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What Americans Should Know about Korea by Mary Connor (Updated June 2017)

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What Americans Should Know about Korea by Mary Connor (Updated June 2017)

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What Americans Should Know about Korea by Mary Connor (Updated June 2017)

  1. 1. What Koreans Want Americans to Know About Korea Original Power Point created by Edward J. Shultz, University of Hawaii in 2005 and Extended and Updated by Mary Connor, President Korea Academy for Educators, 2004-2012 Advisor, National Korean Studies Seminar, 2014-2017 Copyright 2015 and Updated 2017
  2. 2. Recommended Reading •Don Clark, Korea in World History •Mary Connor, Asia in Focus: The Koreas (2009) •Barbara Demick: Nothing to Envy •Bruce Fulton, Waxen Wings (short stories) •Richard Kim, Lost Names: Scenes from a Korean Boyhood •Yi Munyol, Our Twisted Hero •Linda Sue Park, A Single Shard •Young-Bok Yoo, Tears of Blood (translation Paul Kim) •www.NationalKoreanStudies.com •www.state.gov (North and South Korea) •(See Teaching East Asia: Korea for lessons, articles, and additional book recommendations)
  3. 3. United States has played a Significant Role in Korea’s History • 1882 – Shufeldt Treaty – Korea signed an unequal treaty with the U.S., the first time that Korea signed a treaty with a Western nation. Subsequency, the U.S. paved the way for further influences from the West. • 1905 – Taft-Katsura Agreement – secret agreement between U.S. and Japan. In this agreement, the U.S. recognized Japan’s interests in Korea in exchange for securing U.S. interests in the Philippines.This agreement led to Japanese occupation from 1910 to 1945.
  4. 4. • 1945 – Without consulting Korea, the U.S. divided Korea at end of World War II as we feared the Russians would take over the entire Peninsula. • 1950–1953 The U.S. provided the most military support for South Korea during the Korean War. • 1940s–1980s U.S. and South Korea are Cold War partners • 1965–1973 South Korea sends 300,000 South Korean troops to fight in the Vietnam War U.S. Influence in Korea
  5. 5. Current U.S. – Korea Relations • North Korea: Since late 1980s, U.S. and South Korea have sought a resolution to North Korean efforts to pursue nuclear weapons. The Six-Party Talks began in 2003 and were aimed at ending North Korea's nuclear program through a negotiating process; however there has been no real progress as evidenced by North Korea’s frequent missile tests in 2017. • South Korea: South Korea values its diplomatic, economic, and cultural ties with the U.S. Approximately, 28,000 U.S. troops remain in South Korea. • Korean students; Korean students are the fourth largest group of foreign students next to China, India, and Saudi Arabia.
  6. 6. The Geography of Korea • Northeast Asia • A Peninsula • East Sea (not Sea of Japan), South Sea, and West Sea • Four Distinct Seasons • Monsoon climate • 70% of Korea is occupied by mountains
  7. 7. • In art, literature, and in their leisure, Koreans reveal their deep passion for nature. • The importance of being in harmony with nature is seen in homes, palaces, and temples • Koreans appreciate their natural surroundings and are very proud of the exquisite beauty of the Peninsula whether in the North or South. Koreans have a strong aesthetic sense and it is rooted in nature. Korea is Beautiful and Koreans Have a Passion for Nature
  8. 8. Since 70 % of Korea is mountainous, one can readily see that the Korean Peninsula is very beautiful. This particular photo of North Korea is unusual as the forests for the most part have been destroyed because of the need for fuel. The Scenic Beauty of Korea
  9. 9. • Approximately 3,400 islands exist off the Korean coast. The largest of these islands is Jejudo. Koreans consider this island to be the Hawaii of Korea. The island attracts large numbers of honeymooners, Korean families, and tourists. Jejudo
  10. 10. Koreans are Proud of their Long History
  11. 11. Chronology – Key Dates • Korea Foundation (Tangun legend) – 2333 B.C. • Three Kingdoms – Goguryeo (37 BCE - 668 CE), • Baekje (18 BCE – 660 CE), Silla (57 BCE – 668 CE) • Three Dynasties – Unified Silla (668 CE – 935 CE) • Goryeo – 918 – 1392), and Joseon 1392-1910. • Japanese Occupation – 1910 - 1945 • Division - 1945 and War – 1950 - 1953 • Economic Development – 1960s - Present • Democratization – 1990s
  12. 12. Koreans are Proud of their Past Achievements • Inventions – Printing (Goryeo) • Movable metal print (200 years before Gutenberg) – Ironclad vessels (Joseon) 250 years before the Monitor and the Merrimac
  13. 13. Koreans are proud of their written language, Hangeul • Created by King Sejong, Korea’s greatest king in 1446 to bring literacy to his people • Clever, simple set of consonants and vowels • A scientific language: shape of each character relates to the position of one’s mouth in making a particular sound. • Only 14 consonants and 10 vowels, but it can express virtually any sound.
