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Fairness-aware Classifier
        with Prejudice Remover Regularizer

   Toshihiro Kamishima*, Shotaro Akaho*, Hideki Asoh*, and Jun Sakuma†
        *National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan
          †University of Tsukuba, Japan; and Japan Science and Technology Agency



         ECMLPKDD 2012 (22nd ECML and 15th PKDD Conference)
                         @ Bristol, United Kingdom, Sep. 24-28, 2012




START                                                                                     1
Overview
             Fairness-aware Data Mining
        data analysis taking into account potential issues of
        fairness, discrimination, neutrality, or independence
   fairness-aware classification, regression, or clustering
   detection of unfair events from databases
   fairness-aware data publication



    Examples of Fairness-aware Data Mining Applications
exclude the influence of sensitive information, such as gender or
race, from decisions or predictions
recommendations enhancing their neutrality
data analysis while excluding the influence of uninteresting
information

                                                                   2
Outline
Applications
   fairness-aware data mining applications
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
    Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect
Fairness-aware Classification
    fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices
Methods
   prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes
Experiments
   experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data
Related Work
   privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions,
   explainability, fairness-aware data publication
Conclusion
                                                                      3
Outline
Applications
   applications of fairness-aware data mining
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
    Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect
Fairness-aware Classification
    fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices
Methods
   prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes
Experiments
   experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data
Related Work
   privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions,
   explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication
Conclusion
                                                                        4
Elimination of Discrimination
          Due to the spread of data mining technologies...
Data mining is being increasingly applied for serious decisions
ex. credit scoring, insurance rating, employment application
Accumulation of massive data enables to reveal personal information
ex. demographics can be inferred from the behavior on the Web




 excluding the influence of these socially sensitive information
                     from serious decisions
 information considered from the viewpoint of social fairness
 ex. gender, religion, race, ethnicity, handicap, political conviction
 information restricted by law or contracts
 ex. insider information, customers’ private information

                                                                         5
Filter Bubble
                                                        [TED Talk by Eli Pariser]

                       The Filter Bubble Problem
Pariser posed a concern that personalization technologies narrow and
bias the topics of information provided to people
                     http://www.thefilterbubble.com/

              Friend Recommendation List in Facebook




To fit for Pariser’s preference, conservative people are eliminated from
     his recommendation list, while this fact is not notified to him
                                                                                    6
Information Neutral Recommender System
                                                     [Kamishima+ 12]


                  The Filter Bubble Problem



         Information Neutral Recommender System
 enhancing the neutrality from a viewpoint specified by a user
          and other viewpoints are not considered


           fairness-aware data mining techniques


  ex. A system enhances the neutrality in terms of whether
     conservative or progressive, but it is allowed to make
     biased recommendations in terms of other viewpoints,
     for example, the birthplace or age of friends
                                                                       7
Non-Redundant Clustering
                                                                [Gondek+ 04]

non-redundant clustering : find clusters that are as independent
from a given uninteresting partition as possible
           a conditional information bottleneck method,
       which is a variant of an information bottleneck method
 clustering facial images

                            Simple clustering methods find two clusters:
                            one contains only faces, and the other
                            contains faces with shoulders

                            Data analysts consider this clustering is
                            useless and uninteresting

                            A non-redundant clustering method derives
                            more useful male and female clusters,
                            which are independent of the above clusters
                                                                               8
Outline
Applications
   applications of fairness-aware data mining
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
    Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect
Fairness-aware Classification
    fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices
Methods
   prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes
Experiments
   experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data
Related Work
   privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions,
   explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication
Conclusion
                                                                        9
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
                                                             [Calders+ 10]

   US Census Data : predict whether their income is high or low

                               Male               Female
     High-Income              3,256      fewer       590
     Low-income               7,604                4,831
          Females are minority in the high-income class
 # of High-Male data is 5.5 times # of High-Female data
 While 30% of Male data are High income, only 11% of Females are

   Occam’s Razor : Mining techniques prefer simple hypothesis


               Minor patterns are frequently ignored
           and thus minorities tend to be treated unfairly

                                                                             10
Red-Lining Effect
                                                                 [Calders+ 10]

          Calders-Verwer discrimination score (CV score)
         Pr[ High-income | Male ] - Pr[ High-income | Female ]
  the difference between conditional probabilities of advantageous
  decisions for non-protected and protected members. The larger
  score indicates the unfairer decision.
 US Census Data samples
     The baseline CV score is 0.19
 Incomes are predicted by a naïve-Bayes classifier trained from data
 containing all sensitive and non-sensitive features
      The CV score increases to 0.34, indicating unfair treatments
 Even if a feature, gender, is excluded in the training of a classifier
      improved to 0.28, but still being unfairer than its baseline
red-lining effect : Ignoring sensitive features is ineffective against the
exclusion of their indirect influence
                                                                                 11
Outline
Applications
   applications of fairness-aware data mining
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
    Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect
Fairness-aware Classification
    fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices
Methods
   prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes
Experiments
   experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data
Related Work
   privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions,
   explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication
Conclusion
                                                                        12
Variables

            Y                                        S
 objective variable                       sensitive feature
a binary class variable {0, 1}        a binary feature variable {0, 1}
a result of serious decision          socially sensitive information
ex., whether or not to allow credit   ex., gender or religion


                                 X
                   non-sensitive features
                 a numerical feature vector
                 features other than a sensitive feature
                 non-sensitive, but may correlate with S
                                                                         13
Prejudice
Prejudice : the statistical dependences of an objective variable or
non-sensitive features on a sensitive feature

