3 15 Ipm Start Pests Virus & Fungs

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3 15 Ipm Start Pests Virus & Fungs

  1. 1. Horticulture Plant: Osteospermum Term: Integrated Pest Management
  2. 2. Osteospermum “asti” African Daisy <ul><li>Annual in Va, flowering herbaceous </li></ul><ul><li>Height: 12-18 in. Spacing: 24-36 in. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardiness: USDA Zone 10a to 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Exposure: Full Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Color: White, lavender, apricot </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Time: Late Spring to Early Fall </li></ul><ul><li>New plant not a lot of growing information out on it yet . </li></ul>
  3. 3. IPM – Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Pest management is integrated into all growing practices </li></ul><ul><li>Use the safest chemicals possible and only when required </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on preemptive strategies and cultural & biological controls </li></ul>
  4. 4. IPM <ul><li>Use current information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage pest damage by the most economical means </li></ul><ul><li>Least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid injury to the host & to other desirable plants & animals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Seven steps to IPM <ul><li>Prevention: – an oz of prevention = a lb of cure </li></ul><ul><li>If you have damage, find what is causing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the pest and research their lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when to intervene: $$$ </li></ul><ul><li>Research management options </li></ul><ul><li>Implement management strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Keep records on effectiveness of different methods. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prevention <ul><li>Use resistant plant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Buy from a reputable dealer/grower </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect plants before bringing them into the greenhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow weeds to grow in the greenhouse or around the outside </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prevention <ul><li>Be careful of “pet” plants </li></ul><ul><li>Clean thoroughly between crops </li></ul><ul><li>Use only sterile medium & containers </li></ul><ul><li>Use insect screening </li></ul><ul><li>Hose ends must be kept off of the floor at all times </li></ul>
  8. 8. Scouting <ul><li>Inspect plants with a hand lens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– especially buds & the undersides of leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick 10 plants per bench </li></ul><ul><li>Use sticky cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change them weekly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use different color cards to attract different pests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look for signs of insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeydew - spittle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black sooty powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webs or Cotton-like balls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bore holes or off-color spots </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cultural practices <ul><li>Keep plants healthy – more capable of defending against damage </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid watering late in the day </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t over fertilize </li></ul><ul><li>Keep crops spaced appropriately for good air circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilate or heat at night to decrease humidity </li></ul>
  10. 10. What if you still get pests? <ul><li>Determine the damage threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Remove heavily infested plants rather than trying to “save” them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use biological controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nematodes/parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work better on “longer term” crops </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. If that doesn’t work? <ul><li>Use chemical controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the label carefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of legal implications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biorational Pesticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the least toxic chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the mode of action of the chemical and the life-stage that it is effective against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate chemicals to prevent resistance </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What is a Pest? <ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Nematodes/slugs </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Rodents/Deer </li></ul>
  13. 13. Disease <ul><li>Viral – mosaic – plant resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal - Spores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Botrytis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damping Off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytospora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powdery Mildew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phytophthora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairy Ring </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Botrytis <ul><li>Affects fruit plants </li></ul><ul><li>Causes serious economic damage to grapes, apples & strawberries </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove all diseased parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterilize tools </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Damping Off <ul><li>Caused by Pythium fungus </li></ul><ul><li>Problem for new seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Causes seedlings to rot at the soil line and fail. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be prevented by using sterile media and clean pots </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cytospora <ul><li>Poplars, spruce, silver maple, apple, peach and cherry trees are highly susceptible </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove all diseased parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterilize tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stressed plants are damaged the most </li></ul>
  17. 17. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Common on grapes, squashes </li></ul><ul><li>Zinnias outside have it bad </li></ul><ul><li>Does best in dry climates </li></ul><ul><li>Late summer problem </li></ul><ul><li>Increase air circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments to prevent but not cure </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of diseased foliage </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fairy Ring <ul><li>Mushroom type fungus </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water & fertilize to encourage grass competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungicides are not effective </li></ul>
  19. 19. Phytophthora <ul><li>Bark fungus - dogwoods, oaks & hardwood trees & shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove all diseased parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterilize tools </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Soils <ul><li>Particle Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandy Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clayey Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loamy Soil </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Today <ul><li>Each table conduct tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fertility: N-P-K & pH </li></ul><ul><li>Soil texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest particles (sand) sinks 1st </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silt layer sinks next </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest particles (clay) stays in suspension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Just need 2 of 3 particles to figure texture </li></ul>

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