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THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS & POST
2015 FRAMEWORK-AN INDIAN EXPERIENCE
PRESENTED
BY
DR. SHIKTA SINGH
ASST. PROFESSOR
KSOM,KIIT UNIVERSITY
BHUBANESWAR
 “The eight Millennium Development Goals
were a breakthrough. Together, we created a
blueprint for ending extreme poverty. We
defined achievable targets and timetables.”
LAYOUT
 Introduction
 Learning from the MDGs: India’s Experience
 The Unfulfilled Agenda
 MDG & Growth
 Lessons for the SDGs
 MDG to SDG- Leaving no one behind
 Concerns & Policy Suggestion
 Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
What are the Millennium Development Goals?
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved
by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges.
The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the
Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147
heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in
September 2000.
MDGs helped in bringing out a much needed focus and pressure on basic
development issues, which in turn led the governments at national and sub
national levels to do better planning and implement more intensive policies
and programs.
INTRODUCTION
 The eight (8) Goals are as under:
 Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
 Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
 Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
 Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
 Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and TB
 Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
 Goal 8: Develop Global Partnership for Development
 India’s MDG framework is based on UNDG’s MDG 2003 framework, and it includes all the eight
goals, 12 out of the 18 Targets (Targets 1 to 11 & 18) which are relevant for India and related 35
indicators.
 Some of the targets and indicators were dropped and modified due to non-availability of
sufficiently reliable data
INDIA’S MDG JOURNEY – A MIXED BAG
Progress has been mixed
already achieved the target of halving the poverty head count ratio, but
hunger remains a tough challenge in India, not much progress in reducing
income inequality.
Moderately on track, while considering the targets of achieving universal
education,
Eliminated gender inequality in primary and secondary education,
Has to strive more to reduce the maternal mortality to reach the desired level.
Achieved the required trend reversal in the fight against HIV/ AIDS,
Ensured the achievement of target of drinking water facility but lagging behind
in achieving the desired target for ensuring sanitation facility is lagging behind.
Reducing child mortality as the sharp decline in the recent years in Infant
Mortality and Under Five Mortality are likely to take us very near to the target.
Trend reversal has achieved in the fight against Malaria and TB, though there
was some fluctuations in between,
Measures have taken to reverse the loss of environmental resources, progress
has been achieved in improving the environment by improving the coverage of
forest area, protected areas, reducing CFC emission.
MDGS ATTAINMENT IN INDIA HAS BEEN MIXED
MDG
Goals
MDG Target Indicators Progress / Status Target by
2015
Goal 1
Eradicate
Extreme
Poverty&
Hunger
Target 1 :
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people whose income
is less than one dollar a day
1. Poverty Head Count Ratio.(% below
national poverty line)
2. Poverty Gap Ratio
3. Share of poorest quintile in national
consumption
21.9% by 2011-12
Rural PGR 9.64 in 04-05 to 5.05 in 11-12 and
Urban PGR from 6.08 to 2.70
Rural : decline from 8% in 93-94 to 7.1% in
11-12
Urban : Decline from 9.6% in 93-94 to 9.1%
in 11-12
23.5%
50% decline
Target 2:
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people who suffer
from hunger
5. Prevalence of underweight children
under three years of age
From 43% in 98-99 to 40% in 05-06
Expected to reduce to 33% by 2015,
falling short
26%
GOAL 2
Achieve
universal
primary
education
Target 3:
Ensure that by 2015, children
everywhere, boys and girls alike,
will be able to complete a full
course of primary education
6. Net Enrollment Ratio in Primary
Education
7. Proportion of people starting Grade 1
who reach Grade 5 (Survival rate)
8. Literacy Rate of 15-24 years olds (Youth
literacy rate)
88.08% in 2013-14
78.08 %in 2009-10 to 86.05%in 2011-12
61.9% to 86.14% during 1991-2011, trend
shows likely to reach 93.38% by 2015
100%
GOAL 3
Promote
Gender
Equality
and
Empower
Women
Target 4
Eliminate gender disparity in
primary, secondary education,
preferably by 2005, and in all levels
of education, no later than 2015
9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary,
secondary and tertiary education
10. Ratio of literate women to men,15-24
years old
11. Share of women in wage employment
in the non- agricultural sector
12.Proportion of seats held by women in
National Parliament.
