We used to enter upon Hafsah bint Sireen who had put her jilbab thus and covered her face with it, and we would say to her: May Allah have mercy on you. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ―And as for women past childbearing who do not expect wedlock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment‖ [al-Noor 24:60]. And she would say to us: What comes after that? We would say: ―But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them‖. And she would say: That is confirming the idea of hijab. Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 7/93. And Allah knows best.3 3 http://islamqa.info/en/ref/13998 23
  24. 24. 6. PERFORMING WUDU Cleanliness (Taharah) is an important precondition of Islamic worship. Wudu is an essential part of Cleanliness. Salah(prayer) is not valid without Wudu' or Tayammum(dry Ablution). Allah says in the Qur'an "Surely Allah loves those who turn to Him and those who care for cleanliness" (2:22) 1. First (Intention) make that Niyyah you are making Wudu' for Salah and begin saying. "Bismillah.." (In the name of Allah, the most merciful and the most kind). Wash both hands up to the wrist three times, making sure that water has reached between the fingers. 2. Put a handful of water into your mouth and rinse it thoroughly three times 3, 4 Sniff water into your nostrils three times to clean them and then wash the tip of the nose. 24 :
  25. 25. 5,6 Wash your face three times from right ear to left ear and from forehead to throat. 7. Wash your right arm and then your left arm thoroughly from wrist up to elbow three times. 8 a & b) Move the wet palms over the head from the top of forehead to the back of the head. 9) Pass the wet tips of index fingers into the grooves and holes of both ears and also pass the wet thumbs behind the ears 25
  26. 26. 10. Finally, wash both feet to the ankles starting from the right, making sure that water has reached between the toes and all other parts of the feet. At the end of the above steps recite: "Ash-hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluh." Meaning: I testify that there is no god but Allah and He is One and has no partner and I also testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. You Should repeat your Wudu after : 1 Natural discharge (e.g. urine, stool, wind and the like) 2 Flow of blood or pus from any part of the body. 3 Full mouth vomiting 4 Falling asleep. 4 4 http://www.islamawareness.net/Wudu/performing.html 26
  27. 27. 7. SHIA ISLAM , Shīʿ ah) is the second largest denomination of Islam. Shia Islam (Arabic: Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shi'ites or Shias. "Shia" is the short form of the historic phraseShīʿ ʿ ( atu Alī ), meaning "followers", "faction", or "party" of Muhammad's son-in-lawAli, whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor. Like other branches of Islam, Shia Islam is based on the teachings of the Quran and the message of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In contrast to other types, the Shia believe that only God has the right to choose a representative to safeguard Islam, the Quran andsharia. Thus the Shias look to Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, whom they consider divinely appointed, as the rightful successor to Muhammad, and the first imam. The Shia extend this belief to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt ("the People of the House"), and certain individuals among his descendants, known as imams, who have special spiritual and political authority over the community. Although there were many Shia branches throughout history, modern Shia Islam is divided into three main branches The largest Shia sect in the early 21st century is the Ithna ashariyya, commonly referred to in English as the Twelvers, while smaller branches include mthe Ismaili and Zaidi ("Fivers"). Alevis, Alawis and Druze are also considered sects of Shia Islam. Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (khalifa, head of state) of Islam. They believe Muhammad, before his death, designated Ali as his successor. Ali was Muhammad's first cousin and closest living male relative as well as his sonin-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. Ali would eventually become the fourth Muslim caliph. After the last pilgrimage, Muhammad ordered the gathering of Muslims at the pond of Khumm and it was there the Shia believe Muhammad nominated Ali to be his successor. The hadith of the pond of Khumm was narrated on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in theIslamic calendar (March 10, 632 AD) at a place called Ghadir Khumm, located near the city of al-Juhfah, Saudi Arabia. Per Shia belief, Muhammad there stated: Oh people! Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its 27
