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Takayuki Shimizukawa
Sphinx co-maintainer
Sphinx-users.jp
1
Who am I
@shimizukawa
1. Sphinx co-maintainer
2. Sphinx-users.jp
3. PyCon JP committee
 BePROUD co, ltd.
2
http://pycon.jp/
3
Early Bird Registration: 210 tickets.
Speaker Call for Proposals: until July 15th.
4
180 tickets gone
5
Do you know
the docstring?
6
1. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True):
2. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted
``str``.
3. """
4.
5. ...
6. return ...
...
Have you written
API docs
using docstrings?
8
What is the reason you do not write docstrings.
 I don't know what/where should I write.
 Are there some docstring forma...
Goal of this session
 How to generate a doc from Python source
code.
 re-discovering the meaning of docstrings.
10
11
What is Sphinx?
 Sphinx is a Open Source documentation generator.
 Sphinx was created to generate Python official
librar...
Many docs are written by Sphinx
For examples
 Python libraries/tools:
Python, Sphinx, Flask, Jinja2, Django, Pyramid,
SQL...
Relation between Sphinx and Docutils
 Sphinx based upon Docutils library
 Docutils/Sphinx supports reStructuredText
it c...
Comparing Docutils and Sphinx
Docutils Sphinx
1. Single page
2. Link to others with full name
3. Cross reference in a page...
Sphinx extensions (built-in)
Sphinx extensions extend reST markup and
provide extra writers.
Sphinx provides these extensi...
library code example
1. "utility functions"
2.
3. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True):
4. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON for...
$ pip install sphinx
 Your code and sphinx should be in single
python environment.
 Python version is also important.
Ho...
$ cd /path/to/your-code
$ sphinx-quickstart doc -m
...
Project name: Deep thought
Author name(s): Mice
Project version: 0....
$ cd doc
$ make html
...
Build finished. The HTML pages are in _build/html.
"make html" command
generates html files into
...
Current files structure
$ tree /path/to/your-code
+- deep_thought
| +- __init__.py
| +- api.py
| +- calc.py
| +- utils.py
...
22
$ tree /path/to/your-code
+- deep_thought
| +- __init__.py
| +- api.py
| +- calc.py
| +- utils.py
+- doc
| +- _build/
| | ...
Add automodule directive to your doc
1. Deep thought API
2. ================
3.
4. .. automodule:: deep_thought.utils
5. :...
$ cd doc
$ make html
...
Build finished. The HTML pages are in _build/html.
make html
25
How does it work?
autodoc directive generates intermediate reST
internally:
1. Deep thought API
2. ================
3.
4. ...
$ make html SPHINXOPTS=-vvv
...
...
[autodoc] output:
.. py:module:: deep_thought.utils
utility functions
.. py:function::...
Take care!
Sphinx autodoc import your code
to get docstrings.
It means autodoc will execute code
at module global level.
28
Danger code
1. import os
2.
3. def delete_world():
4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /')
5.
6. delete_world() # will be executed a...
execution guard on import
1. import os
2.
3. def delete_world():
4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /')
5.
6. delete_world() # will...
execution guard on import
1. import os
2.
3. def delete_world():
4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /')
5.
6. delete_world() # will...
"Oh, I can't understand the type of arguments
and meanings even reading this!"
32
Lacking necessary information
1. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True):
2. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted
3. :class:`str`.
4.
5. :param dict obj: ...
def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True):
"""Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted :class:`str`.
:param dict obj: dict type objec...
Cross-reference to functions
1. Examples
2. ==========
3.
4. This is a usage of :func:`deep_thought.utils.dumps`
blah blah...
36
Code example in a docstring
1. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True):
2. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted
3. :class:`s...
Syntax highlighted output
$ make html
...
rendered
doctest
block
38
 You can expect that developers will update code
examples when the interface is changed.
We expect ...
1. def dumps(obj, ...
 ̄\_(ツ)_/ ̄
40
doctest builder
41
1. ...
2.
3. extensions = [
4. 'sphinx.ext.autodoc',
5. 'sphinx.ext.doctest',
6. ]
7.
 Line-5: add 'sphinx.ext.doctest' e...
$ make doctest
...