Primary: 0 .76 to 1.01 from 90-91 to 11-12
Secondary: 0.6 to 0.93
Tertiary: 0.54 to 0.88
From 67.07 ( 49.3% / 73.5%) to 90.88(81.8%
/ 90%) over 1991-2011
19.3% likely to be 22.28% by 2015.
Less than 12.24% of seats of Indian
Parliament. India ranks 115 in the world
1
1
1
100%
50%
50%
TABLE SHOWING MDG GOALS, TARGETS & ACHIEVEMENTS
MDG
Goals
MDG Target Indicators Progress / Status Target by 2015
Goal 4
Reduce
Child
Mortality
Target 5:
Reduce by two-thirds, between
1990 and 2015, the under-five
Mortality Rate
13. Under- Five Mortality Rate ( no of birth per
1000 live birth)
14. Infant Mortality Rate (no of death under 1
year per 1000 live birth)
15. Proportion of one year old children immunized
against measles
From 125(1990) to 49(2013) per 1000 live birth
From 80(1990) to 40(2013) per 1000 live birth
74% coverage in 2009, likely to achieve 89% in
2015
42 death per 1000 live
birth
27 death per 1000 live
birth
100 % coverage
Goal 5
Improve
Maternal
Health
Target 6:
Reduce by three quarters between
1990 and 2015, the Maternal
Morality Ratio
16.Maternal Mortality Ratio (death per 1 lakh live
birth)
17.Proportion of births attended by skilled health
personnel
167 In 2011-13 from 437 in 90-91, likely to be 140
by 2015
From 33% in 92-93 to 87.1% in 2013
109 per 1 lakh live
birth
100%
Goal 6
Combat
HIV/AIDS ,
Malaria
and other
diseases
Target 7:
Have halted by 2015 and begun to
reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
TARGET 8: Have halted by 2015 and
begun to reverse the incidence of
Malaria and other major diseases
18. HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged
15-24 years
19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive
prevalence rate
19A. Condom use at last high risk sex
19B. Percentage of population aged 15-24 years
with comprehensive correct knowledge of
HIV/AIDS
21.Prevalence and death rates associated with
Malaria
22.Proportion of population in Malaria risk areas
using effective Malaria prevention and treatment
measures (Percentage of population covered
under use of residuary spray in high risk areas)
23.Prevalence and death rates associated with
Tuberculosis
24.Proportion of Tuberculosis cases detected and
0.32% in 2012-13 from 0.89% in 2005
5.2% in 2005-06
74% In 2010 from 51.9% in 2001
32.9% in 2006 from 22.2% in 2001
Annual Parasite Incidence (per 1000 population)
declined to 0.88 in 2014 from 3.29 in 1995.
Prevalence – 211 in 2013 from 465 in 1990
Mortality – 19 in 2013 from 38 in 1990
TABLE SHOWING MDG GOALS, TARGETS & ACHIEVEMENTS
MDG
Goals
MDG Target Indicators Progress / Status Target by 2015
Goal 7
Ensure
Environment
Sustainability
Target 9:
Integrate the principle of
sustainable development into
country policies and programmes
and reverse the loss of
environmental resources
Target10: Halve, by 2015 the
proportion of people without
sustainable access to safe drinking
water and basic sanitation
Target : 11
By 2020, to have achieved a
significant improvement in the lives
of at least 100 million slum
dwellers
25. Proportion of land area covered by forest
26. Ratio of area protected to maintain
biological diversity to surface area
27. Energy use per unit of GDP( Rupee)
28. Carbon Dioxide emission per capita and
consumption of Ozone -depleting Chlorofluoro
Carbons (ODP tons)
29. Proportion of the Households using solid
fuels
30.Proportion of population with sustainable
access to an improved water source, urban and
rural
31.Proportion of population with access to
improved sanitation, urban and rural
32.Slum population as percentage of urban
population
21.23% of the geographic area of the country,
increase of 5871 sq km in 2011-13
4.83% of total geographical area
0.1518 KWh in 2012-13
1.58 MT CO2 – Increasing Trend
290.733 tones ODP in 2010 – Declining trend
67.3%
All India – 87.9%(2012) - Achieved
Rural – 86.9%(2012) - Achieved
Urban - 90.1%(2012 – likely to be achieved
All India - 43.4%(2012) – Unlikely to be met
Rural – 59.4% (2012) - Unlikely to be met
Urban – 8.8%(2012) - Likely to be met
17.36%(2011)
All India – 82.42%
Rural - 78.39%
Urban – 93.63%
All India – 38.09%
Rural – 46.77%
Urban – 14.18%
Goal 8
Develop a
Global
Partnership
for
Development
Target 8
In co-operation with the private
sector, make available the benefits
of new technologies, especially
information and communication
47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per
100 population
48A. Internet subscribers per 100 population
48B. Personal computers per 100 population
76%(2014)
20.83%(2014)
NA
A MIXED BAG OF GLORIES AND PITFALL
India is moderately successful in reducing poverty
and likely to miss target by 3.5 percentage point.