   Direct Prejudice             /
                               Y⊥ S |X
                                 ⊥
 a clearly unfair state that a prediction model directly depends on a
 sensitive feature
 implying the conditional dependence between Y and S given X

  Indirect Prejudice            /
                               Y⊥ S |φ
                                 ⊥
 statistical dependence of an objective variable on a sensitive feature
 bringing red-lining effect

   Latent Prejudice             /
                               X⊥ S |φ
                                 ⊥
 statistical dependence of non-sensitive features on a sensitive feature
 completely excluding sensitive information

                                                                           14
Fairness-aware Classification

  True Distribution                          Estimated Distribution
                           approximate             ˆ
      Pr[Y, X, S]                                  Pr[Y, X, S]




                                                         =
                          sample
            =

M[Y |X, S]Pr[X, S]                           ˆ
                                             M[Y |X, S]Pr[X, S]
                                     learn
            no indirect                                  no indirect
 similar                       D
             prejudice                                    prejudice
                          Training   learn
                            Data
        †                                            †
      Pr [Y, X, S]                                 ˆ
                                                   Pr [Y, X, S]
            =




                                                         =
  †                                            †
M [Y |X, S]Pr[X, S]        approximate
                                             ˆ
                                             M [Y |X, S]Pr[X, S]
True Fair Distribution                        Estimated Fair Dist.
                                                                       15
Outline
Applications
   applications of fairness-aware data mining
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
    Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect
Fairness-aware Classification
    fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices
Methods
   prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes
Experiments
   experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data
Related Work
   privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions,
   explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication
Conclusion
                                                                        16
Logistic Regression
 with Prejudice Remover Regularizer
            modifications of a logistic regression model
  add ability to adjust distribution of Y depending on the value of S
  add a constraint of a no-indirect-prejudice condition


add ability to adjust distribution of Y depending on the value of S


            Pr[Y =1|x, S=0] = sigmoid(x w0 )
            Pr[Y =1|x, S=1] = sigmoid(x w1 )
                         weights depending on the value of S

Multiple logistic regression models are built separately, and each of
these models corresponds to each value of a sensitive feature
When predicting scores, a model is selected according to the value
of a sensitive feature
                                                                        17
No Indirect Prejudice Conditon

       add a constraint of a no-indirect-prejudice condition


samples of     samples of                   samples of
 objective    non-sensitive                  sensitive
 variables      features                     features  regularization
                             model                      parameter λ
                           parameter

                                                                        2
     ln Pr({(y, x, s)}; ) +            R({(y, x, s)}, ) +               2
                                                              2

    η : fairness         Prejudice Remover Regularizer
     parameter                                           L2 regularizer
                                 the smaller value
  the larger value                                         avoiding
   more enforces              more strongly constraints   over fitting
    the fairness        the independence between Y and S


                                                                            18
Prejudice Remover Regularizer
no-indirect-prejudice condition = independence between Y and S


                   Prejudice Remover Regularizer
mutual information between Y (objective variable) and S (sensitive feature)
                                                 ˆ
                                                Pr[Y, S]
                                 ˆ
                        Pr[X, S] M[Y |X, S] ln
                                               ˆ    ˆ
                                               Pr[S]Pr[Y ]
       Y    {0,1} X,S

                                                ˆ
                                                Pr[y|s; ]
                             ˆ
                             M[y|x, s;   ] ln
                                                  ˆ
                                                  Pr[y|s; ]
           Y   {0,1} (x,s)                      s


             expectation over X and S
                 is replaced with
           the summation over samples

                                                                              19
Computing Mutual Information
                                                ˆ
                                                Pr[y|s; ]
                             ˆ
                             M[y|x, s;   ] ln
                                                  ˆ
                                                  Pr[y|s; ]
           Y   {0,1} (x,s)                      s



        This distribution can be derived by marginalizing over X
                            ˆ          ˆ
                            M[y|x, s; ]Pr[x]dx
                     Dom(x)

                   But this is computationally heavy...

  approximate by the sample mean over X for each pair of y and s

                                    ˆ
                                    M[y|x, s; ]
                              x   D

Limitation: This technique is applicable only if both Y and S are discrete
                                                                             20
Calders-Verwer’s 2 Naïve Bayes
                                                                         [Calders+ 10]


               Unfair decisions are modeled by introducing
                the dependence of X on S as well as on Y


                                                 Calders-Verwer Two
            Naïve Bayes
                                                 Naïve Bayes (CV2NB)

                   Y                                          Y

               S       X                                  S       X
 S and X are conditionally                   non-sensitive features X are
 independent given Y                         mutually conditionally
                                             independent given Y and S
✤ It is as if two naïve Bayes classifiers are learned depending on each value of the
  sensitive feature; that is why this method was named by the 2-naïve-Bayes
                                                                                         21
Calders-Verwer’s Two Naïve Bayes
                                                                     [Calders+ 10]

parameters are initialized by the corresponding empirical distributions
             ˆ             ˆ
             Pr[Y, X, S] = M[Y, S]               ˆ
                                                 Pr[Xi |Y, S]
                                               i