Document: api
-------------
********************************************************
File "api.rst", li...
44
Individual pages for each modules
api.html
calc.html
utils.html
45
1. deep_thought.utils
2. ===================
3. .. auto...
1. deep_thought.utils
2. ===================
3. .. automodule:: deep_thought.utils
4. :members:
Add automodule directive t...
 ̄\_(ツ)_/ ̄
47
autosummary extension
48
1. ...
2.
3. extensions = [
4. 'sphinx.ext.autodoc',
5. 'sphinx.ext.doctest',
6. 'sphinx.ext.autosummary',
7. ]
8. autodoc...
1. Deep thought API
2. ================
3.
4. .. autosummary::
5. :toctree: generated
6.
7. deep_thought.api
8. deep_thoug...
Output of autosummary
autosummary directive
become TOC for each
module pages.
51
52
1. def spam():
2. ...
3. return res
4.
5. def ham():
6. ...
7. return res
8.
9. def egg():
10. ...
11. return res
How to f...
coverage extension
54
1. ...
2.
3. extensions = [
4. 'sphinx.ext.autodoc',
5. 'sphinx.ext.doctest',
6. 'sphinx.ext.autosummary',
7. 'sphinx.ext....
make coverage and check the result
$ make coverage
...
Testing of coverage in the sources finished, look at the
results in...
CAUTION!
1. Undocumented Python objects
2. ===========================
3. deep_thought.utils
4. ------------------
5. Func...
Let's make Pull-Request!
We are waiting for your contribution
to solve the problem.
(bow)
58
59
Why don't you write docstrings?
 I don't know what/where should I write.
 Let's write a description, arguments and docte...
61
1. Options
62
Options for autodoc
 :members: blah
 To document just specified members. Empty is ALL.
 :undoc-members: ...
 To docume...
2. Directives for Web API
64
sphinxcontrib-httpdomain 3rd-party ext
http domain's get directive
render
page
render routing table (index)
http highlight...
3. Document translation
66
Translation into other languages
$ make gettext
...
Build finished. The message catalogs are in
_build/gettext.
$ sphinx-i...
Questions?
@shimizukawa
68
Thanks :)
69
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Sphinx autodoc - automated API documentation (PyCon APAC 2015 in Taiwan)

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Sphinx autodoc - automated API documentation (PyCon APAC 2015 in Taiwan)

  1. 1. Takayuki Shimizukawa Sphinx co-maintainer Sphinx-users.jp 1
  2. 2. Who am I @shimizukawa 1. Sphinx co-maintainer 2. Sphinx-users.jp 3. PyCon JP committee  BePROUD co, ltd. 2
  3. 3. http://pycon.jp/ 3
  4. 4. Early Bird Registration: 210 tickets. Speaker Call for Proposals: until July 15th. 4 180 tickets gone
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Do you know the docstring? 6
  7. 7. 1. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True): 2. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted ``str``. 3. """ 4. 5. ... 6. return ... Line 2,3 is a docstring You can see the string by "help(dumps)" Docstring 7
  8. 8. Have you written API docs using docstrings? 8
  9. 9. What is the reason you do not write docstrings.  I don't know what/where should I write.  Are there some docstring format spec?  It's not beneficial. I'll tell you a good way to write the docstrings. 9
  10. 10. Goal of this session  How to generate a doc from Python source code.  re-discovering the meaning of docstrings. 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. What is Sphinx?  Sphinx is a Open Source documentation generator.  Sphinx was created to generate Python official library's document.  Sphinx generates doc as several output formats from the reST text markup. Sphinx reSTreSTreStructuredText (reST) reST Parser HTML Builder ePub Builder LaTeX Builder texlive HTML theme Favorite Editor 12