The Poverty head Count Ratio( based on
Tendulkar Committee estimate of national poverty
line) is 21.9% BY 2011-12, estimated to reach 18.6
% by 2015.
the share of poorest 20% in national
consumption was always less than 10% during
1993-2012, and over the years, a declining
trend has been observed.
The malnourished and underweight children’s
percentage came down from 52% (in 1990) to 43
% (in 1998-99) and expected to reach 40% by
2005-06, and likely to be 33% by 2015 (below the
target of 26%)
Although, at the all India level PGR declined
substantially in both rural and urban areas during
2004-5 to 2011-12, but scenario vary from State to
State
CONTD..
 The Poverty head Count Ratio is based on
Tendulkar Committee estimate of national
poverty line.
 The poverty line as defined by Tendulkar
Committee is itself a much debated issue
and do not reflect the actual measure of
poverty.
 Most of the uplifted people above the
national poverty line are on threshold and
runs the risk of pushed below with little
disturbance
 Marginalized section like SC /ST, single
women household, are most vulnerable.
21.9
29.43 31.65 31.98 32.59 33.74 34.67 36.89 36.96
39.93
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Percentage
Axis Title
PHCR in states ( States with above national level
estimate)2011-12
PHCR
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural
8.0 9.6 7.3 9.5 6.97 9.41 7.1 9.1
CONTD..
 Education is an essential tool for breaking the intergenerational
transmission of poverty
 Universal enrolment but survival rate to grade 5 is still cause of worry
 But children are learning little in school
 Level of learning in Mathematics and English is very poor.
 As per ASER 2014, of all students enrolled in St V half can not read read
at St II level Close to half of all children will finish eight years of schooling
but still not have learned basic skills in arithmetic.
 Inequality in learning outcomes are high.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Percentage
Trend in Gross EnrollmentRatio
BOYS
GIRLS
TOTAL
73.5
84.2
90
94.81
61.9
76.4
86.1
93.38
49.3
67.7
81.8
92.7
0
20
40
60
80
100
19991 2000 2011 Likely Achv
in 2015
Percentage
Axis Title
Youth(15-24) Literacy Rtae(%)
Gender Gap
Female
Male
Total
A MIXED BAG OF GLORIES AND PITFALL..
 Gender inequality remains high.
 Literacy rates among women fall behind that of men, thus evidencing women‘s
poorer participation in learning outcomes and opportunities.
CONTD…
 India is moderately or almost nearly on track however ‘participation of women in employment and decision making
remains less and disparity is not likely to eliminate by 2015’.
Country’s Gender Parity Index (GPI) for Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and secondary education has risen
and at 1.03 in 2013-14, but achieving GPI in tertiary education still remains a challenge which is 0.89 in 2012-13.
Violence against women is a major concern and do not reflect the progress made under other indicators.
Instances of violence against women has an astonishing and grim variety to it – with acid throwing, domestic
violence stemming out of dowry, rape, harassment and an assortment of others
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
IndexValue
Trend in GenderParity Index(GPI)
Primary
Education(I-V)
Secondary
Education(I - )
Higher
Education(18 to
23 yrs)
0 -1.77.98.815.2
29.636.942.549.359.970.8
0 -3.3
4.4 3.6 8.1
19.8 24.8 28 32.3
38.8
206.6
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
AxisPercentageTitle
Incidence and Rate of Crimeagainst
Women(Percentage changefrom 2002)
Incidence
Rate
GROWTH & ATTAINMENT OF MDG
 Economic growth is critical to attainment of most of MDGs but
not sufficient
 Growth has tendency to reduce poverty but Income elasticity
of poverty has fallen
 Definitive view on poverty reduction is hostage to data
uncertainties
 The pattern of growth and sectoral composition matters for the
pace and quality of poverty reduction.