  28. 28. warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,] the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master (Mawla), this Ali is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic. — Muhammad, 'The Farewell Sermon Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammad's appointment of Ali as his successor, while Sunni Muslims believe it a simple defense of Ali in the face of unjust criticism. Ali's caliphate When Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah met with the leaders of Medina and elected Abu Bakr as caliph. Ali and his family were dismayed, but accepted the appointment for the sake of unity in the early Muslim community. It was not until the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, in 657 CE that the Muslims in Medina invited Ali to become the fourth caliph, and he established his capital inKufah, in present-day Iraq. Ali's rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, and wars were waged against him. As a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who broke away after giving him allegiance, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate. The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against the first Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn Affan. While the rebels who accused Uthman of nepotism affirmed Ali's khilafa (caliph-hood), they later turned against him and fought him. Ali ruled from 656 CE to 661 CE, when he was assassinated while prostrating in prayer (sujud). Ali's main rival Muawiyah then claimed the caliphate.5 5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shia_Islam 28
  29. 29. 8. THE HISTORY OF MADINA CHARTER Soon after Muhammad arrived in Medina in 622, he made a covenant between the people Emigrants (the Muslims of Mecca who co-migrated with the Prophet), Ansar (Muslims of Medina), and the Jews. The agreement is then referred to the Constitution or the Charter of Medina. This charter will makes islam become peaceful religion. Western scholars and, of course, Muslim scholars also agreed that this charter is authentic. According to Julius Wellhausen, a German orientalist, there are four reasons that underlie the authenticity of this charter, namely, first, grammar and vocabulary that is used very archaic. Second, the text of the agreement is full of allusions that can only be understood by contemporaries with the holding of the treaty. Third, the legal text of the agreement reflect the ancient tribes, long before Islam were present. Fourth, if there is fraud against the agreement, he will reflect on the phenomenon of Islamic periods, for example, non-Muslims must not fall into that category wahida umma (Humphreys, 1999). Charter of Medina are often regarded as the basis of the formation of the first Islamic state in Medina. And the Prophet Muhammad is believed to be the foundation stone of the country. The contents of this agreement, among other things, that the entire population of Medina, whatever the religion and tribe, is the umma wahida (a single community) or a single race. Therefore, they all have to help and protect each other, and they all have the right to run the religion embraced each. The following is a Translation of the Charter of Medina. Preambule: In the name of Allah, Most Gracious and Most Merciful. This is the charter of Muhammad, the Prophet Muhammad, among the believers and Muslims (derived) from the Quraysh and Yathrib (Medina), and who followed them, join and fight with them.6 Full Text of the Madina Charter 1. This is a document from Muhammad the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), governing relations between the Believers i.e. Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib and those who followed them and worked hard with them. They form one nation -Ummah. 2. The Quraysh Mohajireen will continue to pay blood money, according to their present custom. 3. In case of war with any body they will redeem their prisoners with kindness and justice common among Believers. (Not according to pre-Islamic nations where the rich and the poor were treated differently). 6 http://islam-waylife.blogspot.com/2011/11/history-of-madina-charter.html 29
  30. 30. 4. The Bani Awf will decide the blood money, within themselves, according to their existing custom. 5. In case of war with anybody all parties other than Muslims will redeem their prisoners with kindness and justice according to practice among Believers and not in accordance with pre-Islamic notions. 6. The Bani Saeeda, the Bani Harith, the Bani Jusham and the Bani Najjar will be governed on the lines of the above (principles) 7. The Bani Amr, Bani Awf, Bani Al-Nabeet, and Bani Al-Aws will be governed in the same manner. 8. Believers will not fail to redeem their prisoners they will pay blood money on their behalf. It will be a common responsibility of the Ummat and not of the family of the prisoners to pay blood money. 9. A Believer will not make the freedman of another Believer as his ally against the wishes of the other Believers. 10. The Believers, who fear Allah, will oppose the rebellious elements and those that encourage injustice or sin, or enmity or corruption among Believers. 11. If anyone is guilty of any such act all the Believers will oppose him even if he be the son of any one of them. 12. A Believer will not kill another Believer, for the sake of an un-Believer. (i.e. even though the un-Believer is his close relative). 13. No Believer will help an un-Believer against a Believer. 14. Protection (when given) in the Name of Allah will be common. The weakest among Believers may give protection (In the Name of Allah) and it will be binding on all Believers. 15. Believers are all friends to each other to the exclusion of all others. 16. Those Jews who follow the Believers will be helped and will be treated with equality. (Social, legal and economic equality is promised to all loyal citizens of the State). 17. No Jew will be wronged for being a Jew. 18. The enemies of the Jews who follow us will not be helped. 19. The peace of the Believers (of the State of Madinah) cannot be divided. (it is either peace or war for all. It cannot be that a part of the population is at war with the outsiders and a part is at peace). 20. No separate peace will be made by anyone in Madinah when Believers are fighting in the Path of Allah. 30
