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History of computer

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History of computers

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History of computer

  1. 1. HISTORYOF COMPUTERS MECHANICAL ERA FIRST GENERATION SECOND GENERATION THIRD GENERATION FOURTH GENERATION SOURCE S
  2. 2. Mechanical Era 2400 B.C- 1940
  3. 3. 2400 BC Theabacus, the first known calculator, was invented in Babylonia 500 BC PaniniIntroducedthe forerunnerto modern formal language theory 300 BC Pingala invented the binary numbersystem
  4. 4. 87 BC Antikythera Mechanism was built in Rhodes to track movement ofthe stars 60 AD Heron ofAlexandria invents machineswhich follow a seriesof instructions 724 AD Liang Ling-Can invents the first fully mechanical clock
  5. 5. 1492 Drawings by Leonardo da Vincidepict inventions.
  6. 6. 1614 JohnNapier invents a systemofmoveable rods (Napier's Rods) based on logarithms which was able to multiply, divide and calculate squareand cube roots 1622 William Oughtred develops slide rules
  7. 7. 1623 TheCalculating Clock was Inventedby Wilhelm Schickard. 1642 Blaise Pascalinvents the the "Pascaline",a mechanical adding machine
  8. 8. 1671 GottfriedLeibnizis known asone of the founding fathers of calculus andalso createdthe steppedreckoner. 1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquardinvents an automatic loom controlled by punched cards
  9. 9. 1820 TheArithmometer was the first mass-produced calculator invented by CharlesXavier Thomasde Colmar 1822 CharlesBabbage designs his first mechanical computer, the difference machine
  10. 10. 1834 TheAnalytical Engine was invented by CharlesBabbage 1829 Thefirst typewriter is patented by William Austin Burt
  11. 11. 1840 Ada Byron,Countessof Lovelace, suggests to Babbage that he usethe binary system. She writes programs forhis analytical engine, becoming the world's first programmer 1835 Samuel Morseinvents Morsecode
  12. 12. 1848 Boolean algebra is invented by George Boole 1853 Per Georg Scheutz and his son Edvard invent the TabulatingMachine 1869 William Stanley Jevonsdesigns a practical logic machine
  13. 13. 1878 Ramon Vereainvents a fast calculator with an internal multiplication table 1880 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone called the Photophone
  14. 14. 1884 TheComptometer is an invention of DorrE. Felt which is operated by pressingkeys 1890 Herman Hollerith inventsa counting machine which increment mechanical counters
  15. 15. 1895 Radiosignals were invented by Guglielmo Marconi 1896 Herman Hollerith forms the Tabulating Machine Company whichlater becomes IBM
  16. 16. 1898 Remotecontrolwas invented by Nikola Tesla 1906 Lee De Forest inventsthe electronic tube 1911 IBMis formed on June15, 1911
  17. 17. 1923 Television Electronic was invented by Philo Farnsworth 1924 Electro Mechanical television system was invented by John Logie Baird 1924 Walther Bothe develops the logic gate
  18. 18. 1930 VannevarBushdevelops a partly electronic Difference Engine 1931 KurtGodel publishes a paper onthe useofa universal formal language
  19. 19. 1938 Konrad Zuse creates the Z1 Computer a binarydigital computer using punch tape 1939 George Stibitz develops the Complex NumberCalculator - a foundation for digital computers 1937 Alan Turingdevelops the concept of a theoretical computing machine
  20. 20. 1939 JohnVincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berrydevelop the ABC(Atanasoft-Berry Computer) prototype 1939 William Hewlett and David Packard start Hewlett Packard
  21. 21. First Generation - 1940-1956
  22. 22. 1943 Adolf Hitler usesthe Enigma encryption machine 1943 Alan Turingdevelops the thecode- breaking machine Colossus
  23. 23. 1944 Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the MARKseries of computersat Harvard University
  24. 24. 1945 JohnPresperEckert & John W.Mauchly:JohnPresper Eckert & JohnW. Mauchly develop the ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integratorand Computer) 1945 Theterm computer ‘bug’ as computer bug was first used by GraceHopper
  25. 25. 1946 F.C. Williamsdevelopshis cathode-raytube (CRT) storing device ,theforerunner to random-access memory (RAM) 1947 DonaldWatts Daviesjoins AlanTuring to build the fastest digitalcomputer in Englandatthe time,the Pilot ACE 1947 William Shockley invents the transistorat Bell Labs
  26. 26. 1948 Andrew Donald Booth invents magnetic drum memory 1948 Frederic CallandWilliams & Tom Kilburndevelopthe SSEM"Small ScaleExperimentalMachine" digitalCRT storage,nicknamedthe "Baby" 1949 ClaudeShannon buildsthe first machine that playschess 1947 DouglasEngelbarttheorises on interactivecomputing with keyboardand screen displayinstead ofonpunchcards
  27. 27. 1949 Howard Aiken develops the Harvard-MARKIII 1950 Thefirst electronic computeris created in Japan by Hideo Yamachito. 1950 Alan Turingpublishes hispaper Computing Machineryand Intelligence which helps create the TuringTest.