            M[Y, S] is modified so as to improve the fairness
                ˆ                fair                              ˆ
estimated model M[Y, S]                    fair estimated model    M† [Y, S]
keep the updated distribution similar to the empirical distribution

while CVscore > 0

  if # of data classified as “1” < # of “1” samples in original data then

  
 increase M[Y=+, S=-], decrease M[Y=-, S=-]
	  else

  
 increase M[Y=-, S=+], decrease M[Y=+, S=+]
	  reclassify samples using updated model M[Y, S]

        update the joint distribution so that its CV score decreases
                                                                                     22
Outline
Applications
   applications of fairness-aware data mining
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
    Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect
Fairness-aware Classification
    fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices
Methods
   prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes
Experiments
   experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data
Related Work
   privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions,
   explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication
Conclusion
                                                                        23
Experimental Conditions
Calders & Verwer’s Test Data
   Adult / Census Income @ UCI Repository
   Y : a class representing whether subject’s income is High or Low
   S : a sensitive feature representing whether subject’s gender
   X : non-sensitive features, all features are discretized, and 1-of-K
   representation is used for logistic regression
   # of samples : 16281
Methods
   LRns : logistic regression without sensitive features
   NBns : naïve Bayes without sensitive features
   PR : our logistic regression with prejudice remover regularizer
   CV2NB : Calders-Verwer’s two-naïve-Bayes
Other Conditions
   L2 regularization parameter λ = 1
   five-fold cross validation
                                                                          24
Evaluation Measure

Accuracy
  How correct are predicted classes?
  the ratio of correctly classified sample


NMI (normalized mutual information)
  How fair are predicted classes?
  mutual information between a predicted class and a sensitive
  feature, and it is normalized into the range [0, 1]
                                  I(Y ; S)
                      NMI =
                                  H(Y )H(S)



                                                                 25
Experimental Results
                                  Accuracy                             Fairness (NMI between S & Y)
                0.86                                                   0.08
high-accuracy



                0.84
                                                                       0.06




                                                              fairer
                0.82


                                                                       0.04
                0.80
                               NBns
                               LRns
                0.78
                               CV2NB                                   0.02
                               PR
                0.76                                                   0.01
                       0           10         20         30                   0   10     20      30

                           fairness parameter η : the lager value more enhances the fairness

      fairness parameter η                                             accuracy         NMI
            Our method PR (Prejudice Remover) could make fairer decisions
            than pure LRns (logistic regression) and NBns (naïve Bayes)
            PR could make more accurate prediction than NBns or CV2NB
                CV2NB achieved near-zero NMI, but PR could NOT achieve it
                                                                                                      26
Synthetic Data
                  Why did our prejudice remover fail to
            make a fairer prediction than that made by CV2NB?

sensitive         si 2 {0, 1} ⇠ DiscreteUniform
feature

                  xi = ✏ i                                  independent
non-sensitive
feature                (                                       from si
                             1 + ✏i , if si = 1
                  wi =                                     depend on si
                               1 + ✏i , otherwise
                               ✏i ⇠ N (0, 1)
                         (
objective                    1, if xi + wi < 0         both xi and wi
variable          yi =                                equally influence
                             0, otherwise           an objective variable
                                                                            27
Analysis on Synthetic Data Results
                  M[ Y | X, S=0 ]                  M[ Y | X, S=0 ]
             X          W           bias      X          W           bias
 η=0       11.3        11.3     -0.0257     11.3        11.4     0.0595
η=150      55.3       -53.0         -53.6   56.1        54.1         53.6

Prejudice Remover
When η=0, PR regularizer doesn’t affect weights, and these weights
for X and W are almost equal
When η=150, absolutes of weights for X are larger than those for W
  PR ignores features depending on S if the influences to Y are equal

        CV2NB               CV2NB treats all features equally
 Prejudice Remover can consider the differences among individual
    features, but CV2NB can improve fairness more drastically
                                                                            28
Outline
Applications
   applications of fairness-aware data mining
Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining
    Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect
Fairness-aware Classification
    fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices
Methods
   prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes
Experiments
   experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data
Related Work
   privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions,
   explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication
Conclusion
                                                                        29
Relation to
     Privacy-Preserving Data Mining
                      indirect prejudice
  the dependency between a objective Y and a sensitive feature S



           from the information theoretic perspective,
          mutual information between Y and S is non-zero



           from the viewpoint of privacy-preservation,
leakage of sensitive information when an objective variable is known

                      differences from PPDM
introducing randomness is occasionally inappropriate for severe
decisions, such as job application
disclosure of identity isn’t problematic generally
                                                                       30
Finding Unfair Association Rules
                                                           [Pedreschi+ 08, Ruggieri+ 10]

ex: association rules extracted from German Credit Data Set
(a) city=NYC ⇒ class=bad (conf=0.25)
	 0.25 of NY residents are denied their credit application
(b) city=NYC & race=African ⇒ class=bad (conf=0.75)
	 0.75 of NY residents whose race is African are denied their credit application

                                            conf(A ^ B ) C)
extended lift (elift)           elift =
                                              conf(A ) C)
     the ratio of the confidence of a rule with additional condition
                     to the confidence of a base rule

 a-protection : considered as unfair if there exists association rules
 whose elift is larger than a
 ex: (b) isn’t a-protected if a = 2, because elift = conf(b) / conf(a) = 3

They proposed an algorithm to enumerate rules that are not a-protected
                                                                                           31
Explainability
                                                               [Zliobaite+ 11]

conditional discrimination : there are non-discriminatory cases, even
if distributions of an objective variable depends on a sensitive feature
ex : admission to a university
                        more females apply
                        to medicine
 explainable feature    more males apply to         sensitive feature
       program          computer                        gender
 medicine / computer                                  male / female

                                  objective variable
 medicine : low acceptance         acceptance ratio
 computer : high acceptance       accept / not accept
Because females tend to apply to a more competitive program,
females are more frequently rejected
Such difference is explainable and is considered as non-discriminatory
                                                                                 32
Situation Testing
                                                               [Luong+ 11]