  14. 14. Koreans are proud of their cultural treasures • Seokguram(750 CE) (Unified Silla) One of the most beautiful Buddhas in all of East Asia • Pottery – Celadon (praised even by China as some of the world’s finest ceramic art) – Buncheong (greatly admired by the Chinese and Japanese)
  15. 15. Seokguram Grotto • The construction of this temple began in 751 C.E. during Unified Silla. The temple represents a combination of Silla’s knowledge of architecture, math, geometry, physics, religion and art into an organic whole and is one of Korea’s greatest Buddhist masterpieces.
  16. 16. Bulguksa Temple • Construction began at this temple the same year as Seokguram in 751. Built on a series of stone terraces, the temple blends into the rocky landscape of a forested mountain. Three staircases are called bridges because they lead from the secular world to the spiritual one of the Buddha.
  17. 17. Celadon • The artistry of the Goryeo Dynasty (918- 1392) can best be appreciated by its celadon ware. The jade green color and elegant designs are truly stunning looking and are very distinct from Chinese designs.
  18. 18. Koreans are Proud of their Folk Art Traditions • In the 18th and 19th century Koreans were influenced by a movement that promoted the rights of the people. This had a great impact on historical writing, fiction, poetry and the arts. TheTiger and the Magpie painting exemplifies the folk art tradition.
  19. 19. Haeinsa Temple/Tripitaka Koreana • Haeinsa houses the Tripitaka Koreana, consisting of some 81,258 wood printing blocks, the most complete Buddhist text in the world. It was carved in the 13th century and preserved by a ventilation system that has prevented their deterioration.
  20. 20. Religion: Buddhism • Arrived in Fourth Century • Profound impact on art, music, and literature • Inspired magnificent sculpture and architecture • Peaks in 10th -12th centuries • 15.5% of South Koreans are Buddhist, 27.6% Christian, and 56.9 % • have no religious affiliation.
  21. 21. Philosophy: Confucianism • Fourth century • Dominant ideology during Joseon dynasty (1392 – 1910) • Korea is the most Confucian of all Asian nations • Confucian beliefs: importance of the family and community over the individual, role fulfillment, filial piety, loyalty, hierarchy, obedience to authority, and education.
  22. 22. Confucianism in America • Educational achievement is a high priority (A not A-). Success for the group (family) more important than individual recognition. Role fulfillment. • A strong work ethic. • Success in one’s studies has historically been a path for social mobility. Doctors/lawyers/engineers/educators • Hierarchy – get into the best colleges. • Korean moms are traditionally “the education moms” and are judged by their children’s success or lack of it. • Respect for teachers, elders, authority • Confucianism varies by generation and by the individual.
  23. 23. Historical Background: Korea as a Japanese Colony • 1910–1945 • Brutal exploitation • Some modernization efforts, but benefits were primarily Japan’s. • Gave rise to nationalism and the Independence Movement • Growth of Christianity in response to the challenges of occupation.
  24. 24. Japanese Colonial Period (1910–1945) Koreans had to obey the laws of Japan. Children had to adopt Japanese customs, culture and language. Koreans were forced to take Japanese names: the most cherished source of family identity and ancestor worship. Approximately 200,000 women were forced to serve the sexual needs of Japanese troops. In order to succeed and provide for their families, many educated Koreans collaborated with the Japanese.
  25. 25. To destroy national spirit, Koreans were forced to bow at Shinto shrines
  26. 26. Korean children had to practice Japanese calligraphy
  27. 27. Korean children could not speak their own language and had to read from Japanese textbooks
  28. 28. • Thousands of Korean women were forced to serve Japanese soldiers and were called comfort women
  29. 29. The Legacy of Occupation • An unrepentant Japan • Lingering memories of Japanese brutality • Japanese textbooks exclude information about occupation and WWII • Some Korean families collaborated with the Japanese • Korea and Japan both claim Dokdo Island • The issue of the comfort women
  30. 30. The Koreas Today • Size (Korean Peninsula) – 84,747 sq miles California – 163,000 sq. Miles So. Korea – 38,000 sq. miles No. Korea – 46,400 sq. miles • Population (Korean Peninsula) – 75 million Koreans – No. Korea – 25 million – South Korea – 50 million – ( California - 39 million) • Greater Seoul area – 25 million – 4th largest metropolitan area in world
  31. 31. Seoul: The Old and the New
  32. 32. P’yongyang, North Korea • The capital is a well- ordered city carefully designed to glorify national founder Kim Il Sung and promote communism. It is also the political, cultural, and educational center of the nation. The huge sterile buildings resemble Soviet architecture.
  33. 33. Public Building, Pyongyang • This photograph was taken in 2007 before the death of Kim Jong Il. Photographs of the leaders are in all public places, such as this library. Certainly, photographs of Kim Jong- un must now appear everywhere. All homes must also include photographs of Kim Il Sung.
