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3 19 Biological Pest Controls Remake


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3 19 Biological Pest Controls Remake

  1. 1. Biological Pest Controls Plant: Periwinkle Term: Biological Controls
  2. 2. Periwinkle Vinca minor <ul><li>Perennial, evergreen, groundcover </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Hardiness Zones: 4a to 9a </li></ul><ul><li>Height: 6&quot; to 12&quot; , spread 12-14” </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure: shade to full sun </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Color: Blue, Lavender, Purple, White </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Color: Green </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Rate: fast </li></ul><ul><li>Can become invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape Uses: Erosion control, Ground cover </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biological Control <ul><li>A method of controlling pests that relies on living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogen – causes disease </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The arthropod predators of insects and mites include beetles, lacewings, midges, spiders, wasps, and predatory mites. </li></ul><ul><li>Insect predators can be found throughout plants, including the parts below ground, as well as in nearby shrubs and trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Some predators are specialized others are generalists. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are extremely useful natural enemies of insect pests. Unfortunately, some prey on other beneficial insects as well as pests. </li></ul><ul><li>Major characteristics of arthropod predators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adults and immatures are often generalists rather than specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they generally are larger than their prey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they kill or consume many prey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>males, females, immatures, and adults may be predatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they attack immature and adult prey </li></ul></ul>Predators
  5. 5. Bt, or Bacillus thuringiensis <ul><li>A biological control - pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Bt is a natural bacteria found at low levels in soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective organic pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>It works by secreting one or more toxins after being ingested by an insect. </li></ul><ul><li>Only works if it is eaten – not on contact </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning to have problems due to overuse </li></ul>
  6. 6. Parasitoid <ul><li>Insect parasitoids have an immature life stage that develops on or within a single insect host, ultimately killing the host. </li></ul><ul><li>Major characteristics of insect parasitoids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are specialized in their choice of host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are smaller than host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only the female searches for host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different parasitoid species can attack different life stages of host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eggs or larvae are usually laid in, on, or near host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immatures remain on or in host; adults are free-living, mobile, and may be predaceous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immatures almost always kill host </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Growing Environment <ul><li>Use companion planting to repel insects </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitat for predators </li></ul><ul><li>Use polyculture over monoculture </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal soil health </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal humidity levels </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy plants more resistant </li></ul>
  8. 8. Biorational Pesticides <ul><li>Pest control materials that are relatively non-toxic to people with few environmental side-effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All pesticides have some toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insecticidal soap </li></ul><ul><li>Botanicals are plant-derived materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pyrethrin, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Azadiractin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neem oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>garlic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capsaicin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vegetable oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Botanicals are generally short-lived in the environment, as they are broken down rapidly in the presence of light and air. </li></ul>} plant extracts