 Though consumption poverty has declined , calorie poverty
has not declined.
 Expansion of non-farm growth is more closely linked to urban
than agricultural growth which explains rapid decrease in
urban poverty than rural poverty
 India’s nonfarm growth, slow by international standard is driven
by urban growth, reduction levels and state and local factors.
THE EMPLOYMENT- POVERTY NEXUS
 Employment is one of the main instrumentality which leads to
poverty reduction through growth
 Sectorial composition of economic growth, the choice and level
of technology and effective functioning of the labor market also
influence the rate of growth of employment
 Structurally, growth to be pro poor, employment intensity sector
must lead to expansion in the outputs directly or indirectly
induced.
 While the number of people moving into non farm employment is
growing, the quality of nonfarm employment is falling
BEYOND GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION….
 In contrast to steady reduction in poverty India’s record in Human
Development is mixed.
 Variation in human development indicators are enormous across states.
 Increase in income level does not necessarily lead to consumption of MDG
Goods & Services due to other factors like:
 Social customs and barrier
 Lack of education and awareness
 Prohibitive cost due to lack of infrastructure
 Low level and slow growth in public expenditures particularly on health and
education
 For Growth to be Inclusive redistribution and channelization of the benefits of
growth, through social protection schemes, entitlement program – both to
reduce poverty directly and to allow people to benefit in other human
development.
CRITICISM ON MDGS
MDGs have often been criticized for being a top-down development agenda.
North-dominated.
represent a reductionist view of development
They are too limited in scope
Too focused on social sectors
their emphasis on quantification is excessive;
they omit fundamental objectives contained in the Millennium Declaration
inadequately address the complexity of the dimensions that are included
(e.g. gender equality and the quality of freedom)
MDG TO SDG – LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
 Originated from The Open Working Group (OWG) deliberations
which was mandated by the Rio+20outcome document ‘The
Future We Want’
 Triple bottom line approach to human wellbeing
 Economic development
 Social inclusion
 Environment sustainability
MDG TO SDG – LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
It is critically important to keep the key elements of SDGs in
perspective
The synthesis report of the Secretary General on the post-2015 agenda, “The
road to dignity: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the
planet” was published in December 2014. The report presents six elements for
delivering on the SDGs which “… would help frame and reinforce the
universal, integrated and transformative nature of a sustainable development
agenda …”. The six elements are:
•Dignity: to end poverty and fight inequalities
•People: to ensure healthy lives, knowledge, and the inclusion of women and
children
•Prosperity: to grow a strong, inclusive, and transformative economy
•Planet: to protect our ecosystems for all societies and our children
•Justice: to promote safe and peaceful societies, and strong institutions
•Partnership: to catalyse global solidarity for sustainable development
THE 17 SDGS
CRITICAL ELEMENTS FOR SUCCESS OF THE SDGS
 The Agenda: Inclusive, transformative, integrated and universal
How the ‘universal’ SDG will be rearticulated at the national level
reflecting the contextual priorities?- Still an issue of debate
 Country-led implementation, Common But Differentiated
Responsibility
 A revitalized Global Partnership: An area much criticized during
MDG implementation
 Follow-up and review processes will be voluntary and will respect
policy space and priorities of the countries
 Global review will primarily be based on national official data
sources – country reports and thematic reports
LESSONS FOR THE SDGS
 New areas of SDGs (e.g. cities and human settlements,
ecosystem and biodiversity) will call for greater effort and
resources at the country level
 Much more ambition and effort is required on the part of the
national, regional and international community.
 It is important to sensitize national policies in line with SDGs!
 An important issue with respect to SDGs is how their
implementation will be financed.
 Public finance (domestic resource mobilization) and foreign
aid are expected to continue to be central to supporting the
implementation of the SDGs, but they will not be adequate.
 Other potential sources of financing include:
 resources generated from the private sector (including
remittances)
 crackdown on illicit financial flows and corruption
 trade and market access
 foreign direct investment
LESSONS FOR THE SDGS
 Concerns have been raised about the sheer breadth and ambition
of these goals, the feasibility of monitoring them and tracking actual
progress within countries.
 If monitoring of 8 MDGs, 20 targets and 60 indicators have
posed serious challenges at the national level, how about 17
SDGs, 169 targets and over 300 indicators?