  31. 31. 21. Conditions of peace and war and the accompanying ease or hardships must be fair and equitable to all citizens alike. 22. When going out on expeditions a rider must take his fellow member of the Army-share his ride. 23. The Believers must avenge the blood of one another when fighting in the Path of Allah (This clause was to remind those in front of whom there may be less severe fighting that the cause was common to all. This also meant that although each battle appeared a separate entity it was in fact a part of the War, which affected all Muslims equally). 24. The Believers (because they fear Allah) are better in showing steadfastness and as a result receive guidance from Allah in this respect. Others must also aspire to come up to the same standard of steadfastness. 25. No un-Believer will be permitted to take the property of the Quraysh (the enemy) under his protection. Enemy property must be surrendered to the State. 26. No un-Believer will intervene in favour of a Quraysh, (because the Quraysh having declared war are the enemy). 27. If any un-believer kills a Believer, without good cause, he shall be killed in return, unless the next of kin are satisfied (as it creates law and order problems and weakens the defence of the State). All Believers shall be against such a wrong-doer. No Believer will be allowed to shelter such a man. 28. When you differ on anything (regarding this Document) the matter shall be referred to Allah and Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). 29. The Jews will contribute towards the war when fighting alongside the Believers. 30. The Jews of Bani Awf will be treated as one community with the Believers. The Jews have their religion. This will also apply to their freedmen. The exception will be those who act unjustly and sinfully. By so doing they wrong themselves and their families. 31. The same applies to Jews of Bani Al-Najjar, Bani Al Harith, Bani Saeeda, Bani Jusham, Bani Al Aws, Thaalba, and the Jaffna, (a clan of the Bani Thaalba) and the Bani Al Shutayba. 32. Loyalty gives protection against treachery. (loyal people are protected by their friends against treachery. As long as a person remains loyal to the State he is not likely to succumb to the ideas of being treacherous. He protects himself against weakness). 33. The freedmen of Thaalba will be afforded the same status as Thaalba themselves. This status is for fair dealings and full justice as a right and equal responsibility for military service. 31
  32. 32. 34. Those in alliance with the Jews will be given the same treatment as the Jews. 35. No one (no tribe which is party to the Pact) shall go to war except with the permission of Muhammed (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). If any wrong has been done to any person or party it may be avenged. 36. Any one who kills another without warning (there being no just cause for it) amounts to his slaying himself and his household, unless the killing was done due to a wrong being done to him. 37. The Jews must bear their own expenses (in War) and the Muslims bear their expenses. 38. If anyone attacks anyone who is a party to this Pact the other must come to his help. 39. They (parties to this Pact) must seek mutual advice and consultation. 40. Loyalty gives protection against treachery. Those who avoid mutual consultation do so because of lack of sincerity and loyalty. 41. A man will not be made liable for misdeeds of his ally. 42. Anyone (any individual or party) who is wronged must be helped. 43. The Jews must pay (for war) with the Muslims. (this clause appears to be for occasions when Jews are not taking part in the war. Clause 37 deals with occasions when they are taking part in war). 44. Yathrib will be Sanctuary for the people of this Pact. 45. A stranger (individual) who has been given protection (by anyone party to this Pact) will be treated as his host (who has given him protection) while (he is) doing no harm and is not committing any crime. Those given protection but indulging in anti-state activities will be liable to punishment. 46. A woman will be given protection only with the consent of her family (Guardian). (a good precaution to avoid inter-tribal conflicts). 47. In case of any dispute or controversy, which may result in trouble the matter must be referred to Allah and Muhammed (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) of Allah will accept anything in this document, which is for (bringing about) piety and goodness.7 7 http://www.constitution.org/cons/medina/macharter.htm 32