Situation Testing : When all the conditions are same other than a
sensitive condition, people in a protected group are considered as
unfairly treated if they received unfavorable decision



                              They proposed a method for finding
           people in          unfair treatments by checking the
       a protected group
                              statistics of decisions in k-nearest
                              neighbors of data points in a
                              protected group
                              Condition of situation testing is
                              Pr[ Y | X, S=a ] = Pr[ Y | X, S=b ] ∀ X
                              This implies the independence
                              between S and Y
    k-nearest neighbors

                                                                             33
Fairness-aware Data Publishing
                                                                 [Dwork+ 11]

 data owner
                 loss function   original data
representing utilities
   for the vendor
                                                   data representation
                                                   so as to maximize
 vendor (data user)                archtype        vendor’s utility
                                                   under the constraints
                                                   to guarantee fairness
                                 fair decisions    in analysis



 They show the conditions that these archtypes should satisfy
 This condition implies that the probability of receiving favorable
 decision is irrelevant to belonging to a protected group


                                                                               34
Conclusion
Contributions
 the unfairness in data mining is formalized based on independence
 a prejudice remover regularizer, which enforces a classifier's
 independence from sensitive information
 experimental results of logistic regressions with our prejudice remover
Future Work
 improve the computation of our prejudice remover regularizer
 fairness-aware classification method for generative models
 another type of fairness-aware mining task
Socially Responsible Mining
 Methods of data exploitation that do not damage people’s lives, such
 as fairness-aware data mining, PPDM, or adversarial learning,
 together comprise the notion of socially responsible mining, which
 it should become an important concept in the near future.

                                                                           35
Program Codes and Data Sets
                 Fairness-Aware Data Mining
              http://www.kamishima.net/fadm

          Information Neutral Recommender System
             http://www.kamishima.net/inrs



                   Acknowledgements
We wish to thank Dr. Sicco Verwer for providing detail information
about their work and program codes
We thank the PADM2011 workshop organizers and anonymous
reviewers for their valuable comments
This work is supported by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number
16700157, 21500154, 22500142, 23240043, and 24500194, and JST
PRESTO 09152492
                                                                     36

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Fairness-aware Classifier with Prejudice Remover Regularizer