  13. 13. Many docs are written by Sphinx For examples  Python libraries/tools: Python, Sphinx, Flask, Jinja2, Django, Pyramid, SQLAlchemy, Numpy, SciPy, scikit-learn, pandas, fabric, ansible, awscli, …  Non python libraries/tools: Chef, CakePHP(2.x), MathJax, Selenium, Varnish 13
  14. 14. Relation between Sphinx and Docutils  Sphinx based upon Docutils library  Docutils/Sphinx supports reStructuredText it called reST, it's an extensible markup (PEP287 / accepted at 2002) Sphinx reST Parser HTML Builder ePub Builder LaTeX Builder HTML theme docutils 14
  15. 15. Comparing Docutils and Sphinx Docutils Sphinx 1. Single page 2. Link to others with full name 3. Cross reference in a page 4. Writers: html, latex, man, xml, ... 5. Standard reST markup specs 1. Multiple Pages 2. toctree to connect all pages under single tree structure 3. Cross reference over each other pages 4. Additional writers: html(w/ themes), pdf(latex), texinfo, epub, … 5. Additional markup specs: autodoc directive and so on 15 1. Sphinx introduction & Setup for i18n
  16. 16. Sphinx extensions (built-in) Sphinx extensions extend reST markup and provide extra writers. Sphinx provides these extensions to support automated API documentation.  sphinx.ext.autodoc  sphinx.ext.autosummary  sphinx.ext.doctest  sphinx.ext.coverage Sphinx reST Parser HTML Builder ePub Builder LaTeX Builder docutils autosummary autodoc doctest coverage 16
  17. 17. library code example 1. "utility functions" 2. 3. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True): 4. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted ``str``. 5. """ 6. ... deep_thought/utils.py $ tree /path/to/your-code +- deep_thought | +- __init__.py | +- api.py | +- calc.py | +- utils.py +- setup.py 17
  18. 18. $ pip install sphinx  Your code and sphinx should be in single python environment.  Python version is also important. How to install Sphinx 18
  19. 19. $ cd /path/to/your-code $ sphinx-quickstart doc -m ... Project name: Deep thought Author name(s): Mice Project version: 0.7.5 ... ... Finished  "-m" to generate minimal Makefile/make.bat  -m is important to introduce this session easily. How to start a Sphinx project Keep pressing ENTER key 19 Create a doc directory
  20. 20. $ cd doc $ make html ... Build finished. The HTML pages are in _build/html. "make html" command generates html files into _build/html. make html once 20
  21. 21. Current files structure $ tree /path/to/your-code +- deep_thought | +- __init__.py | +- api.py | +- calc.py | +- utils.py +- doc | +- _build/ | | +- html/ | +- _static/ | +- _template/ | +- conf.py | +- index.rst | +- make.bat | +- Makefile +- setup.py Scaffold files Build output Library files 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. $ tree /path/to/your-code +- deep_thought | +- __init__.py | +- api.py | +- calc.py | +- utils.py +- doc | +- _build/ | | +- html/ | +- _static/ | +- _template/ | +- conf.py | +- index.rst | +- make.bat | +- Makefile +- setup.py 1. import os 2. import sys 3. sys.path.insert(0, os.path.abspath('..')) 4. extensions = [ 5. 'sphinx.ext.autodoc', 6. ] setup autodoc extension doc/conf.py 23 Line-3: add your library path to import them from Sphinx autodoc. Line-5: add 'sphinx.ext.autodoc' to use the extension.
  24. 24. Add automodule directive to your doc 1. Deep thought API 2. ================ 3. 4. .. automodule:: deep_thought.utils 5. :members: 6. 1. "utility functions" 2. 3. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True): 4. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted ``str``. 5. """ 6. ... doc/index.rst 24 deep_thought/utils.py Line-4: automodule directive import specified module and inspect the module. Line-5: :members: option will inspects all members of module not only module docstring.