  33. 33. Reasons for Fasting in Ramadan At present, nearly two billion human beings on planet earth are counted among the Islamic faith, and fasting in Ramadan is a unique annual event shared by a large percentage of Muslims in what is one of the most profound global spiritual experiences. While in reality the rewards for fasting in Ramadan are countless and its full benefits known only to God, the following are ten very important reasons for why Muslims are encouraged to observe fasting in Ramadan. Fasting in Ramadan, #1: A Pillar of Islam The foundation of Islamic spiritual practice is known as the Five Pillars of Islam, which form the basis for a spiritual culture designed to provide an ideal environment for personal growth and spiritual evolution. Fasting in Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, constituting one of the most important spiritual practices designed to empower a human being in overcoming the self and transcending the ego, the one true veil between a human being and his or her Creator. Fasting in Ramadan, #2: Spiritual Purification One of the primary benefits of fasting in Ramadan is spiritual purification, the essential goal of Islamic Spirituality. Although we tend to think of the mind, body and spirit as separate components, in reality they are all connected and inter-related, and improvement in any one naturally effects improvement in the others as well. Fasting in Ramadan purifies the mind, body and spirit, leading to greater clarity, sensitivity and health. Fasting in Ramadan, #3: Health It has now been scientifically documented that the single most effective practice for improving human health and longevity is the reduction of intake and consumption. Fasting in Ramadan allows the digestive system, the engine of the body, to rest from the normal demands of processing and breaking down food, freeing up system resources to cleanse and purify the body of accumulated toxins, thereby allowing more effective healing and tissue repair. Fasting in Ramadan keeps the body healthy and youthful, provided one does not overindulge when breaking fast. Fasting in Ramadan, #4: Community and Family One of the greatest benefits of fasting in Ramadan is renewing solidarity and cultivating relationships with one‘s family and community. Only one who observes fasting in Ramadan can truly know the beauty and joy of breaking fast with others, celebrating the gift of life daily for thirty days with loved ones. Fasting in Ramadan, #5: Gratitude It‘s true that one generally does not realize what he or she has until it‘s gone or not available, and by fasting in Ramadan, Muslims become acutely aware of the unlimited abundance of divine favor God Almighty has blessed humanity with, particularly with regards to sustenance. The cultivation of gratitude is a core purpose of Islam, and few spiritual practices cultivate gratitude as does fasting in Ramadan. 33
  34. 34. Fasting in Ramadan, #6: Humility and Selflessness By fasting in Ramadan, a Muslim realizes how totally dependent we are upon the divine grace of God for survival, and humility is a natural result of this realization. Generally, we take things for granted and become heedless as a result of living in the world, dunya, yet by fasting in Ramadan, we are continually reminded of our frailty, leading us to humility, reverence, piety and selflessness, primary goals of Islamic Spirituality. Fasting in Ramadan, #7: Empathy and Compassion Although we live in a world of natural abundance, of divine grace and providence, unfortunately due to lack of empathy, compassion and solidarity among human beings, there are many throughout the globe who still struggle with hunger, poverty, lack and scarcity. When a Muslim observes fasting in Ramadan, he or she feels the hunger that many experience daily as a normal consequence of their circumstances. By fasting in Ramadan, we develop the holy qualities of empathy and compassion, becoming more aware of our intrinsic connection and oneness with all human beings regardless of borders or labels that create artificial separation among the citizens of the human race. Fasting in Ramadan, #8: Restraint and Self-Discipline The modern world and its culture is largely defined by materialism, consumption and instant gratification of desires. This results in the diminishment of human consciousness, the regression of planetary culture and the suppression of the soul. When fasting in Ramadan, a Muslim consciously curtails this unhealthy norm by consciously practicing restraint and selfdiscipline, separating him or herself from the animal kingdom which is governed by the unconscious drive to satiate one‘s immediate needs and desires. Fasting in Ramadan is thus an essential practice for attaining true freedom and independence from dunya, the external world of form and appearances, and for the liberation of the soul from the self, the mind-body that is unconsciously driven by fear and the struggle survival. Fasting in Ramadan, #9: Simplicity and Non-Attachment When living without discipline and restraint, life quickly becomes overly complicated, leading to a heavy burden that results in unnecessary stress, anxiety, unhappiness and difficulty. By fasting in Ramadan, we limit excess and indulgence, facilitating the return to simplicity and non-attachment, releasing one from dependence on dunya and so contributing to psychological health and happiness. Fasting in Ramadan, #10: Focus With the constant demands of modern life, it‘s easy to become lost and forget not only who we are, but we automatically forget our divine purpose and destiny. Without constant reminder, we become lost in the dream and disconnected from reality. Fasting in Ramadan for thirty days is a powerful practice in restoring focus, direction, balance and purpose to our lives.8 8 http://www.islamicrenaissance.com/blog/10-reasons-for-fasting-in-ramadan/ 34
