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Conflicts

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Conflicts

  1. 1. Organizational Behavior Presentation on Conflicts By : Shilpi Panchal MBA IInd Semester Oriental College of Management
  2. 2. What is Conflict..?  Conflict is a state of opposition between persons or groups or organizations.  It is a disagreement between people that may be the result of different:  Ideas  Perspectives  Priorities  Preferences  Beliefs  Values  Goals  Organizational structures
  3. 3. Definitions of Conflict • According to Wood Et Al: – “Conflict occurs when disagreement exist in a social situation over issues of substance or whenever emotional antagonisms create frictions between individuals or groups.” • According to Litterer: – “Conflict is a type of behavior which occurs when two or more parties are in opposition or in battle as a result of perceived relative deprivation from the activities of or interaction with another person or group.”
  4. 4. Perspectives of Conflict Human Relations View Interactionist view
  5. 5. Conflict Perspectives (contd.)  The Traditional Perspective: • The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. • This approach assumes that all conflicts hamper performance. • Conflicts occur due to poor communication, lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of managers to be open to their employees.
  6. 6. Conflict Perspectives (contd.)  The Human Relations Perspective: • The belief that conflicts occur naturally in all groups and organizations. • It is natural and cannot be avoided, hence it should be accepted. • It cannot be removed and there are even times when conflict may benefit a group’s performance.
  7. 7. Conflict Perspectives (contd.)  The Inter-actionist Perspective: • The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively. • This approach encourages conflict because it believes that a peaceful and cooperative group may become constant and may not respond to the need for change and innovation.
  8. 8. Levels of Conflict Individual Group Organizational
  9. 9.  Individual level:  Inter-personal conflict:  Between two or more people.  Differences in views about what should be done.  Efforts to get more resources.  Differences in orientation to work and time in different parts of an organization.  Intra-personal conflict:  Occurs within an individual.  Threat to a person’s values.  Feeling of unfair treatment.
  10. 10.  Group Level:  Inter-group conflict:  Between two or more groups  Intra-group conflict:  Conflict among members of a group  Early stages of group development  Ways of doing tasks or reaching group's goals
  11. 11.  Organizational level:  Inter-organization conflict:  Between two or more organization  Examples: suppliers and distributors, especially with the close links  Intra-organization conflict:  Conflict that occurs within an organization  Can occur along the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the organization: • Vertical conflict: between managers and subordinates • Horizontal conflict: between departments and work groups
  12. 12. The Conflict Process
  13. 13. The Conflict Process (contd.) I. Potential opposition or incompatibility:  This stage indicates the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. They need not lead directly to conflict, but any of these conditions is necessary or present if conflict is to the surface.
  14. 14.  Causes of Conflicts: o Communication o Structure o Personal variables- • Misunderstanding • Personality clashes • Competition for resources • Lack of cooperation • Differences over methods or style • Low performance • Value or goal differences
  15. 15. II. Cognition and Personalization:  If conditions cited in Stage I negatively affect something that one party cares about, then the potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized in this stage.
  16. 16. III. Intentions:  Interventions intervene between people’s perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. These intensions are decisions to act in a given way.  Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions:
  17. 17. IV. Behavior:  This is where conflicts becomes visible.  Conflict behavior usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intention.  It includes statements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties.  Conflict –Intensity Continuum:
  18. 18. V. Outcomes:  The action–reaction interplay among the conflicting parties results in consequences. It may results as an improvement (functional) or may be hindrance (dysfunctional) to the groups performance. Functional Outcomes Dysfunctional Outcomes
  19. 19. The Effect of Conflict on Organization Performance
  20. 20. Conflict Management • Conflict management is defined as “the opportunity to improve situations and strengthen relationships”. • The central purpose of this conflict and their willingness to work together constructively now and in the future. • Ideally, ideas and information begin to flow between the parties and collaborative solutions emerge.
  21. 21. Steps of Conflict Resolution
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