  • 1. Fairness-aware Classifier with Prejudice Remover Regularizer Toshihiro Kamishima*, Shotaro Akaho*, Hideki Asoh*, and Jun Sakuma† *National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan †University of Tsukuba, Japan; and Japan Science and Technology Agency ECMLPKDD 2012 (22nd ECML and 15th PKDD Conference) @ Bristol, United Kingdom, Sep. 24-28, 2012 START 1
  • 2. Overview Fairness-aware Data Mining data analysis taking into account potential issues of fairness, discrimination, neutrality, or independence fairness-aware classification, regression, or clustering detection of unfair events from databases fairness-aware data publication Examples of Fairness-aware Data Mining Applications exclude the influence of sensitive information, such as gender or race, from decisions or predictions recommendations enhancing their neutrality data analysis while excluding the influence of uninteresting information 2
  • 3. Outline Applications fairness-aware data mining applications Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect Fairness-aware Classification fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices Methods prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes Experiments experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data Related Work privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions, explainability, fairness-aware data publication Conclusion 3
  • 4. Outline Applications applications of fairness-aware data mining Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect Fairness-aware Classification fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices Methods prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes Experiments experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data Related Work privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions, explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication Conclusion 4
  • 5. Elimination of Discrimination Due to the spread of data mining technologies... Data mining is being increasingly applied for serious decisions ex. credit scoring, insurance rating, employment application Accumulation of massive data enables to reveal personal information ex. demographics can be inferred from the behavior on the Web excluding the influence of these socially sensitive information from serious decisions information considered from the viewpoint of social fairness ex. gender, religion, race, ethnicity, handicap, political conviction information restricted by law or contracts ex. insider information, customers’ private information 5
  • 6. Filter Bubble [TED Talk by Eli Pariser] The Filter Bubble Problem Pariser posed a concern that personalization technologies narrow and bias the topics of information provided to people http://www.thefilterbubble.com/ Friend Recommendation List in Facebook To fit for Pariser’s preference, conservative people are eliminated from his recommendation list, while this fact is not notified to him 6
  • 7. Information Neutral Recommender System [Kamishima+ 12] The Filter Bubble Problem Information Neutral Recommender System enhancing the neutrality from a viewpoint specified by a user and other viewpoints are not considered fairness-aware data mining techniques ex. A system enhances the neutrality in terms of whether conservative or progressive, but it is allowed to make biased recommendations in terms of other viewpoints, for example, the birthplace or age of friends 7
  • 8. Non-Redundant Clustering [Gondek+ 04] non-redundant clustering : find clusters that are as independent from a given uninteresting partition as possible a conditional information bottleneck method, which is a variant of an information bottleneck method clustering facial images Simple clustering methods find two clusters: one contains only faces, and the other contains faces with shoulders Data analysts consider this clustering is useless and uninteresting A non-redundant clustering method derives more useful male and female clusters, which are independent of the above clusters 8
  • 9. Outline Applications applications of fairness-aware data mining Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect Fairness-aware Classification fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices Methods prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes Experiments experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data Related Work privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions, explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication Conclusion 9
  • 10. Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining [Calders+ 10] US Census Data : predict whether their income is high or low Male Female High-Income 3,256 fewer 590 Low-income 7,604 4,831 Females are minority in the high-income class # of High-Male data is 5.5 times # of High-Female data While 30% of Male data are High income, only 11% of Females are Occam’s Razor : Mining techniques prefer simple hypothesis Minor patterns are frequently ignored and thus minorities tend to be treated unfairly 10
  • 11. Red-Lining Effect [Calders+ 10] Calders-Verwer discrimination score (CV score) Pr[ High-income | Male ] - Pr[ High-income | Female ] the difference between conditional probabilities of advantageous decisions for non-protected and protected members. The larger score indicates the unfairer decision. US Census Data samples The baseline CV score is 0.19 Incomes are predicted by a naïve-Bayes classifier trained from data containing all sensitive and non-sensitive features The CV score increases to 0.34, indicating unfair treatments Even if a feature, gender, is excluded in the training of a classifier improved to 0.28, but still being unfairer than its baseline red-lining effect : Ignoring sensitive features is ineffective against the exclusion of their indirect influence 11
  • 12. Outline Applications applications of fairness-aware data mining Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect Fairness-aware Classification fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices Methods prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes Experiments experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data Related Work privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions, explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication Conclusion 12