  35. 35. Human Responsibilities The dignity of man derives from his acceptance, before the Creator of the Universe, of the responsibility to know right from wrong and to be a steward of the universe charged with caring for it and guiding it in accordance with the Divine Will. No beings in either the physical or metaphysical worlds have such a sllblime responsibility. The rights of the human person and community derive from this responsibility, because every person and community must be free to carry out this stewardship. Every man and every woman, every Arab and every Jew, and every rich person and every poor person are equal in their responsibility to Allah and therefore in their dignity and in their human rights. Islamic law focuses on human responsibility, because a focus on human rights can devolve into the selfishness of seeking to maximize one's own freedom to do whatever one wants at the expense of others. If everyone would fulfill all of his or her responsibilities, individually and collectively, then everyone would be accorded the full range of human rights. The scholars of Islam, have identified a half dozen overarching responsibilities, though some scholars will condense these to five or expand the number by elevating a secondary responsibility to the level of the universal or essential. The first three concern the essentials of life itself, whereas the next three concern the quality of life. The first three essential areas of responsibility or duty in Islamic law are: a) Respect for life, or "the right to life" known as haqq al haya This requires not merely respect for the unborn after the spirit or ruh has been breathed into the fetus, but also such social duties as respect for non-belligerents in war and the use of dispute settling mechanisms whenever possible to avoid violence that might threaten the lives of oneself or others. b) Respect for community, or right to one's identity as a member of a family, community, or nation, known as haqq al nasl. This focus on the family, and more broadly on expanding circles of community to include mankind and even all sentient beings in the universe, is unique to Islamic law, because it implies that sovereignty lies not in the extent of a country's or a government's power, as it does in Euro-American international law, but in the inherent dignity of the human person in community. c) Respect for free, private enterprise, with broad capital ownership, known as haqq al mal. The principle of freedom for individual persons to own the means of production has been basic in all Islamic scholarship until the twentieth century. Unfortunately, the principle of equal opportunities to own capital or the tools of production has been largely ignored for over 35
  36. 36. a thousand years because various "rulers" understood that concentrated political power requires concentrated property ownership. The next three of the universals, essentials, or purposes of Islamic law, which concern the quality of life, are: d) Political self-determination, or haqq al hurriyah. This is usually known as "the right to political freedom." Islamically, however, this term emphasizes the responsibility of both the ruled and the rulers to establish permanent institutions designed to facilitate broad-based political participation by every member of a polity in its governance so that they can help determine their own immediate well-being and long-run destiny. e) Dignity, known as haqq al karama. The duty to respect human dignity is at the core of all Islamic law, because the essential purpose of the shari'ah is to help persons acknowledge and deepen their relationship to Allah and express this higher level of being especially in their relationships with each other. There are two major parts of this fifth universal principle of Islamic law. f) Knowledge, or haqq al 'ilm. A key to success in every aspect of private and public life is the duty to pursue knowledge. Since the highest purpose of every person is spiritual understanding, freedom to pursue the path of spiritual knowledge is paramount. We were created, however, as humans not as angels, so we have a duty to pursue whatever knowledge is useful to us individually and collectively in carrying out our responsibilities: to help the marginalized in society, to promote justice among people and nations, to multiply the material bounties of Allah, to work constructively in the political process, to participate with people of other faiths in addressing all the problems of society, and otherwise fulfilling all the requirements placed upon us by Islamic law.9 9 http://www.islamicity.com/politics/shariah.htm 36
