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11 16 Biofuels


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11 16 Biofuels

  1. 1. Natural Resources Biofuels intro Biodiesel
  2. 2. Term: Biofuel <ul><li>Google: Biofuels Pros & Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List 3 pros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List 3 cons </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fuel <ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biofuels <ul><li>Biofuel is defined as solid, liquid or gas fuel derived from relatively recently dead biological material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Distinguished from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce domestically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No increase in Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to find </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires energy to produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverts materials from food supply </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Biodiesel <ul><li>Made from fats & oils </li></ul><ul><li>Very simple process </li></ul><ul><li>Oil + Alcohol esters + glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining esters make Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol – in the form of glycerin is a byproduct </li></ul><ul><li>Blends - mix of biodiesel and petrodiesel </li></ul>Strong Base (Lye)
  6. 6. Ethanol – Gasoline substitute <ul><li>Made from starches & sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Alcohol +CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation separates alcohol from solution </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars & starches are valuable as human & livestock food </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulistic ethanol uses the cellulose part of the plant that is not readily digestible </li></ul><ul><li>Use as a blend in gasoline engines - 10% </li></ul>Yeast
  7. 7. Gasification <ul><li>Made from any Biomass or carbon source </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon material CO & H (syngas) </li></ul><ul><li>Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines </li></ul><ul><li>Syngas can be used to produce methanol and hydrogen, or converted into synthetic fuel. </li></ul>Steam
  8. 8. Methane <ul><li>Form of LP gas </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by microbial anaerobic digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Most landfills recover methane </li></ul><ul><li>Ruminants produce significant amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Research in animal waste recovery and utilization </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diesel vs Gas Engines Emissions Fuel Availability Fuel Cost Power Efficiency
  10. 10. Biodiesel <ul><li>Made from fats & oils </li></ul><ul><li>What products/byproducts could be cheap sources of fat or oil? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Biodiesel <ul><li>What is B20 biodiesel? </li></ul><ul><li>The cetane number is a purity rating for diesel fuel (like octane for gas). How does biodiesel compare to standard diesel? </li></ul><ul><li>What biodiesel levels can be used according to ASTM specifications? </li></ul><ul><li>How does biodiesel perform in cold weather? </li></ul><ul><li>Has biodiesel production led to a diversion of soybeans from food production? </li></ul><ul><li>Does biodiesel contribute to food shortages? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Disadvantages <ul><li>Bacteria can grow in biodiesel & clog fuel lines & injectors </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel doesn’t evaporate – spills are hard to clean up </li></ul>
  13. 13. Synthetic diesel <ul><li>Wood, hemp, straw, corn, garbage, food scraps, and sewage-sludge may be dried and gasified to synthesis gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Such processes are often called biomass-to-liquids or BTL. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic diesel may also be produced out of natural gas in the gas-to-liquid (GTL) process </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic diesel may also be produced out of coal in the coal-to-liquid (CTL) process. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vegetable Oil <ul><li>Can be used in diesel engines if pre-warmed </li></ul><ul><li>Limited use in cold climates </li></ul><ul><li>Can only be used in older-style engines </li></ul>
  15. 15. Homemade Biodiesel <ul><li>Uses very toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Must use goggles & gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Make methoxide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& corrosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& exothermic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add methoxide to warm vegetable oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Mix every 5 minutes for 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Let settle overnight </li></ul>