 Capacity of national statistics office and other government
agencies will be tested
 Accessibility, quality and timeliness of data will be critical. To
fix a reference year will be a challenge: 2010?; 2015?
 Rapid technological progress should be put into effective use
 Attainment of SDGs will require a strong and effective institutional
mechanism involving all stakeholders including public
representatives (central and local), government (executive &
bureaucracy), private sector, civil society, knowledge community,
and development partners.
SDG AND INDIA
 India along with middle income countries like BRICSAM will be
main leaders
 India’s developmental agenda and priorities are in alignment
with SDGs
 India successfully lobbied for Common But Differentiated
Responsibilities
ROAD AHEAD FOR INDIA
Meeting the SDGs will require addressing wide range of challenges :
 Broad based Inclusive Economic growth
 Reviving the manufacturing sector(Make In India, Skill Development)
 Focus on non farm sector and new thrust on new dimension of agriculture
 Encouraging small and medium enterprises
 Financial Inclusion(Jan Dhan Yojona, Mudra Bank)
 Social Security measures( Pension and Insurance schemes for poor at nominal premium, Crop insurance
schemes for farmers)
 Focus on Human Development – Need to increase spending on health and education
 Strong Design and effective delivery
 Effective targeting and delivery under schemes like NREGA
 Improving the Public Distribution System
 Reduction of subsidy and pilferages by direct transfer of benefits under welfare schemes.
 Resilient and Sustainable Infrastructure
 All weather memorable roads, electrification of all villages and hamlet, telecommunications
 Development of national waterway system
 Massive expansion renewable energy like Hydel, Wind, Solar and nuclear in place of thermal power
 Macro economic Policy
 With need for massive financing, participation of private sector is most
 With easing of inflationary pressure with softening of commodity prices, need for a expansionary and
counter-cyclical fiscal policy with increasing public spending
CONCLUSION:
 MDG despite of many criticisms & fallacies has brought the focus
of the govt. ,policy makers & other stakeholders w.r.t issues like
poverty, hunger,gender disparity etc.
 So, SDG will carry on the unfinished agenda of MDG.
 SDG to shift its focus to human well being & sustainability while
striving to meet the other developmental roles
 Hence, India’s developmental agenda are in congruence with
SDG.
“Between now and 2015, we must make
sure that promises made become
promises kept. The consequences of
doing otherwise are profound: death,
illness and despair, needless suffering,
lost opportunities for millions upon
millions of people.”
THANK YOU

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The Millennium Development Goals and Post 2015 Framework- An Indian Experience

  • 1. THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS & POST 2015 FRAMEWORK-AN INDIAN EXPERIENCE PRESENTED BY DR. SHIKTA SINGH ASST. PROFESSOR KSOM,KIIT UNIVERSITY BHUBANESWAR
  • 2.
  • 3.  “The eight Millennium Development Goals were a breakthrough. Together, we created a blueprint for ending extreme poverty. We defined achievable targets and timetables.”
  • 4. LAYOUT  Introduction  Learning from the MDGs: India’s Experience  The Unfulfilled Agenda  MDG & Growth  Lessons for the SDGs  MDG to SDG- Leaving no one behind  Concerns & Policy Suggestion  Conclusion
  • 5. INTRODUCTION What are the Millennium Development Goals? The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000. MDGs helped in bringing out a much needed focus and pressure on basic development issues, which in turn led the governments at national and sub national levels to do better planning and implement more intensive policies and programs.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION  The eight (8) Goals are as under:  Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger  Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education  Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women  Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality  Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health  Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and TB  Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability  Goal 8: Develop Global Partnership for Development  India’s MDG framework is based on UNDG’s MDG 2003 framework, and it includes all the eight goals, 12 out of the 18 Targets (Targets 1 to 11 & 18) which are relevant for India and related 35 indicators.  Some of the targets and indicators were dropped and modified due to non-availability of sufficiently reliable data
  • 7. INDIA’S MDG JOURNEY – A MIXED BAG Progress has been mixed already achieved the target of halving the poverty head count ratio, but hunger remains a tough challenge in India, not much progress in reducing income inequality. Moderately on track, while considering the targets of achieving universal education, Eliminated gender inequality in primary and secondary education, Has to strive more to reduce the maternal mortality to reach the desired level. Achieved the required trend reversal in the fight against HIV/ AIDS, Ensured the achievement of target of drinking water facility but lagging behind in achieving the desired target for ensuring sanitation facility is lagging behind. Reducing child mortality as the sharp decline in the recent years in Infant Mortality and Under Five Mortality are likely to take us very near to the target. Trend reversal has achieved in the fight against Malaria and TB, though there was some fluctuations in between, Measures have taken to reverse the loss of environmental resources, progress has been achieved in improving the environment by improving the coverage of forest area, protected areas, reducing CFC emission.