  • 13. Variables Y S objective variable sensitive feature a binary class variable {0, 1} a binary feature variable {0, 1} a result of serious decision socially sensitive information ex., whether or not to allow credit ex., gender or religion X non-sensitive features a numerical feature vector features other than a sensitive feature non-sensitive, but may correlate with S 13
  • 14. Prejudice Prejudice : the statistical dependences of an objective variable or non-sensitive features on a sensitive feature Direct Prejudice / Y⊥ S |X ⊥ a clearly unfair state that a prediction model directly depends on a sensitive feature implying the conditional dependence between Y and S given X Indirect Prejudice / Y⊥ S |φ ⊥ statistical dependence of an objective variable on a sensitive feature bringing red-lining effect Latent Prejudice / X⊥ S |φ ⊥ statistical dependence of non-sensitive features on a sensitive feature completely excluding sensitive information 14
  • 15. Fairness-aware Classification True Distribution Estimated Distribution approximate ˆ Pr[Y, X, S] Pr[Y, X, S] = sample = M[Y |X, S]Pr[X, S] ˆ M[Y |X, S]Pr[X, S] learn no indirect no indirect similar D prejudice prejudice Training learn Data † † Pr [Y, X, S] ˆ Pr [Y, X, S] = = † † M [Y |X, S]Pr[X, S] approximate ˆ M [Y |X, S]Pr[X, S] True Fair Distribution Estimated Fair Dist. 15
  • 16. Outline Applications applications of fairness-aware data mining Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect Fairness-aware Classification fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices Methods prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes Experiments experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data Related Work privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions, explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication Conclusion 16
  • 17. Logistic Regression with Prejudice Remover Regularizer modifications of a logistic regression model add ability to adjust distribution of Y depending on the value of S add a constraint of a no-indirect-prejudice condition add ability to adjust distribution of Y depending on the value of S Pr[Y =1|x, S=0] = sigmoid(x w0 ) Pr[Y =1|x, S=1] = sigmoid(x w1 ) weights depending on the value of S Multiple logistic regression models are built separately, and each of these models corresponds to each value of a sensitive feature When predicting scores, a model is selected according to the value of a sensitive feature 17
  • 18. No Indirect Prejudice Conditon add a constraint of a no-indirect-prejudice condition samples of samples of samples of objective non-sensitive sensitive variables features features regularization model parameter λ parameter 2 ln Pr({(y, x, s)}; ) + R({(y, x, s)}, ) + 2 2 η : fairness Prejudice Remover Regularizer parameter L2 regularizer the smaller value the larger value avoiding more enforces more strongly constraints over fitting the fairness the independence between Y and S 18
  • 19. Prejudice Remover Regularizer no-indirect-prejudice condition = independence between Y and S Prejudice Remover Regularizer mutual information between Y (objective variable) and S (sensitive feature) ˆ Pr[Y, S] ˆ Pr[X, S] M[Y |X, S] ln ˆ ˆ Pr[S]Pr[Y ] Y {0,1} X,S ˆ Pr[y|s; ] ˆ M[y|x, s; ] ln ˆ Pr[y|s; ] Y {0,1} (x,s) s expectation over X and S is replaced with the summation over samples 19
  • 20. Computing Mutual Information ˆ Pr[y|s; ] ˆ M[y|x, s; ] ln ˆ Pr[y|s; ] Y {0,1} (x,s) s This distribution can be derived by marginalizing over X ˆ ˆ M[y|x, s; ]Pr[x]dx Dom(x) But this is computationally heavy... approximate by the sample mean over X for each pair of y and s ˆ M[y|x, s; ] x D Limitation: This technique is applicable only if both Y and S are discrete 20
  • 21. Calders-Verwer’s 2 Naïve Bayes [Calders+ 10] Unfair decisions are modeled by introducing the dependence of X on S as well as on Y Calders-Verwer Two Naïve Bayes Naïve Bayes (CV2NB) Y Y S X S X S and X are conditionally non-sensitive features X are independent given Y mutually conditionally independent given Y and S ✤ It is as if two naïve Bayes classifiers are learned depending on each value of the sensitive feature; that is why this method was named by the 2-naïve-Bayes 21
  • 22. Calders-Verwer’s Two Naïve Bayes [Calders+ 10] parameters are initialized by the corresponding empirical distributions ˆ ˆ Pr[Y, X, S] = M[Y, S] ˆ Pr[Xi |Y, S] i M[Y, S] is modified so as to improve the fairness ˆ fair ˆ estimated model M[Y, S] fair estimated model M† [Y, S] keep the updated distribution similar to the empirical distribution while CVscore > 0 if # of data classified as “1” < # of “1” samples in original data then increase M[Y=+, S=-], decrease M[Y=-, S=-] else increase M[Y=-, S=+], decrease M[Y=+, S=+] reclassify samples using updated model M[Y, S] update the joint distribution so that its CV score decreases 22
  • 23. Outline Applications applications of fairness-aware data mining Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect Fairness-aware Classification fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices Methods prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes Experiments experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data Related Work privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions, explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication Conclusion 23
  • 24. Experimental Conditions Calders & Verwer’s Test Data Adult / Census Income @ UCI Repository Y : a class representing whether subject’s income is High or Low S : a sensitive feature representing whether subject’s gender X : non-sensitive features, all features are discretized, and 1-of-K representation is used for logistic regression # of samples : 16281 Methods LRns : logistic regression without sensitive features NBns : naïve Bayes without sensitive features PR : our logistic regression with prejudice remover regularizer CV2NB : Calders-Verwer’s two-naïve-Bayes Other Conditions L2 regularization parameter λ = 1 five-fold cross validation 24
  • 25. Evaluation Measure Accuracy How correct are predicted classes? the ratio of correctly classified sample NMI (normalized mutual information) How fair are predicted classes? mutual information between a predicted class and a sensitive feature, and it is normalized into the range [0, 1] I(Y ; S) NMI = H(Y )H(S) 25
