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Globalisation & its impact on women workforce


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Globalisation & its impact on women workforce

  1. 1. • 1. Globalization is the new buzzword that has come to dominate the world since the nineties of the last century with the end of the cold war. • In general, it is the ‘process of opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of communication, internationalization of financial markets and more generally increased mobility of persons, goods, capital, data and ideas’.
  2. 2. • India opened up its economy in the early nineties following a major crisis led by a foreign exchange crunch • A Global comparison shows that India is now the fastest growing economy just after China. • In terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) it ranks 3rd in the world. The accelerated rate of growth helps it to rise from the 10th largest to the 3rd largest economy in the world by 2025, just behind US and China.
  3. 3. Developing countries Women are Flexible labour induction of women into export industries such as electronics, garments, sports goods, food processing, toys, agro- industries, etc. forced to work uncomplainingly at any allotted task, however dull, laborious, physically harmful or badly paid it may be Globalisation & WomenGlobalisation & Women
  4. 4. • In India today, globalization has had positive and negative implications within the male-dominant society. • Women represent the largest group of “unpaid” workers, both in rural and urban areas. Globally, proportion of women who are “contributing family workers” is 34.5 percent, compared to 24.9 percent of men (ILO, 2008). • In India, male casual workers increased from 65 percent in 1972 to 80 percent in 2002; female casual workers increased from 89 percent to 92 percent over the same period (World Bank, 2008). • Studies have shown that the burden of poverty falls more heavily on women than on men. The inequality in income and consumption levels between women and men has also been documented. At least 11% of households in India are supported solely by women's income & termed as “female-headed households” (FHH).
  5. 5. • Despite representing more than half of the work force, why are women in economically vulnerable condition? • Women are getting less than men for the same work. Why do majority of the countries neglect the ILO’s charters, especially equal pay for equal work? • Women’s political, social and economic rights are an integral and inseparable part of their human rights. But most countries still do not consider women’s rights seriously especially those relating to economic rights thus there is need to analyze and assess its impact on women work force in general and the Indian women in particular, at the millennium.
  6. 6. • Total Population of India: >1000 Million • Percentage of Women - 48%: 480 Million • Percentage of Working Population - 36%:360 Million • Percentage of Women in Working Population – 32%: (115.2 Million) • Percentage of Women in Organized Sector (4% of the • above) 4.6 Million • Percentage of Women in Unorganized Sector-96.3% • Percentage of Women in Service Sector-7.6% • Percentage of Women in casual labours-41.9%
  7. 7. India: low ranking in cross-country comparisons UNDP – Gender-related Development Index: 96 (out of 136) World Economic Forum - Gender Gap Index: 98 (out of 115) OECD - Social Institutions and Gender Index: 106 (out of 117) Poor performance in key areas: Health – Education - Political participation - Employment
  8. 8. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Philippines Thailand Malaysia VietNam Indonesia China India Ratio of female to male adult literacy (>15 years) Maternal Mortality Ratio (per 100,000 live births) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 India Indonesia Philippines VietNam China Thailand Malaysia Source: Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (2007), OECD
  9. 9. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (in % of total) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 VietNam Thailand China Philippines Malaysia Indonesia India Women in Parliament (as % of total) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 VietNam China Philippines Indonesia Thailand Malaysia India Source: Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (2007), OECD
  10. 10. Early Marriage (% of girls between 15 and 19 years of age who are currently married, divorced or widowed) Violence Against Women (absence of any legislation on violence against women = 1) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 India Thailand Indonesia Philippines VietNam Malaysia China 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 VietNam Indonesia China Malaysia India Thailand Philippines
  11. 11. • According India’s constitution, women are legal citizens of the  country and have equal rights with men (Indian Parliament). But  because of lack of acceptance from the male dominant society,  Indian women suffer immensely.  • Although most women(90% of working women) in India work and  contribute to the economy in one form or another, much of their  work is not documented or accounted for in official statistics. • Women are also overworked in the field and complete the all of  the domestic work.  • Researchers have estimated that female agricultural laborers  were usually paid 40 to 60 percent of the male wage. •   Although the country’s constitution says women have equal  status to men, women are powerless and are mistreated inside  and outside the home. 