  28. 28. 1951 T. Raymond Thompson and John Simmons develop the first business computer, the Lyons Electronic Office(LEO) at Lyons Co. 1951 UNIVACI (UNIVersalAutomatic Computer I) was introduced - the first commercial computer made in the UnitedStates and designed principally by JohnPresperEckert & JohnW. Mauchly
  29. 29. 1951 TheEDVAC (Electronic DiscreteVariable Automatic Computer) begins performing basic tasks. Unlike theENIAC, it was binary rather thandecimal 1953 TheIBM701 becomes available and a total of19 aresold to the scientific community. 1954 JohnBackus& IBM develop the FORTRANComputer Programming Language
  30. 30. 1955 Bell Labs introduces its first transistorcomputer.
  31. 31. Second Generation - 1956- 1963
  32. 32. 1957 Sputnik I and Sputnik II: Sputnik I and Sputnik II are launched bythe Russians1956 Optical fiber was invented by BasilHirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters,and Lawrence E. Curtiss
  33. 33. 1958 ARPA(Advanced ResearchProjects Agency) and NASA is formed 1958 Thefirst integrated circuit, or silicon chip, is produced by the US Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce 1959 PaulBarantheorises on the "survivabilityof communication systems under nuclear attack",digital technology andsymbiosis between humans andmachines
  34. 34. 1960 TheCommon Business- Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language is invented 1961 General Motors puts the first industrial robot, Unimate, to work in a New Jersey factory. 1962 Thefirst computer game Spacewar Computer Game invented BY Steve Russell& MIT
  35. 35. 1963 Douglas Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouse (nicknamed the mouse becausethe tail came out the end) 1963 TheAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange(ASCII) is developed to standardizedata exchangeamong computers.
  36. 36. Third Generation - 1963-1971)
  37. 37. 1964 IBMintroduces the first word processor 1964 JohnKemenyand ThomasKurtzdevelop Beginner’sAll-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC)
  38. 38. 1965 Andriesvan Dam and Ted Nelson coin theterm "hypertext" 1967 IBMcreatesthe first floppy disk 1969 SeymourCray develops the CDC 7600, the first supercomputer
  39. 39. 1969 Gary Starkweather inventsthe laser printerwhilst working with Xerox 1969 TheU.S. Department ofDefense sets up the Advanced ResearchProjects Agency Network (ARPANET) this network was the first building blocks towhat the internet is today but originally with the intention ofcreating a computer network that could withstand any typeofdisaster.
  40. 40. 1970 Intel introducesthe world's first available dynamic RAM( random-accessmemory) chip and the first microprocessor,the Intel 4004.
  41. 41. Fourth Generation (1971-)
  42. 42. 1971 E-mail was invented by Ray Tomlinson 1971 Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD ) was invented by James Fergason
  43. 43. 1971 Pocket calculator was invented by SharpCorporation 1971 Floppy Disk was invented by David Noble with IBM - Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility. 1972 Atari releases Pong, the first commercial video game
  44. 44. 1973 Robert Metcalfecreatesthe Ethernet, a local-area network (LAN) protocol 1972 Thecompact disc is invented in the United States.
  45. 45. 1973 Theminicomputer Xerox Alto (1973) was a landmark step in the development ofpersonal computers 1973 VintCerfand Bob Kahndevelop gateway routing computers to negotiate between the variousnational networks
  46. 46. 1974 IBMdevelops SEQUEL (StructuredEnglish QueryLanguage ) now known asSQL 1974 CharlesSimonyi coins the term WYSIWYG(WhatYou See Is WhatYou Get) to describethe ability ofbeing able todisplay a file ordocument exactly howit is going tobe printed or viewed 1975 Altair producesthe first portable computer
  47. 47. 1977 WardChristensenwrites the programme "MODEM"allowing two microcomputers to exchangefiles with eachother over a phone line 1978 Thefirst magnetic tape is developed in theUS 1979 Overhalf a million computersare in use in the United States.