  • 26. Experimental Results Accuracy Fairness (NMI between S & Y) 0.86 0.08 high-accuracy 0.84 0.06 fairer 0.82 0.04 0.80 NBns LRns 0.78 CV2NB 0.02 PR 0.76 0.01 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 fairness parameter η : the lager value more enhances the fairness fairness parameter η accuracy NMI Our method PR (Prejudice Remover) could make fairer decisions than pure LRns (logistic regression) and NBns (naïve Bayes) PR could make more accurate prediction than NBns or CV2NB CV2NB achieved near-zero NMI, but PR could NOT achieve it 26
  • 27. Synthetic Data Why did our prejudice remover fail to make a fairer prediction than that made by CV2NB? sensitive si 2 {0, 1} ⇠ DiscreteUniform feature xi = ✏ i independent non-sensitive feature ( from si 1 + ✏i , if si = 1 wi = depend on si 1 + ✏i , otherwise ✏i ⇠ N (0, 1) ( objective 1, if xi + wi < 0 both xi and wi variable yi = equally influence 0, otherwise an objective variable 27
  • 28. Analysis on Synthetic Data Results M[ Y | X, S=0 ] M[ Y | X, S=0 ] X W bias X W bias η=0 11.3 11.3 -0.0257 11.3 11.4 0.0595 η=150 55.3 -53.0 -53.6 56.1 54.1 53.6 Prejudice Remover When η=0, PR regularizer doesn’t affect weights, and these weights for X and W are almost equal When η=150, absolutes of weights for X are larger than those for W PR ignores features depending on S if the influences to Y are equal CV2NB CV2NB treats all features equally Prejudice Remover can consider the differences among individual features, but CV2NB can improve fairness more drastically 28
  • 29. Outline Applications applications of fairness-aware data mining Difficulty in Fairness-aware Data Mining Calders-Verwer’s discrimination score, red-lining effect Fairness-aware Classification fairness-aware classification, three types of prejudices Methods prejudice remover regularizer, Calders-Verwer’s 2-naïve-Bayes Experiments experimental results on Calders&Verwer’s data and synthetic data Related Work privacy-preserving data mining, detection of unfair decisions, explainability, situation testing, fairness-aware data publication Conclusion 29
  • 30. Relation to Privacy-Preserving Data Mining indirect prejudice the dependency between a objective Y and a sensitive feature S from the information theoretic perspective, mutual information between Y and S is non-zero from the viewpoint of privacy-preservation, leakage of sensitive information when an objective variable is known differences from PPDM introducing randomness is occasionally inappropriate for severe decisions, such as job application disclosure of identity isn’t problematic generally 30
  • 31. Finding Unfair Association Rules [Pedreschi+ 08, Ruggieri+ 10] ex: association rules extracted from German Credit Data Set (a) city=NYC ⇒ class=bad (conf=0.25) 0.25 of NY residents are denied their credit application (b) city=NYC & race=African ⇒ class=bad (conf=0.75) 0.75 of NY residents whose race is African are denied their credit application conf(A ^ B ) C) extended lift (elift) elift = conf(A ) C) the ratio of the confidence of a rule with additional condition to the confidence of a base rule a-protection : considered as unfair if there exists association rules whose elift is larger than a ex: (b) isn’t a-protected if a = 2, because elift = conf(b) / conf(a) = 3 They proposed an algorithm to enumerate rules that are not a-protected 31
  • 32. Explainability [Zliobaite+ 11] conditional discrimination : there are non-discriminatory cases, even if distributions of an objective variable depends on a sensitive feature ex : admission to a university more females apply to medicine explainable feature more males apply to sensitive feature program computer gender medicine / computer male / female objective variable medicine : low acceptance acceptance ratio computer : high acceptance accept / not accept Because females tend to apply to a more competitive program, females are more frequently rejected Such difference is explainable and is considered as non-discriminatory 32
  • 33. Situation Testing [Luong+ 11] Situation Testing : When all the conditions are same other than a sensitive condition, people in a protected group are considered as unfairly treated if they received unfavorable decision They proposed a method for finding people in unfair treatments by checking the a protected group statistics of decisions in k-nearest neighbors of data points in a protected group Condition of situation testing is Pr[ Y | X, S=a ] = Pr[ Y | X, S=b ] ∀ X This implies the independence between S and Y k-nearest neighbors 33
  • 34. Fairness-aware Data Publishing [Dwork+ 11] data owner loss function original data representing utilities for the vendor data representation so as to maximize vendor (data user) archtype vendor’s utility under the constraints to guarantee fairness fair decisions in analysis They show the conditions that these archtypes should satisfy This condition implies that the probability of receiving favorable decision is irrelevant to belonging to a protected group 34
  • 35. Conclusion Contributions the unfairness in data mining is formalized based on independence a prejudice remover regularizer, which enforces a classifier's independence from sensitive information experimental results of logistic regressions with our prejudice remover Future Work improve the computation of our prejudice remover regularizer fairness-aware classification method for generative models another type of fairness-aware mining task Socially Responsible Mining Methods of data exploitation that do not damage people’s lives, such as fairness-aware data mining, PPDM, or adversarial learning, together comprise the notion of socially responsible mining, which it should become an important concept in the near future. 35
  • 36. Program Codes and Data Sets Fairness-Aware Data Mining http://www.kamishima.net/fadm Information Neutral Recommender System http://www.kamishima.net/inrs Acknowledgements We wish to thank Dr. Sicco Verwer for providing detail information about their work and program codes We thank the PADM2011 workshop organizers and anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments This work is supported by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16700157, 21500154, 22500142, 23240043, and 24500194, and JST PRESTO 09152492 36

