5 10 intro to lawns

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5 10 intro to lawns

  1. 1. Ag. Concepts Lawns
  2. 2. Turfgrass <ul><li>Lots of kinds of grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Corn, Wheat, Barley, </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Oats </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental Grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Turfgrasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports fields </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Grass Growth Habits <ul><li>Bunch type – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grows where a seed lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunches get thicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t recover as well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creeping – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start where seeds land or by sprig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread by rhizomes & stolons </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Functions of turf <ul><li>Utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilize soil – reduce erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool areas by breaking up pavement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove toxic substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ornamental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enchances landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce injuries </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Turf Quality <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density- # blades per inch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture – width of the blades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Habit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoothness </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Functional quality <ul><li>Rigidity – resistance to compression & wear </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity – Ability to spring back after compression </li></ul><ul><li>Resiliency – Ability to withstand damage </li></ul><ul><li>Recuperative potential – Ability to repair itself after damage </li></ul>
  7. 8. Transition Zone <ul><li>The area where neither a cool season grass or a warm season grass will grow well all year round </li></ul>
  8. 9. Turfgrass - Zones <ul><li>Warm season (Brown) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C4 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce and grow best in hot weather (80 – 105) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cool Season (Blue) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C3 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce and grow best in cool weather (50 – 75) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool season grass grows well in Apr – Jun & Sep – Nov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm season grass grows best in June - September </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Transition Zone Grasses <ul><li>No one type of grass will do well all year </li></ul><ul><li>Both types of grasses will grow & live. In general the cool are more successful </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to use both </li></ul><ul><li>Requires more intensive maintenance if a cool season grass is required </li></ul><ul><li>Or use a summer time warm season grass which goes dormant (and brown in color) in fall - spring. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Cool Season Grasses <ul><li>Need cold winters (with temperatures below 32 ° ) and warm summers. </li></ul><ul><li>Grow best at 60 - 75 ° </li></ul><ul><li>Need regular rain in summer </li></ul><ul><li>May go dormant in summer heat & drought </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky bluegrass, perennial rye, tall and fine fescues, & bentgrass </li></ul>
  11. 12. Warm Season Grasses <ul><li>Tropical origin and thrive during the scorching summer heat. </li></ul><ul><li>They are tough and form a dense lawn cover that thickens as they age. </li></ul><ul><li>Their leaves turn brown in late fall and don't green up again until warm weather returns. </li></ul><ul><li>In general they are green about half the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Bahia, Bermuda, Centipede, St. Augustine, Zoysia </li></ul>
  12. 13. Tall Fescue <ul><li>Cool season grass </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates some shade </li></ul><ul><li>Plant by seed or sod </li></ul><ul><li>Mow 2 – 4” height </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate drought tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Needs moderate fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse textured, clumpy </li></ul><ul><li>Does not spread well, slower to repair </li></ul><ul><li>Deep green color </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant lawn grass in Piedmont, Va. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Tall Fescue Varieties <ul><li>Kentucky 31 – Old standard grows in many lawns, now primarily used as a cheap seed for little-used areas like roadsides. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has endophytes which make it problematic for pastures – esp. horses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MaxQ is endophyte free tall fescue </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Other Tall Fescue Varieties <ul><li>Used primarily in blends : Durana, Penn 1901, Forte', Signia, Oncue,  Virtue, Rebel Sentry and Duster </li></ul><ul><li>Buy blends for specific purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New varieties have finer texture </li></ul>
  15. 16. Tall Fescue <ul><li>Rolled leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Collar </li></ul><ul><li>Ligule </li></ul><ul><li>Auricle </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizomes </li></ul>
  16. 17. Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) <ul><li>Shade tolerance: poor </li></ul><ul><li>Planting: seed or sod </li></ul><ul><li>Mowing height: 1 1/2&quot; - 2 1/2&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Water: needs regular watering, will survive droughts by going into a dormant state </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads and recovers well – good sports turf. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: needs regular fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Cold/heat tolerance: Good cold, poor hot </li></ul><ul><li>Best lawn grass in appearance </li></ul>
  17. 18. Kentucky Blue Grass <ul><li>Boat-shaped tip </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel blades </li></ul><ul><li>Short ligule, no auricle </li></ul><ul><li>Underground Rhizomes </li></ul>
  18. 19. Perennial Ryegrass <ul><li>Germinates very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Poor shade tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived grass may only live one season </li></ul><ul><li>Only grows by seed – not sod </li></ul><ul><li>Mow at 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches </li></ul><ul><li>Poor drought tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Bunch type grass – no stolons or rhizomes </li></ul><ul><li>Cool-season </li></ul><ul><li>Used for over-seeding dormant warm season turf & quick green-up </li></ul>
  19. 20. Perennial Ryegrass <ul><li>Has auricles </li></ul><ul><li>Folded new leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Bunch grass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No stolons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No rhizomes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Bermuda Grass <ul><li>Needs full sun </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Warm-season grass </li></ul><ul><li>Plant from sod, seeds or plugs </li></ul><ul><li>Good traffic tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Mow between ½ and 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Turns brown when soil temperature </li></ul><ul><li> falls below 60 ° </li></ul><ul><li>Can be an invasive weed </li></ul>
  21. 22. Bermuda Grass <ul><li>Hairy ligule </li></ul><ul><li>No auricle </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizomes </li></ul><ul><li>Stolons </li></ul><ul><li>Very segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Rolled or folded </li></ul>
  22. 23. Fine or Red Fescue <ul><li>Cool season </li></ul><ul><li>Shade tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Fine texture </li></ul><ul><li>Establish by seed or sod </li></ul><ul><li>Deep green </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Low – No additional fertilizer required </li></ul><ul><li>Mow to 1 ½ to 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Creeping fescue or Chewnings fescue </li></ul>

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