National Territory of the Philippines


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National Territory of the Philippines

  1. 1. The National Territory of the Philippines LESSON 3
  2. 2. The National Territory of the Philippines In studying the history of the Philippines, it is important to have an idea of its geography. As Filipinos, we should be familiar with the location of the Philippines in the world- its exact location, size, and shape; type of climate; and other important physical characteristics of the archipelago.
  3. 3. Since the three important of history are people, period, and place it is most important to study the location of the Philippines. The place is the stage where events that shape the history of country unfold.
  4. 4. History and Geography are related. Like history, geography is considered as a social science. Geography studies people as the architects of the world they live in. And just like history, it is hard to establish 100% objectivity in the study of geography. The process of determining the boundaries of countries and the grouping of countries into a particular region is usually based on certain events and whoever has political power during the period when this process takes place.
  5. 5. Boundaries Of The National Territory Of The Philippines
  6. 6. According to Article I of the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, “ The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, from part of the internal waters of the Philippines.”
  7. 7. The process of determining the boundaries of the Philippines is based on the Archepelagic Doctrine. The traditional boundary of a 3-nautical-mile limitation in the primary directions – north, south, east, and west-is not an appropriate basis in determining the boundaries of the Philippines. Because the Philippines is an Archipelago, it has a wide maritime territory and long coastlines.
  8. 8. Due to the vastness of the Philippine seas and the archipelagic nature of the country, the Philippines did not follow the traditional basis in determining the boundaries of the country. This is because the boundary of the Philippines in the eastern coast of Mindanao is 50 kilometers from the coast of Davao. In Luzon, the boundary from the coast of Cagayan Valley is 240 kilometers. In the western part of Luzon, it is 240 kilometers from the coast of Ilocos.
  9. 9. In order to accommodate the extent of its boundaries, which exceeds the traditional 3 nautical miles, the Archipelagic Doctrine should be the basis of delineating such as boundary. According to this doctrine, the basis of the boundaries of the archipelago should be the straight lines connected by the points in the outer islands or periphery of the archipelago. The interconnected lines drawn in order to incorporate the whole archipelago determine the internal seas.
  10. 10. Meanwhile, the waters from the baselines up to the limitation of the international agreement determine the territorial seas of the country. All the seas that can be found around the archipelago and in- between islands, whatever their width and dimension, are part of the Philippine archipelago.
  11. 11. The Archipelagic Doctrine was a result of efforts of the Philippine Permanent Mission to the United Nations in March 1995. This was led by Arturo Tolentino who was also headed the delegation of the Philippines that was sent to the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) where the Archipelagic Doctrine was recognized. Prior to the UNCLOS, the accepted boundary of a territory was 3 nautical miles.
  12. 12. Aside from Archipelagic Doctrine, the third UNCLOS determined the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1982. This states that any state has jurisdiction up to 200 nautical miles from the baselines where the territorial seas are measured, except in cases where the external boundaries of the zone coincides with the EEZ of a nearby state.
  13. 13. In this case, the same boundary shall be determined by a treaty between the two states based on the principle of international laws regarding delimitation. A country has the right to explore, utilize, preserve, and manage the natural resources inside its EEZ. The Philippines supported the EEZ and the government even implemented Presidential Decree Number 1599 which strengthen the EEZ
  14. 14. Just like the Archipelagic Doctrine, the EEZ is equally important since it provides the country to the right to explore, benefit from, maintain, and manage its own national resources. Although a state has jurisdiction in the EEZ, it should permit maritime vessels as well as aircrafts from other states to pass through EEZ.
  15. 15. Location, Size, and shape of the Philippines
  16. 16. The location of a place on the globe can be expressed through longitude and latitude. Longitude refers to the angular distances determined in the eastern and western part of Prime Meridian. These also look like big circles stretching from North pole to the South Pole. Meanwhile, the Prime Meridian found in Greenwich, England is designated as zero degree longitude. Location
  17. 17. On the other hand, latitude refers to the angular distances from the north or south Equator. The equator has also been designated as zero degree latitude. The Tropic of Cancer is one of the important lines that can be found on the globe. This can be found 23.5° north of the Equator.
  18. 18. The Philippines is part of Southeast Asia. It is located between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer. The archipelago is 4°23’ and 21°25’ northern latitude and between 116°00’ and 127°00’ eastern longitude. The Bashi Channel can be found at the northern part of the Philippines; the Pacific Ocean on the east; the Celebes Sea on the south; and the South China Sea on the west. The nearest island in the southwest is Borneo and the nearest in the north is Taiwan.