  48. 48. 1975 TheMicrosoft Corporation was founded April4, 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop and sell BASICinterpretersfor the Altair 8800 1976 Apple Computerswas by founded Steve Wozniak and SteveJobs 1977 Apple Computer’sApple II, thefirst personal computer with color graphics, is demonstrated
  49. 49. 1980 IBMhiresPaul Allen and Bill Gates tocreate an operating systemfor a new PC. Theybuy the rights to a simple operating systemmanufactured by Seattle Computer Productsand useit as a template todevelop DOS. 1981 MS-DOS Computer Operating System increasesits success 1982 WordPerfectCorporation introduces WordPerfect1.0 a word processing program
  50. 50. 1982 TheCommodore 64 becomes the best- selling computerof all time. 1982 SMTP(Simple Mail TransferProtocol) is introduced 1983 More than10 million computersare in usein the United States
  51. 51. 1983 Domain Name System (DNS) pioneered by JonPostel, Paul Mockapetris and Craig Partridge. Seven'top-level' domain namesare initially introduced: edu, com, gov, mil, net, org and int. Microsoft Windows introduced eliminating the needfor a usertohave to type eachcommand, like MS-DOS, by usinga mouse to navigate through drop-down menus, tabs and icons
  52. 52. 1984 Apple introducesthe Macintosh with mouse and window interface 1984 William Gibson coins the word cyberspacewhen he publishes Neuromancer 1985 PaulBrainardintroduces Pagemakerforthe Macintosh creating the desktoppublishingfield.
  53. 53. 1985 TheNintendo Entertainment System makes its debut. 1986 More than30 million computersare in use in theUnited States. 1987 Microsoft introduces Microsoft Works 1987 Larry Wallintroduces Perl 1.0 1988 Over45 million PCsare in use in theUnited States.
  54. 54. 1990 Tim Berners-Leeand Robert Cailliau propose a 'hypertext' system starting the modern Internet 1990 Microsoft and IBMstop working together to develop operating systems 1991 TheWorld Wide Web is launched to the public on August6, 1991
  55. 55. 1993 At the beginning of the yearonly 50 WorldWide Web serversareknown to exist 1994 TheWorld Wide Web Consortiumis founded by Tim Berners-Leeto help with the development of common protocols for the evolution ofthe World Wide Web 1994 YAHOOis created in April, 1994. 1995 Java is introduced 1995 Amazon.com is founded by JeffBezos
  56. 56. 1995 EBay is founded by PierreOmidyar 1995 Hotmail is started by Jack Smith and Sabeer Bhatia. 1996 WebTVis introduced 1997 Altavista introducesits freeonline translatorBabel Fish 1998 Google is founded by Sergey Brinand Larry Page on September 7, 1998
  57. 57. 1998 PayPal is founded by PeterThiel and MaxLevchin 2001 Xbox: Bill Gates introduces the Xbox on January7th 2001. 2002 Approximately 1 billion PCs been sold 2006 Skype announcesthat it has over 100 million registered users.
  58. 58. http://www.computernostalgia.net/articles/abacus.htm http://paninisashtadhyayi.blogspot.com/ http://dc228.4shared.com/doc/IMflZUYM/preview.html http://www.tcf.ua.edu/AZ/ITHistoryOutline.htm http://history- computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/Pioneers/Schickard. html http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_jacquard.htm http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/726021/Arithm ometer http://www.enchantedlearning.com/morsecode/notopad.sht ml http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/boolalg-math/
  59. 59. http://history- computer.com/Babbage/NextDifferentialEngines/Scheutz.html http://history- computer.com/ModernComputer/thinkers/Jevons.html http://history- computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/19thCentury/Verea.htmh ttp://www- 03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/vintage_4506VV2027. htmll http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-59223/Walther-Bothe http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/bush_v/bush_v.html http://www.resonancepub.com/kurtgodel.htm http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1954 /bothe.html http://gayinfluence.blogspot.com/2012/03/alan-turing.html http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?year=1940
  60. 60. http://www.old-computers.com/history/detail.asp?n=8&t=1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_computer http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/08/dayi ntech_0807 http://laptopspluswest.com/who-built-the-first-computer/ http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102622 385 http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/comeniac.htm http://www.corporationtocommunity.com/douglas-engelbart/ http://jaypgreene.com/2009/10/19/william-higinbotham-not- nominated-for-al-copeland-humanitarian/ http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Small- Scale_Experimental_Machine
  61. 61. http://www.sinc.sunysb.edu/Stu/daeulee/Korean_War _home.html http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=638184 http://petetjohnson.wordpress.com/2011/04/24/dougla s-engelbart-inventor-of-the-computer-mouse/ file:///E:/ha/COBOL.htm http://museum.mit.edu/150/25 http://cicorp.com/ASCII/index.htm http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n9/FirstXlentWordP rocessor.html http://cis-alumni.org/TKurtz.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext
  62. 62. http://history- computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/laser_printer.html http://www.dipity.com/KathrynBilic/Development-of-the- Internet/ http://inetstudent1.francistuttle.com/mb0862039/portfolio/tim eline/60s.html http://www.designboom.com/history/floppydisk.html http://vision.middlebury.edu/~sdakalovic/email.html http://www.whoinventedthis.org/who-invented-the-cd-player/ http://www.rickard.gunee.com/projects/video/sx/pong.php http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/networking/19/38 1 http://www.cedmagic.com/history/xerox-alto.html http://happycodes.blogspot.com/2012/05/sql-tutorial.html

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