  • 8. MDGS ATTAINMENT IN INDIA HAS BEEN MIXED MDG Goals MDG Target Indicators Progress / Status Target by 2015 Goal 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty& Hunger Target 1 : Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 1. Poverty Head Count Ratio.(% below national poverty line) 2. Poverty Gap Ratio 3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption 21.9% by 2011-12 Rural PGR 9.64 in 04-05 to 5.05 in 11-12 and Urban PGR from 6.08 to 2.70 Rural : decline from 8% in 93-94 to 7.1% in 11-12 Urban : Decline from 9.6% in 93-94 to 9.1% in 11-12 23.5% 50% decline Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 5. Prevalence of underweight children under three years of age From 43% in 98-99 to 40% in 05-06 Expected to reduce to 33% by 2015, falling short 26% GOAL 2 Achieve universal primary education Target 3: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary education 6. Net Enrollment Ratio in Primary Education 7. Proportion of people starting Grade 1 who reach Grade 5 (Survival rate) 8. Literacy Rate of 15-24 years olds (Youth literacy rate) 88.08% in 2013-14 78.08 %in 2009-10 to 86.05%in 2011-12 61.9% to 86.14% during 1991-2011, trend shows likely to reach 93.38% by 2015 100% GOAL 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 4 Eliminate gender disparity in primary, secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education, no later than 2015 9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 10. Ratio of literate women to men,15-24 years old 11. Share of women in wage employment in the non- agricultural sector 12.Proportion of seats held by women in National Parliament. Primary: 0 .76 to 1.01 from 90-91 to 11-12 Secondary: 0.6 to 0.93 Tertiary: 0.54 to 0.88 From 67.07 ( 49.3% / 73.5%) to 90.88(81.8% / 90%) over 1991-2011 19.3% likely to be 22.28% by 2015. Less than 12.24% of seats of Indian Parliament. India ranks 115 in the world 1 1 1 100% 50% 50%
  • 9. TABLE SHOWING MDG GOALS, TARGETS & ACHIEVEMENTS MDG Goals MDG Target Indicators Progress / Status Target by 2015 Goal 4 Reduce Child Mortality Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five Mortality Rate 13. Under- Five Mortality Rate ( no of birth per 1000 live birth) 14. Infant Mortality Rate (no of death under 1 year per 1000 live birth) 15. Proportion of one year old children immunized against measles From 125(1990) to 49(2013) per 1000 live birth From 80(1990) to 40(2013) per 1000 live birth 74% coverage in 2009, likely to achieve 89% in 2015 42 death per 1000 live birth 27 death per 1000 live birth 100 % coverage Goal 5 Improve Maternal Health Target 6: Reduce by three quarters between 1990 and 2015, the Maternal Morality Ratio 16.Maternal Mortality Ratio (death per 1 lakh live birth) 17.Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel 167 In 2011-13 from 437 in 90-91, likely to be 140 by 2015 From 33% in 92-93 to 87.1% in 2013 109 per 1 lakh live birth 100% Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS , Malaria and other diseases Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS TARGET 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major diseases 18. HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years 19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate 19A. Condom use at last high risk sex 19B. Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 21.Prevalence and death rates associated with Malaria 22.Proportion of population in Malaria risk areas using effective Malaria prevention and treatment measures (Percentage of population covered under use of residuary spray in high risk areas) 23.Prevalence and death rates associated with Tuberculosis 24.Proportion of Tuberculosis cases detected and 0.32% in 2012-13 from 0.89% in 2005 5.2% in 2005-06 74% In 2010 from 51.9% in 2001 32.9% in 2006 from 22.2% in 2001 Annual Parasite Incidence (per 1000 population) declined to 0.88 in 2014 from 3.29 in 1995. Prevalence – 211 in 2013 from 465 in 1990 Mortality – 19 in 2013 from 38 in 1990