  25. 25. $ cd doc $ make html ... Build finished. The HTML pages are in _build/html. make html 25
  26. 26. How does it work? autodoc directive generates intermediate reST internally: 1. Deep thought API 2. ================ 3. 4. .. py:module:: deep_thought.utils 5. 6. utility functions 7. 8. .. py:function:: dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True) 9. :module: deep_thought.utils 10. 11. Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted :class:`str`. doc/index.rst Intermediate reST 26
  27. 27. $ make html SPHINXOPTS=-vvv ... ... [autodoc] output: .. py:module:: deep_thought.utils utility functions .. py:function:: dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True) :module: deep_thought.utils Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted :class:`str`. You can see the reST with -vvv option 27
  28. 28. Take care! Sphinx autodoc import your code to get docstrings. It means autodoc will execute code at module global level. 28
  29. 29. Danger code 1. import os 2. 3. def delete_world(): 4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /') 5. 6. delete_world() # will be executed at "make html" danger.py 29
  30. 30. execution guard on import 1. import os 2. 3. def delete_world(): 4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /') 5. 6. delete_world() # will be executed at "make html" danger.py 1. import os 2. 3. def delete_world(): 4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /') 5. 6. if __name__ == '__main__': 7. delete_world() # doesn't execute at "make html" safer.py Execution guard 30
  31. 31. execution guard on import 1. import os 2. 3. def delete_world(): 4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /') 5. 6. delete_world() # will be executed at "make html" danger.py 1. import os 2. 3. def delete_world(): 4. os.system('sudo rm -Rf /') 5. 6. if __name__ == '__main__': 7. delete_world() # doesn't execute at "make html" safer.py Execution guard 31
  32. 32. "Oh, I can't understand the type of arguments and meanings even reading this!" 32 Lacking necessary information
  33. 33. 1. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True): 2. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted 3. :class:`str`. 4. 5. :param dict obj: dict type object to serialize. 6. :param bool ensure_ascii: Default is True. If 7. False, all non-ASCII characters are not ... 8. :return: JSON formatted string 9. :rtype: str 10. """  http://sphinx-doc.org/domains.html#info-field-lists "info field lists" for arguments deep_thought/utils.py 33
  34. 34. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True): """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted :class:`str`. :param dict obj: dict type object to serialize. :param bool ensure_ascii: Default is True. If False, all non-ASCII characters are not ... :return: JSON formatted string :rtype: str """ ... "info field lists" for arguments deep_thought/utils.py 34
  35. 35. Cross-reference to functions 1. Examples 2. ========== 3. 4. This is a usage of :func:`deep_thought.utils.dumps` blah blah blah. ... examples.py reference (hyper link) 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Code example in a docstring 1. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True): 2. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted 3. :class:`str`. 4. 5. For example: 6. 7. >>> from deep_thought.utils import dumps 8. >>> data = dict(spam=1, ham='egg') 9. >>> dumps(data) 10. '{spam: 1, ham: "egg"}' 11. 12. :param dict obj: dict type object to serialize. 13. :param bool ensure_ascii: Default is True. If 14. False, all non-ASCII characters are not ... deep_thought/utils.py 37 doctest block You can copy & paste the red lines from python interactive shell.
  38. 38. Syntax highlighted output $ make html ... rendered doctest block 38
  39. 39.  You can expect that developers will update code examples when the interface is changed. We expect ... 1. def dumps(obj, ensure_ascii=True): 2. """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted 3. :class:`str`. 4. 5. For example: 6. 7. >>> from deep_thought.utils import dumps 8. >>> data = dict(spam=1, ham='egg') 9. >>> dumps(data) 10. '{spam: 1, ham: "egg"}' The code example is very close from implementation!! deep_thought/utils.py 39
  40. 40.  ̄\_(ツ)_/ ̄ 40
  41. 41. doctest builder 41
  42. 42. 1. ... 2. 3. extensions = [ 4. 'sphinx.ext.autodoc', 5. 'sphinx.ext.doctest', 6. ] 7.  Line-5: add 'sphinx.ext.doctest' extension. setup doctest extension doc/conf.py append 42
  43. 43. $ make doctest ... Document: api ------------- ******************************************************** File "api.rst", line 11, in default Failed example: dumps(data) Expected: '{spam: 1, ham: "egg"}' Got: 'to-be-implemented' ... make: *** [doctest] Error 1 Result of "make doctest" 43 Result of doctest
