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Ecology review 1


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Ecology review 1

  1. 1. Ecology Review The branch of Biology that describes relationships between organisms and the environments in which they live
  2. 2. Principles <ul><li>The law of conservation of matter: </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can be changed from one form to another </li></ul><ul><li>but it cannot be created or destroyed </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1 st law of energy <ul><li>Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiant energy – sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical energy – photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy – animal movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal energy – creating heat </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 2 nd law of energy <ul><li>Every time energy is converted from one form to another, energy is lost in the form of heat </li></ul>
  5. 5. Energy Cycle <ul><li>The fundamental source of energy in almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>energy and organic matter are passed along an ecosystem's food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms are classified based upon the number of energy transfers through a food web </li></ul>
  6. 6. Primary Production <ul><li>Photoautotrophic production of organic matter represents the first energy transfer in ecosystems </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2 nd Trophic Level <ul><li>Consumption of a plant by a herbivore is the second energy transfer, </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores occupy the second trophic level, </li></ul><ul><li>also known as secondary production. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consumers <ul><li>Consumer organisms that are one, two, or three transfers from autotrophs are classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Energy Loss <ul><li>Moving through a food web, energy is lost during each transfer as heat, as described by the second law of thermodynamics. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Energy Loss <ul><li>Consequently, the total number of energy transfers rarely exceeds four or five ; </li></ul><ul><li>with energy loss during each transfer, little energy is available to support organisms at the highest levels of a food web. </li></ul>