4 20 soil texture

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4 20 soil texture

  1. 1. Tilth <ul><ul><li>Physical condition of soil , especially in relation to its suitability for planting or growing a crop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of the soil to form stable aggregates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved by the addition of organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves both moisture holding and drainage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves the microbial balance of the soil </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Tilth <ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><li>Bad </li></ul>
  3. 3. Compaction <ul><li>Why do you sink in a ball pit? </li></ul>
  4. 4. All particles are the same size <ul><li>Cannot compact </li></ul><ul><li>Pore space is always the same </li></ul><ul><li>Readjust position </li></ul>
  5. 5. If particles were different sizes: <ul><li>Small particles are forced into pore spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Compaction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Soils <ul><li>Particle Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandy Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clayey Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loamy Soil </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Drainage <ul><li>The ability to hold just the right amount of water </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage is measured by percolation tests </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy soils don’t hold enough water </li></ul><ul><li>Clay soils hold too much </li></ul>
  8. 8. Water – what is available for plants? <ul><li>Percolating water </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary water </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesive (bound) </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water </li></ul>
  9. 9. Soil Improvement <ul><li>Drainage & Aeration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Aggregates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lime & gypsum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add earthworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moisture Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mulches </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Tillage - the plowing or harrowing of land in preparation for growing crops <ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break up clumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix in soil amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove rocks & roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raised bed or furrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can hurt soil aggregates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clay soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can disrupt earthworm and fungi </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. No-till <ul><li>Seed is drilled or sliced into soil </li></ul><ul><li>Top cover of stubble, dead material is not removed </li></ul>
  12. 12. When can soil be worked in Spring? <ul><li>Must crumble when worked </li></ul><ul><li>Dig about 6” down </li></ul><ul><li>If a hand-full of soil forms a tight ball after releasing pressure, it needs to dry more </li></ul><ul><li>Working soil too soon in spring causes compaction </li></ul>
  13. 13. Soil texture testing <ul><li>Need samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay area behind greenhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandy soil mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture test </li></ul><ul><li>Compaction Test </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension Test </li></ul>

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