  37. 37. The Purpose Of Man’s Creation (Responsibilities Of Man) As we know, human is not made for nothing or for fun, but with a purpose in life. It is stated in (surah al-mukminun 22:115). ‖Then did you think that We created you uselessly and that to Us you would not be returned?" From this ayat, it clearly shows that human are created with their own purpose and reason. Moreover Allah created all creatures for the benefit of mankind. Why human are been created? There are 3 main purpose why human are created by Allah; that are 1. To worship Allah alone To worship Allah can also be known as to ibadah Allah alone. This is the ultimate purpose for all mankind. Ibadah here includes the ritual rites, believe in pillars of islam and all good deeds ,and obey Allah commands. And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me. So it is an obligation to all mankind to follow Allah commands as the creator of mankind, jinns and the entire universe . 2. To be the vicegerent of Allah The creation of man was initiated by Allah for a noble purpose. The task khalifah is very important to ensure that this world is rule in peace and justice. So this is not a simple task that can be fulfill by all creation. Allah said in (surah Al-Baqarah 2:30) And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority." They said, "Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?" Allah said, "Indeed, I know that which you do not know." 3. To fulfill the trust (Amanah) The trust is to rule the world in accordance to the will and pleasure of Allah. The task of Khalifah had been offered to the mountain, heaven and earth, but they all refuse to undertake it because the task was too heavy and afraid they cannot fulfill the task. But 37
  38. 38. when this task was offered to the man, they take it. It is mention in (surah Al-Ahzab 33:72). 1. 2. 3. 4. 10 Indeed, we offered the Trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, and they declined to bear it and feared it; but man [undertook to] bear it. Indeed, he was unjust and ignorant. We should be proud and honored to be entrusted to become a khalifah who will rule this world in peace and justice. Amanah for all human( ) There are certain amanah that must be fulfill by each human. That are: To develop divine attributes in himself which includes goodness, righteousness, truthfulness, justice and other else. These are very important amanah that must be done by all human. If man does not adopt these attributes to himself, he cannot do justice to himself and other fellow being as the vicegerent on the earth . To institute peace and assurance of life and property for all human. It is also to organize humanity into an ordered society capable of utilizing the bounties of Allah in a proper and just way for the benefit of all nations and and not for a privileged group. To establish the law of Allah (Syariah) on earth as stated in the Quran. Nowadays, we are not using and follow the law of Allah. For an example, we use the civil law in determining punishment. We must practice all injunctions of the Quran, leave all the prohibitions, and follow all Allah commandments. To develop earth for the whole ummah so that we can live in a developed country, peace and harmony.10 http://musafirperantau.blogspot.com/2010/11/we-as-khalifah.html 38
  39. 39. THE HARMS OF ALCOHOL STORIES REGARDING ALCOHOL On the other hand some of the other Sahâbâhs resumed that this verse did not declare alcohol Haram, so they declared that it overtakes full precaution and law, that a mediate consumption of alcohol would not be harmful. However, shortly an incident occurred which brought about a sudden change in the situation. One day, Hazrat AbdurRahman Ibn Auf had invited some of his companions, and as was the custom of the Arabs they had consumed alcohol after their needs. Thereafter, while still in a state of intoxication, the Maghrib Salâh was performed. The Imâm who was also drunk made an error in his recitation of Surah Kafiroon. Upon this, the second step was taken to prevent the consumption of alcohol, by the revelation of the following verse: ―O Believers’ do not approach Salâh while intoxicated.‖ (Surah Nisaa) This verse now declared alcohol Haraam in clear-cut terms but the consumption was for the duration of Salâh times, and at other periods it was still permissible. With this second warning many more of the Sahâbâhs refrained completely from drinking Alcohol, reasoning that what good can there be in something that deprives one from Salâh. There were others however, who drank liquor during the intervening periods of salâh until the following incident took place: Uthmaan Ibn Maalik Sahâbâhs invited a few for a meal. After the meal, as was customary liquor was served. Thereafter, they became involved in another Arab custom, reciting poetry praising oneself, family and clan and simultaneously teasing and belittling others who didn‘t belong to that group. During this gathering, Hazrat Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas recited a few lines of poetry in which he criticized and belittled the Ansars of Madinah. Hearing this, an Ansari youth became enraged and threw a bone at him, which inflicted a severe wound on the head of Saad Ibn Waqqas . He then complained against the youngster to Rasulullah , after which he made dua‘a to Allah: ―O Allah! Grant us a clear cut for regarding alcohol.‖ In response to this the 3rd and 4th verses concerning the complete prohibition of alcohol, were revealed as part of Surah Ma‘idah: 39
