DAWODU ADESHINA UP-511COMPARING JAPANESE P2M WITH NIGERIANPROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY
Overview of Japanese P2m P2M in Short P2M stands for « A Guidebook of Project and Program Management for Enterprise Innovation » born in Japan.Published in November 2001 as a result of three-yearresearch by the industry-academic-government teamOwned by Project Management Association of Japan (PMAJ). P2M contributes to visioning of more value added and innovative programs and projects in addition to secure delivery of projects (traditional project management). Features the « New P2M Tower ». (1)
• Originally P2M was developed as a vehicle to support Japanese enterprises, organizations, and the government to reinforce their competitiveness through innovation and it is also a program management method that considers not only how to make one project successful by meeting the quality, budget and delivery time requirements, but also it is an edifice of knowledge that integrates a program consisting of plural projects under a common program mission by considering total optimization from a higher and wider perspective. (2)
Features of P2M• Projects exists within programs; A project executes a specific mission within the context of a programs strategic mission. P2M projects operate as a subset of a P2M program. (4)• Projects create something of value, both to the stakeholders and society. P2M prides itself on the identification of all stakeholders of a project and including them within its development.• Program Management introduces program management that organically combines multiple projects. (3)• team work• perfection orientation
Application of P2m globally• About 40 countries currently use P2M and more countries globally are gradually embracing the use of P2M for management of programs.• These countries include Philippines, France, Ukraine and many more (1)
PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY IN NIGERIA• From my research activities, I found out that there is no indigenous PM standard or method in use in Nigeria even though there is an association for project managers in Nigeria i.e Nigerian association of project management. But I discovered that the British PRINCE2 is generally used by project managers in Nigeria where they employ any methodology at all, as most project managers rarely use any specific method, but quite a number of them make use of basic PM tools like the WBS, Gantt Chart and even the sure track management software. (5)
Overview of the British PRINCE2• PRINCE - Projects IN Controlled Environments - is a project management method covering the organization, management and control of projects. Prince was first developed by the Central Computer andTelecommunications Agency (CCTA) in 1989 as a UK Government standard for IT project management. Since its introduction, Prince has become widely used in both the public and private sectors and is now the UKs defacto standard for project management. Although Prince was originally developed for the needs of IT projects, the method has also been adopted on many non-IT projects. (6)
• The latest version of the method, PRINCE2, was designed to incorporate the requirements of existing users and to enhance the method towards a generic, best-practice approach for the management of all types of projects. The design and development work was undertaken by a consortium of project management specialists, under contract to CCTA. Over 150 public and private sector organizations were involved in a Review Panel which provided valuable input and feedback to the consortium. The development work was completed in March 1996. (6)
According to PRINCE2 (Project in a controlled environment) there are six variables involved in any project, and therefore six aspects of project performance to be managed:• Costs• Timescales• Quality• Scope• Risk• Benefits PRINCE2 is an integrated framework of processes and themes that addresses the planning, delegation, monitoring and control of all these six aspects of project performance.
• Key FeaturesThe key features of Prince are:• Its focus on business justification• A defined organization structure for the project management team• Its product-based planning approach• Its emphasis on dividing the project into manageable and controllable stages• Its flexibility to be applied at a level appropriate to the project.
Benefits of PRINCE2 PRINCE2 provides the following benefits:• PRINCE2 can be applied to any type of project• It provides a common vocabulary and approach• PRINCE2 integrates easily with industry-specific models• The product focus clarifies for all parties what the project will deliver to agreed quality standards.• PRINCE2 applies ‘management by exception’ providing efficient use of senior management time• It ensures a focus on the continuing viability of the project• It provides explicit definitions of roles and responsibilities so that everyone understands what is expected of them and what to expect of others.
The Structure of PRINCE2• Principles of PRINCE2:• Continued business justification: A PRINCE2 project has continued business justification.• Learn from experience: PRINCE2 project teams learn from previous experience(lessons are sought, recorded and acted upon throughout the life of the project)• Defined roles and responsibilities: A PRINCE2 project has defined and agreed roles and responsibilities with an organizational structure that engages the business, user and supplier stakeholder interests• Manage by stages: A PRINCE2 project is planned, monitored and controlled on a stage-by-stage basis• Manage by exception: A PRINCE2 project has defined tolerances for each project objective to establish limits of delegated authority• Focus on products: A PRINCE2 project focuses on the definition and delivery of products, in particular their quality requirements• Tailor to suit the project environment: PRINCE2 is tailored to suit the project’s size, environment, complexity, importance, capability and risk (7)
The Themes• -These describe aspects of project management that must be addressed continually and in parallel throughout the project. The seven themes explain the specific treatment required by PRINCE2 for various project management disciplines and why they are necessary. (7)
Processes• These describe a step-wise progression through the project lifecycle, from getting started to project closure. Each process provides checklists of recommended activities, products and related responsibilities. The following are the steps in a PRINCE2 project: Starting up a Project, Directing a Project, Initiating a Project, Managing a Stage Boundary, Controlling a Stage, Managing Product Delivery and Closing a Project. (7)
Tailoring PRINCE2 to the Project Environment• It is a PRINCE2 principle that the method must be tailored to suit the particular project context. Tailoring refers to the measures taken to apply the method properly to an individual project, ensuring that the amount of governance, planning and control is appropriate – neither too burdensome for a simple project nor too informal for a large or complex project. (7)
Comparing PRINCE2 and P2MParameter P2M PRINCE2Value creation Believes projects create Believes projects create something of value something of valueStakeholder consideration Tries to put all stakeholders Takes all stakeholders into into consideration as well consideration and attempts as protect their interests to satisfy their needsEnvironment Takes cognizance of the Also takes note of the environment within which project environment the project operatesNature of projects Projects exists within the Projects are a one-off framework of a program exerciseTeam work Emphasizes the importance Also believes in the need of team work in the for team work for implementation of the successful project project execution
Parameter P2M PRINCE2Global scope About 40 countries As much as 150 countries currently use P2M, this is make use of PRINCE2 due to the fact that its still either fully or partially relatively new in the market
• References:• 1. Hiroshi Tanaka, PhD, Dr.Sc., PMP 2010, A Japanese Program Governance Model for Building the Future.• 2. Project management association of Japan 2012, Project and Program management for infrastructure construction and Plant Engineering, course document,• 3. Project management professional certification centre 2004, Project & Program Management for Enterprise Innovation, Summary Translation• 4. Laurence J. Webber 2010, P2m- Project management Japanese style• 5. OLATEJU, O.I, ABDUL-AZEEZ, I.A, ALAMUTU, S.A, 2011, PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY• 6. JISC INFONET, An Introduction to PRINCE2• 7. Andy Murray, 2009, PRINCE2® in one thousand words