  34. 34. North Korean School Girls • One girl wears a Kim Il Sung pin and the other a red scarf, signs of loyalty to the state and that they are good communists. Both look healthy and willing to be photographed
  35. 35. North Korean Children
  36. 36. Post WWII-North/South Division • 1945 – US decision immediately following Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet Union’s invasion of Korea • Koreans were not consulted in the haste to prevent the Peninsula from becoming communist • Thought at the time that division would be temporary, but 72 years later the Peninsula is still divided. • Split a nation that had been unified since 668 C.E.
  37. 37. Korean War • 1950–53 • Cold War struggle and a civil war • Massive destruction – 3 million dead – Infrastructure destroyed – Division remains – The issues of the war continue – no formal ending to the war – only an armistice
  38. 38. North Korea (DPRK) • Founded 1948 • Kim Il Sung 1948-1994 (Great Leader) • Kim Jong Il 1994-2011 (Dear Leader) • Kim Jong Un 2011- (Supreme Leader) • Until 90s North Korea was dependent on the Soviet Union
  39. 39. South Korea • Founded 1948 • Many political leaders – Syngman Rhee – Park Chunghee – Chun Doo Hwan – Roh Tae Woo – Kim Young Sam – Kim Dae Jung – Roh Moo Hyun - Lee Myung-Bak - Park Geun-hye - Moon Jae-in
  40. 40. South Korea (ROK) a Success in becoming a Democratic Nation • The election of Kim Young Sam as President of South Korea in 1992 brought civilian rule to South Korea after more than three decades of military rule. • Kim Dae Jung’s election in 1997 was the first peaceful transition of power from the ruling party to the opposition party through an open and fair election.
  41. 41. Successful and Rapid Economic Development (1962–1997) • 1. Work ethic • 2. Well educated population • 3. Close ties between South Korean government and business • 4. Substantial military and economic aid from the U.S. during the Cold War • 5. U.S. technology and technical expertise. • 6. U.S. contracts to South Korea during Vietnam War
  42. 42. Economic Success Story • Sustained growth from the late 60s • 14th largest economy • 7th largest exporter • 9th largest importer • In top 10 for penetration • of 3G handsets • 2nd in shipbuilding, but first in sales • Home of globally recognized companies such as Samsung, LG, Hyundai and Kia.
  43. 43. South Korea and North Korea • Capital – Seoul • Democratic republic • Three branches of gov’t • 19% arable land • 50 million 97.9 literacy • GDP per capita $37,900 • Industry: electronics, automobiles, ships, mining, manufacturing • Exports: $509 billion Capital – Pyongyang Highly centralized communist state 14% arable land 25 million 100% literacy GDP - $1,700 est. Industry: military products, machine building, chemicals Estimate: $4.152 billion (2015)
  44. 44. Interesting Facts/Thoughts/Opportunities • South Korea is 1/4 of the size of California, but is the 14th largest economy in the world and the 7th largest exporter, • California’s neighbors are Oregon to the north, Mexico to the south, Nevada to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. South Korea’s neighbors to the north are North Korea and Russia, China is on the west, and Japan is to the east. How might this influence the perspective of South Koreans? If China, Russia, and Japan were our neighbors, how would it impact our outlook/policies? • Teaching is the most respected profession. Many American teachers are teaching in South Korea. Pay is excellent and housing is provided.
  45. 45. North Korea: Why go nuclear? • Kim Jong-un wants to stay in power • U.S. backs South Korea • North feels threatened by U.S. • Memories of Korean War devastation. • North Korea: Inefficient system of distribution, floods, starvation, weak infrastructure • Population of South Korea twice as large as population of North Korea
  46. 46. Korean Pop Culture Sweeping the World • Korean Wave (Hallyu) • Singers • Movies • Drama – Bae Yong-joon
  47. 47. • Hallyu, the Korean Wave, is the phenomenon of Korean popular culture spreading across the world. • Hallyu includes film, television drama, pop music, movie stars, video/computer gaming, mobile content (cell phones and ipods), animation, and comics. Hallyu
  48. 48. Korean Pop • Korean Popular culture has had a tremendous impact throughout the world, especially with the younger generation. Many American students have not only wanted to listen to K-Pop music, but to watch Korean films and eat Korean food. • Korean Pop has also had significant influence on American students wanting to learn the Korean language. In fact, Korean language instruction was reported to have increased 70 % during the past decade.
  49. 49. • Over the past ten-fifteen years there have been many Korean Pop stars, such as Rain and Psy and groups: BoA, Super Junior, Shinhwa, Miss A, and Crayon Pop. • In 2012, Psy’s Gangnam style video exceeded one billion views on You Tube, becoming the first to do so in this website’s history Korean Pop
  50. 50. Psy
  51. 51. Girls Generation #1 January 2017
  52. 52. BTS #1 January 2017
  53. 53. Koreans in America • 2003 Centennial • Highly educated • Highest percentage of small businesses of any group in US • Our Neighbors and our students • Arirang, part 1 & 2 (first documentary on Korean American history) CD and DVD

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