  12. 12. Work participation rate of  women (All) 25.6 Rural women 30.8 Urban women 11.9 Work participation rate refers to percentages of women worker to total women population (Source: Census of India- 2001)
  13. 13. Ministry of Women and Child Development 2007
  14. 14. •75% of all women workers, 85% of rural women workers  are in agriculture.  •More than 20% of rural households de facto female- headed. Many women manage farms without male support.  •Women are 40% of agricultural workforce & % rising.  Farming 32.9 Agricultural labourers 38.9 Household enterprises 6.5 (Source: Census of India- 2001)
  15. 15. Female Workers across sectors Male Workers across sectors Source: "Employment and Unemployment in India, 1999-00", Fifty-Fifth Round, NSSO, New Delhi
  16. 16. Ministry of Women and Child Development 2007
  17. 17. •characterized by high levels of job security •Union density & collective bargaining •“Benefits” often do not materialize •The informal sector includes jobs such as domestic servants, small traders, artisans, or field laborers on a family farm. •Most of these jobs are unskilled and low paying and do not provide benefits to the worker. •rarely covered by social security systems
  18. 18. • reveal that 76 percent of women workers are casual and home based labourers. Moreover only about 7 percent of women workers are formal and the rest are all informal workers including own account workers. • reflect the fact that women workers generally earn less compared to their male counterparts in all sectors except as own account workers in agriculture and employers in other manufacturing formal sector.
  19. 19. • In the last few years, in globalized urban India  women have made great strides on screen and in society, women have learnt to enjoy being million- dollar babies, they have broken ceilings, of glass or of concrete, taking on roles tradition has tried to deny them. They have risen from the margins to craft their futures centre stage. • The facts are there for all to see: nascent industries like BPO and biotechnology are expected to employ 2.3 million people by 2010 and 100 million by 2012. Winds of opportunity are ruffling our fortunes, and in the midst of it all, India’s young, ambitious women are no longer content with teaching toddlers or living the cliché of office receptionists.
  20. 20. Impact on urban women: the factImpact on urban women: the fact
  21. 21. • 86% feel it is imperative to be financially independent. • 77% would continue to work after marriage. • 2% women today are unafraid of breaking rules • while 44% like taking risks. 19% do not always take the advice • 70% insist they will live life on their own terms. • 65% women say that even after they get married, they will decide how they spend their money • A study on 300 working women by the psychological department of Punjab University in 2003 showed 90% of the respondents had a greater sense of well-being than homemakers. Source: Eves Dropping Survey 2006, INDIA TODAY April 2007
  22. 22. Survey report of National commission for women,2005 shows that:- • As globalization shifts agriculture to a capital-intensive chemical-intensive system, women bear the disproportionate costs of both displacement and health hazards. • Women carry the heavier work burden in food production, but because of gender discrimination they get lower returns for their work. • Globalization has destroyed rural livelihoods of many and it is women who lose the most. When the WTO allows dumping, which leads to a drop in farm product prices, women are hit the hardest because their incomes go down further • It finds that there has been a spurt in the various forms of violence against women like rape, female foeticide, and dowry deaths and trafficking in women, etc, as the impact of shifts in the rural economy is felt. • It also points out that women are the ultimate sufferers of increased incidents of farm suicides as they are left to look after the household with no assets and the burden of indebtedness on their shoulders
  23. 23. Contd.
  24. 24. The Stark reality
  25. 25. REALITY: Is higher work participation of women does have positive impact on their status
  26. 26. GENDER SENSITIVE POLICIES OF THE GOVERNMENT • The Indian constitution has gender equality and womens’ rights issues • Article 15(3) empowers state to make affirmative discrimination in favour of women • Article (39) - directs state policy towards providing men and women equal right to means of livelihood and equal pay for equal work • Article (42) directs state to make provisions for ensuring just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief • Article(51a) imposes fundamental duty on every citizen to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women • Tenth Plan(2002-2007) focuses on empowering women socially and economically and eliminate gender discrimination
  27. 27. WORKPLACE POLICIES AND PRACTICES • Two distinct sectors with a third sector making its presence :Private, Public and the ITES • Work culture and ethics distinctly different in each. • Leave provisions and promotional avenues vastly different. • One of the common policies: Maternity leave. • Factories Act(1948): employer must provide a creche where more than 30 women work full time. • Same act prevents women from being employed on the shop floor in heavy machinery industries.
  28. 28. CONCLUSION •women's experiences with globalization are extremely complex and diverse, both positive and negative. Just how one is affected by globalization depends on intersecting factors such as class, nationality, race, ability, religion, age and education. •There are some women who have significantly benefited from current global trends through better employment opportunities and autonomy, access to new technologies and increased purchasing power. •On the other hand, globalization processes have also meant greater insecurity and hardship for many other women. Cuts in social services, increased privatization and a flexible labour force are all inherent characteristics of globalization. •women disproportionately encounter low wages, poor working conditions and escalating risks
  29. 29. CONCLUSION • Globalization can have a positive or negative effect on women in India, but with globalization there is the power to uproot the traditional views towards women so they can take an equal stance in society • As the process is irreversible, it is important that the government and all organizations working for the cause of women are conscious about this divide between rural and urban women, organized and unorganized sector and ensure that a significant number should not be left out or alienated in the process.