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. Individual pages for each modules api.html calc.html utils.html 45 1. deep_thought.utils 2. =================== 3. .. automodule:: deep_thought.utils 4. :members: doc/deep_thought.utils.rst
  46. 46. 1. deep_thought.utils 2. =================== 3. .. automodule:: deep_thought.utils 4. :members: Add automodule directive to your doc doc/deep_thought.utils.rst 1. deep_thought.calc 2. ================== 3. .. automodule:: deep_thought.calc 4. :members: 1. deep_thought.api 2. ================== 3. .. automodule:: deep_thought.api 4. :members: doc/deep_thought.calc.rst doc/deep_thought.api.rst And many many reST files ... 46
  47. 47.  ̄\_(ツ)_/ ̄ 47
  48. 48. autosummary extension 48
  49. 49. 1. ... 2. 3. extensions = [ 4. 'sphinx.ext.autodoc', 5. 'sphinx.ext.doctest', 6. 'sphinx.ext.autosummary', 7. ] 8. autodoc_default_flags = ['members'] 9. autosummary_generate = True 10.  Line-9: autosummary_generate = True generates reST files what you will specify with using autosummary directive. setup autosummary extension doc/conf.py append append append 49
  50. 50. 1. Deep thought API 2. ================ 3. 4. .. autosummary:: 5. :toctree: generated 6. 7. deep_thought.api 8. deep_thought.calc 9. deep_thought.utils 10. Replace automodule with autosummary doc/index.rst $ make html ... 50
  51. 51. Output of autosummary autosummary directive become TOC for each module pages. 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 1. def spam(): 2. ... 3. return res 4. 5. def ham(): 6. ... 7. return res 8. 9. def egg(): 10. ... 11. return res How to find undocumented funcs? doc/nodoc.py 53
  54. 54. coverage extension 54
  55. 55. 1. ... 2. 3. extensions = [ 4. 'sphinx.ext.autodoc', 5. 'sphinx.ext.doctest', 6. 'sphinx.ext.autosummary', 7. 'sphinx.ext.coverage', 8. ] 9. autodoc_default_flags = ['members'] 10. autosummary_generate = True setup coverage extension doc/conf.py append  Line-7: add 'sphinx.ext.coverage' extension. 55
  56. 56. make coverage and check the result $ make coverage ... Testing of coverage in the sources finished, look at the results in _buildcoverage. $ ls _build/coverage c.txt python.txt undoc.pickle 1. Undocumented Python objects 2. =========================== 3. deep_thought.utils 4. ------------------ 5. Functions: 6. * egg _build/coverage/python.txt This function doesn't have a doc! 56
  57. 57. CAUTION! 1. Undocumented Python objects 2. =========================== 3. deep_thought.utils 4. ------------------ 5. Functions: 6. * egg python.txt $ make coverage ... Testing of coverage in the sources finished, look at the results in _buildcoverage. $ ls _build/coverage c.txt python.txt undoc.pickle The command always return ZERO coverage.xml is not exist reST format for whom? 57
  58. 58. Let's make Pull-Request! We are waiting for your contribution to solve the problem. (bow) 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. Why don't you write docstrings?  I don't know what/where should I write.  Let's write a description, arguments and doctest blocks at the next line of function signature.  Are there some docstring format spec?  Yes, you can use "info field list" for argument spec and you can use doctest block for code example.  It's not beneficial.  You can use autodoc, autosummary, doctest and coverage to make it beneficial. 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 1. Options 62
  63. 63. Options for autodoc  :members: blah  To document just specified members. Empty is ALL.  :undoc-members: ...  To document members which doesn't have docstring.  :private-members: ...  To document private members which name starts with underscore.  :special-members: ...  To document starts with underscore underscore.  :inherited-members: ...  To document inherited from super class. 63
  64. 64. 2. Directives for Web API 64
  65. 65. sphinxcontrib-httpdomain 3rd-party ext http domain's get directive render page render routing table (index) http highlighter It also contains sphinxcontrib.autohttp.flask, .bottle, .tornado extensions Listing New Index 65
  66. 66. 3. Document translation 66
  67. 67. Translation into other languages $ make gettext ... Build finished. The message catalogs are in _build/gettext. $ sphinx-intl update -p _build/gettext -l zh_tw #: ../../../deep_thought/utils.pydocstring of deep_thought.utils.dumps:1 msgid "Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted :class:`str`." msgstr "序列化 ``obj`` 要JSON格式 :class:`str`." msgid "For example:" msgstr "例如:" locale/zh_tw/LC_MESSAGES/generated.po language = 'zh_tw' locale_dirs = ['locale'] conf.py $ make html ... Build finished. The HTML pages are in _build/html. 67
  68. 68. Questions? @shimizukawa 68
  69. 69. Thanks :) 69

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