  19. 19. Size The Philippines comprises an archipelago of some 7,107 islands located off Southeast Asia, between the South China Sea on the west and the Philippine Sea on the east. The major islands are Luzon in the north, the Visayan Islands in the middle, and Mindanao in the south. Luzon has a size of 104,687.8 sq. kms.; Mindanao, 94,630.1 sq. kms.; and Visayas, 57,201.9 sq. kms.
  20. 20. As of March 2010, these were divided into 17regions, 80 provinces, 138 cities, 1,496 municipalities and 42,025 barangays In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over Sabah.
  21. 21. Size: The total area is about 300,000 square kilometers, including about 298,000 square kilometers of land and about 2,000 square kilometers of water. The Philippines stretches about 1,850 kilometers from Y’Ami Island in the north to Sibutu Island in the south and is about 1,000 kilometers at its widest point east to west. The bulk of the population lives on 11 of the 7,107 islands. Land Boundaries: The Philippines has no land boundaries. Nearby neighbors are Taiwan to the north, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. Length of Coastline: Estimates of the total length of the coastline range from 17,500 kilometers (official Philippine figure) to 36,289 kilometers (U.S. figure).
  22. 22. The National Territory of the Philippines
  23. 23. Shape The shape of the Philippines is elongated. The advantage of this kind of shape is the existence of good fishing grounds, ports, and fair weather because of the winds coming from the islands and the seas. However, it has also his disadvantages. For Instances, it is difficult to have a continuous system of transportation of highways and railways. Economic development is hindered by the lack of an effective system of transportation.
  24. 24. Climate
  25. 25. Climate plays an important role in the way of life of the people in a society. It determines the type of economic activities, kinds of plants, clothing, and shelter for a group of people in a society. Moreover, climate has a significant effect in the development of the Culture of society.
  26. 26. Our country, has a tropical climate characterized by the rainy and dry seasons. If you have been to other countries for like a year or so, you will notice them to have 4 seasons, which is SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN, AND WINTER, those countries are far from the equator so they experience snow. In our country which is really close to the equator, we experience two seasons, rainy and dry.
  27. 27. The cold, dry season is experienced from December to February, this is knows as SUMMER SEASON, the RAINY SEASON coincides with the southwest monsoon, the southwest monsoon are winds coming from the sea towards the Asian Continent, and the Northeast are winds coming from the Asian Continent.
  28. 28. Remember that the three important elements of climate and weather are temperature, humidity, and amount of rainfall. The coolest month is January with an average temperature of 25.5°C while the hottest month is May with an average temperature of 28.3°C. But in many cases, temperature during summer is higher than this, that is why extreme heat is widely felt. Humidity- this refers to the moisture content of the atmosphere. It is said that the humidity in the Philippines is high because of the high temperature and also because of the surrounding seas. The average humidity of the Philippines in a month is from 71% every March to 85% in September.
  29. 29. Landforms
  30. 30. The Philippines is composed of plains, valleys, and mountains. These are the primary topographical traits of the country. Topography is the description of the shape of the surface of a place or region on the map, including its position and elevated places. Agricultural lands can be found in all provinces in the archipelago. From Northern Luzon, the coast of Ilocos can be found in the western side while Central Cordillera can be found in the east. Cagayan Valley is found in-between Central Cordillera and Sierra Madre Mountains extending up to the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The Mountain of Zambales and the Central Plain can be found in Central and Western Luzon while the Sierra Madre can be found in the east.
  31. 31. Topography: The Philippines consists of volcanic islands, including active volcanoes, with mostly mountainous interiors surrounded by flat lowlands and alluvial plains of varying widths along the coasts. The elevation ranges from sea level to the highest point of Mount Apo on Mindanao Island, at 2,954 meters above sea level. Southern Luzon has different topographical characteristics. It is volcanoes, lakes, and plains. The Volcanoes include Taal, Banahaw, Makilig, Isarog, Iriga, Mayon, and Bulusan. The plains are appropriate for agriculture. There are also mountains in the Visayas. Agricultural lands can be found in the coast areas although there are farmlands in the interior such as in PANAY and LEYTE.
  32. 32. Thank you for your time, once again group three presentation. 
  33. 33. • Remember don’t back bite, kung sa bisaya pa libak. XDXDXDXDXDXDXDXDXDXDXD