Editor's Notes

  1. I&amp;#x2019;m Toshihiro Kamishima.\nToday, we would like to talk about fairness-aware classification.\n
  2. Fairness-aware data mining is a data analysis taking into account potential issues of fairness, discrimination, neutrality, or independence.\nThere are several kinds of tasks: fairness-aware classification, detection of unfair events, and fairness-aware data publication.\nThese are examples of fairness-aware data mining applications.\n\n
  3. This is an outline of our talk.\nWe first give examples of fairness-aware data mining applications.\nAfter showing difficulty in fairness-aware data mining, we define a fairness-aware classification task.\nWe then propose our method for this task, and empirically compare it with an existing method.\nFinally, we review this new research area, and conclude our talk.\n\n
  4. Let me start by giving examples of applications.\n\n
  5. The first application is the elimination of discrimination.\nDue to the spread of data mining technologies, data mining is being increasingly applied for serious decisions. For example, credit scoring, insurance rating, employment application, and so on.\nAdditionally, accumulation of massive data enables to reveal personal information.\nTo cope with these situation, fairness-aware data mining techniques are used for excluding the influence of socially sensitive information from serious decisions: information considered from the viewpoint of social fairness, and information restricted by law or contracts.\n
  6. The second application is related to the filter bubble problem, which is a concern that personalization technologies narrow and bias the topics of information provided to people.\nPariser shows an example of a friend recommendation list in Facebook.\nTo fit for his preference, conservative people are eliminated form his recommendation list, while this fact is not notified to him.\n
  7. To cope with this filter bubble problem, an information neutral recommender system enhances the neutrality from a viewpoint specified by a user and other viewpoints are not considered.\nFor this purpose, fairness-aware data mining techniques are applied.\nIn the case of Pariser&amp;#x2019;s Facebook example, a system enhances the neutrality in terms of whether conservative or progressive, but it is allowed to make biased recommendations in terms of other viewpoints, for example, the birthplace or age of friends.\n\n
  8. The third application is excluding uninteresting information.\n
  9. We then show the difficulty in fairness-aware data mining.\n\n
  10. This is Caldars &amp; Verwer&amp;#x2019;s example to show why fairness-aware data mining is needed.\nThis is a task to predict whether their income is high or low.\nIn this US census data, females are minority in the high-income class.\nBecause mining techniques prefer simple hypothesis, minor patterns are frequently ignored; and thus minorities tend to be treated unfairly.\n\n
  11. Caldars &amp; Verwer proposed a score to quantify the degree of unfairness.\nThis is defined as the difference between conditional probabilities of High-income decisions for males and females. The larger score indicates the unfairer decision.\nThe baseline CV score for the US Census Data Set is 0.19.\nIf objective variables are predicted by a na&amp;#xEF;ve Bayes classifier, the CV score increases to 0.34, indicating unfair treatments.\nEven if a feature, gender, is excluded, the CV score is improved to 0.28, but still being unfairer than its baseline.\nConsequently, ignoring sensitive features is ineffective against the exclusion of their indirect influence. This red-lining effect makes fairness-aware data mining difficult.\n
  12. We next define a task of fairness-aware classification\n\n
  13. We introduce three types of variables.\nAn objective variable Y represents a result of serious decision.\nA sensitive feature S represents socially sensitive information.\nThe other variables are non-sensitive features X.\n
  14. A prejudice is one of causes of unfairness, which is defined as the statistical dependences of an objective variable or non-sensitive features on a sensitive feature.\nPrejudices is classified into three types:\nDirect prejudice is a clearly unfair state that a prediction model directly depends on a sensitive feature.\nIndirect prejudice is the statistical dependence of an objective variable on a sensitive feature.\nLatent prejudice is the statistical dependence of non-sensitive features on a sensitive feature.\nWe here focus on removing this indirect prejudice.\n
  15. Fairness-aware classification is a variant of a standard classification.\nIn a case of a standard classification task, training data is sampled from a unknown true distribution.\nA goal of this task is to learn a model approximating the true distribution.\nIn a case of a fairness-aware classification task, we assume a true fair distribution that satisfies two constraints.\nThis distribution should be similar to the true distribution, and should satisfy no indirect prejudice condition.\nA goal of this task is to learn a model approximating this true fair distribution from training data sampled from the true distribution.\n\n
  16. We show our logistic regression with prejudice remover regularizer and Calders-Verwer&amp;#x2019;s 2-na&amp;#xEF;ve-Bayes method.\n
  17. We propose logistic regression with prejudice remover regularizer.\nWe change an original logistic regression model in these two points.\nFirst, we add ability to adjust distribution of Y depending on the value of S. \nFor this purpose, multiple logistic regression models are built separately, and each of these models corresponds to each value of a sensitive feature.\n\n
  18. Second, we add a constraint of a no-indirect-prejudice condition, which is a main idea of this presentation.\nFor this purpose, we add this term to an original objective function.\nThis prejudice remover regularizer is designed so that the smaller value more strongly constraints the independence between Y and S.\nEta is a fairness parameter. The lager value more enforces the fairness.\n
  19. As this prejudice remover regularizer, we adopt mutual information between S and Y so as to enforce the independence between Y and S.\nThis term can be computed by replacing with the summation over samples.\nBut the computation of this term is rather complicated.\n\n
  20. This distribution can be derived by marginalizing over X, but this is computationally heavy.\nWe hence approximate by the sample mean over x for each pair of y and s.\nUnfortunately, this technique is applicable only if both Y and S are discrete.\n
  21. We compared our method with Calders-Verwer&amp;#x2019;s two-na&amp;#xEF;ve-Bayes method.\nUnfair decisions are modeled by introducing of the dependence of X on S as well as on Y.\n\n
  22. After parameters are estimated by the corresponding empirical distributions, joint distribution of Y and S is modified by this algorithm.\nThis algorithm updates the joint distribution so that its CV score decreases while keeping the updated distribution similar to the empirical distribution.\n
  23. We next show our experimental results.\n
  24. We first test these four methods on Calders and Vewer&amp;#x2019;s Test Data.\nLRns and NBs are respectively pure logistic regression and na&amp;#xEF;ve Bayes without sensitive features.\nPR is our logistic regression with prejudice remover regularizer.\nCV2NB is Calders and Verwer&amp;#x2019;s two-na&amp;#xEF;ve-Bayes method.\n\n
  25. We use two types of evaluation measures.\nAccuracy measures how correct predicted classes are.\nNormalized mutual information measures how fair predicted classes are.\n
  26. These are experimental results.\nX-axes correspond to fairness parameters, the lager value more enhances the fairness.\nThis chart (left) shows the change of prediction accuracy.\nThis chart (right) shows the change of the degree of fairness.\nAs the increase of a fairness parameter &amp;#x3B7;, prediction accuracy is worsened and the fairness is enforced.\nOur metod could make fairer decisions than pure logistic regression and na&amp;#xEF;ve Bayes.\nAdditionally, our method could make more accurate prediction than na&amp;#xEF;ve Bayes and CV2NB.\nUnfortunately, CV2NB achieved near-zero NMI, but our method could not achieve it.\n
  27. To investigate why our method failed to make a fairer prediction than that made by CV2NB, we tested our method on synthetic data.\nEach sample composed of one sensitive feature, two non-sensitive features, and one objective variable.\nNon-sensitive feature X is independent from S, but W depends on S.\nAnd, both X and W equally influence an objective variable.\n\n\n
  28. A prejudice remover regularizer doesn&amp;#x2019;t affect weights if &amp;#x3B7;=0, but it heavily does if &amp;#x3B7;=150.\nWhen &amp;#x3B7;=0, weights for x and w are almost equal.\nWhen &amp;#x3B7;=150, absolutes of weights for X are larger than those for W.\nThis indicates that our prejudice remover regularizer ignores features depending on s if the influences to y are equal.\nOn the other hand, CV2NB method treats all features equally.\nConsequently, our prejudice remover can consider the differences among individual features, but Calders-Verwer&amp;#x2019;s 2-na&amp;#xEF;ve-Bayes can improve fairness more drastically.\n
  29. We finally review this new research area.\n\n
  30. Here, we&amp;#x2019;d like to point out the relation between an indirect prejudice and PPDM.\nFrom information theoretic perspective, an indirect prejudice implies that mutual information between Y and S is non-zero.\nFrom the viewpoint of privacy-preservation, this can be interpreted as the leakage of sensitive information when an objective variable is known.\nOn the other hand, there are some differences from PPDM like this.\n
  31. Pedreschi et al. firstly addressed the problem of discrimination in data mining.\nTheir algorithm enumerates unfair association rules.\n\n
  32. Zliobaite et al. proposed a notion of explainability.\n
  33. Luong et al. proposed another notion, situation testing.\n\n
  34. Dwork et al. proposed a framework for fairness-aware data publishing.\n
  35. Our contributions are as follows.\nIn future work, we have to improve computation of prejudice remover regularizer\nMethods of data exploitation that do not damage people&amp;#x2019;s lives, such as fairness-aware mining, PPDM, or adversarial learning, together comprise the notion of socially responsible mining, which it should become an important concept in the near future. \n
  36. Program codes and data sets are available at these URLs.\nWe finally wish to thank Dr. Sicco Verwer for providing detail information about their work and program codes.\nThat&amp;#x2019;s all I have to say. Thank you for your attention.\n