  40. 40. "O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, idolatry and arrows (for seeking help on decision) one an abomination of order that you may be successful. Shaytan seeks only to cast amongst you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from his worship, will you then not refrain? ‖ (Surah Ma‘idah 90) Allah in his wisdom, firstly disclosed the evils in alcohol, then prohibited it at Salâh times and finally declared it absolutely HARAAM. THE BENEFITS AND HARMS OF ALCOHOL People generally are quite well acquainted with what benefits are attributed to alcohol, for instance enjoyment of temporary happiness, strength increase of a short time, colour becomes clearer, initially (as to some medical claim). Compared to the few limited benefits of alcohol its risks and harms are so varied that, perhaps so many disadvantages may not be present in any other thing. 1. Through alcohol, the stomach gradually loses its ability to function properly. 2. Causes loss of appetite. 3. It spoils ones facial features (Appearance) 4. Makes one age quicker. 5. Weakens and reduces the ability to think and speak properly. 6. Causes heart failure 7. The progeny of alcohol are weaker. 8. Creates fights and enmity between people 9. Leads towards grave sins, often adultery and murder are the direct results of drinking. 10. Thousands of pounds are wasted in this vice.11 11 http://www.inter-islam.org/Prohibitions/alcohol2.htm 40
  41. 41. How To Pray in Islam Face the Qiblah (toward Mecca), and make sure you‘re in a clean area, now you are about to start one of the following prayers: 1st prayer (Subh), 2nd prayer (Dhuhr), 3rd (Asr), 4th (Maghrib), 5th (Ishaa). Standing, you will start the prayer raising both hands up close to your ears and say "Allahu Akbar" (God is Most Great). (Look at the picture on the side). Then put one hand on the top of the other hand between your chest and upper stomach, and start reciting surat ―al fatiha‖, say ―ameen‖ once you finish it, and then start reciting another small surat. Once you finish reciting raise your hands up to the ears, saying "Allahu Akbar." Bow (your hands on your knees, back straight, your face toward the ground, saying three times, "Subhana rabbiyal adheem" (Glory be to my Lord Almighty). This position is called (ruku‘). See photo. Rise back to standing while saying "Sami‘a Allahu liman hamidah, Rabbana wa lakal hamd" (God hears those who call upon Him; Our Lord, praise be to You). Raise hands up, saying "Allahu Akbar" then descend to the ground (see photo), while your face on the ground say three times "Subhana Rabbiyal A'ala" (Glory be to my Lord, the Most High). This position is called ―sujud‖ Rise to a sitting position (see picture), saying "Allahu Akbar." Then prostrate back on the ground (this is the second time you do it), while your face on the ground say three times "Subhana Rabbiyal A'ala" This will conclude the first ―rak‘a‖. Now to start the second ―raka‘a‖ you simply need to repeat steps from 2 to 8. Note that at the end of your second ―rak‘a‖ you will have to add step 9, which is: Rise to a sitting positition (see photo), remain sitting and recite the first part of the Tashahhud in Arabic: "Atta-hiyyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibatu As41
  42. 42. salamu 'ala an-Nabiyy wa rahmat-ullahi wa barakatuhu As-salamu 'alaina wa 'alaa 'Ibaadillah-issalihin. Ash-hadu-al-la-ilaha illAllahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasuluh‖. Note that while reciting ―Ash-hadu-al-la ilaha illaAllahu …‖ one should move the index finger of the right hand in a small circle like you‘re drawing a circle on the sand beach with your index while the hand is still on the thigh. Only the index should be moving, the rest of the fingers and hand don‘t have to move. See photo: If the prayer is to be longer than 2 ―rak'as‖, then add Main prayers of the day: the same steps from 2 to 8 depending on how many 1st prayer (Subh) = 2 Rakats ―rak‘as‖ you have to perfom, for example if you have 2nd prayer (Dhuhr) = 4 Rakats to make 4 ―rak‘as‖ then you will have to add steps 2 3rd prayer (Asr) = 4 Rakats to 8 two more times (which means 4 times in total). 4th prayer (Maghrib) = 3 Rakats Then finally add the step number 9 again (basically 5th prayer (Ishaa) = 4 Rakats after each two ―rak‘as‖ the step #9 is required). To end your prayer, while still sitting, turn your face Example of how to pray the 3rd to the right and say "Assalamu alaikum wa Prayer (Asr) which consist of 4 rahmatullah" (Peace be upon you and God's Rakats: Follow steps 1-8, then steps blessings), and turn to the left and say the same 2-9, then steps 2-8, then finally step ―Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah". And that‘s how 2-10. you finish your prayer, easy! Note: There is a second half part of tashahhud which is recited in the final ―rak‘a‖ but if it can be learned later, you don‘t have to do it if you‘re still in your first days, it says ―Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad kama salaita ala Ibraheem, wa barik ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad kama barakta ala Ibraheem wa ala aali Ibraheem fel ‗alameena innaka hameedun majeed‖, this will be added to step 9 before reaching step 10.12 12 http://arabic.speak7.com/prayer.htm 42

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