  • 10. TABLE SHOWING MDG GOALS, TARGETS & ACHIEVEMENTS MDG Goals MDG Target Indicators Progress / Status Target by 2015 Goal 7 Ensure Environment Sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principle of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources Target10: Halve, by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Target : 11 By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 25. Proportion of land area covered by forest 26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area 27. Energy use per unit of GDP( Rupee) 28. Carbon Dioxide emission per capita and consumption of Ozone -depleting Chlorofluoro Carbons (ODP tons) 29. Proportion of the Households using solid fuels 30.Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural 31.Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural 32.Slum population as percentage of urban population 21.23% of the geographic area of the country, increase of 5871 sq km in 2011-13 4.83% of total geographical area 0.1518 KWh in 2012-13 1.58 MT CO2 – Increasing Trend 290.733 tones ODP in 2010 – Declining trend 67.3% All India – 87.9%(2012) - Achieved Rural – 86.9%(2012) - Achieved Urban - 90.1%(2012 – likely to be achieved All India - 43.4%(2012) – Unlikely to be met Rural – 59.4% (2012) - Unlikely to be met Urban – 8.8%(2012) - Likely to be met 17.36%(2011) All India – 82.42% Rural - 78.39% Urban – 93.63% All India – 38.09% Rural – 46.77% Urban – 14.18% Goal 8 Develop a Global Partnership for Development Target 8 In co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication 47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population 48A. Internet subscribers per 100 population 48B. Personal computers per 100 population 76%(2014) 20.83%(2014) NA
  • 11. A MIXED BAG OF GLORIES AND PITFALL India is moderately successful in reducing poverty and likely to miss target by 3.5 percentage point. The Poverty head Count Ratio( based on Tendulkar Committee estimate of national poverty line) is 21.9% BY 2011-12, estimated to reach 18.6 % by 2015. the share of poorest 20% in national consumption was always less than 10% during 1993-2012, and over the years, a declining trend has been observed. The malnourished and underweight children’s percentage came down from 52% (in 1990) to 43 % (in 1998-99) and expected to reach 40% by 2005-06, and likely to be 33% by 2015 (below the target of 26%) Although, at the all India level PGR declined substantially in both rural and urban areas during 2004-5 to 2011-12, but scenario vary from State to State
  • 12. CONTD..  The Poverty head Count Ratio is based on Tendulkar Committee estimate of national poverty line.  The poverty line as defined by Tendulkar Committee is itself a much debated issue and do not reflect the actual measure of poverty.  Most of the uplifted people above the national poverty line are on threshold and runs the risk of pushed below with little disturbance  Marginalized section like SC /ST, single women household, are most vulnerable. 21.9 29.43 31.65 31.98 32.59 33.74 34.67 36.89 36.96 39.93 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Percentage Axis Title PHCR in states ( States with above national level estimate)2011-12 PHCR Share of poorest quintile in national consumption 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural 8.0 9.6 7.3 9.5 6.97 9.41 7.1 9.1
  • 13. CONTD..  Education is an essential tool for breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty  Universal enrolment but survival rate to grade 5 is still cause of worry  But children are learning little in school  Level of learning in Mathematics and English is very poor.  As per ASER 2014, of all students enrolled in St V half can not read read at St II level Close to half of all children will finish eight years of schooling but still not have learned basic skills in arithmetic.  Inequality in learning outcomes are high.
  • 14. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Percentage Trend in Gross EnrollmentRatio BOYS GIRLS TOTAL 73.5 84.2 90 94.81 61.9 76.4 86.1 93.38 49.3 67.7 81.8 92.7 0 20 40 60 80 100 19991 2000 2011 Likely Achv in 2015 Percentage Axis Title Youth(15-24) Literacy Rtae(%) Gender Gap Female Male Total A MIXED BAG OF GLORIES AND PITFALL..  Gender inequality remains high.  Literacy rates among women fall behind that of men, thus evidencing women‘s poorer participation in learning outcomes and opportunities.
  • 15. CONTD…  India is moderately or almost nearly on track however ‘participation of women in employment and decision making remains less and disparity is not likely to eliminate by 2015’. Country’s Gender Parity Index (GPI) for Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and secondary education has risen and at 1.03 in 2013-14, but achieving GPI in tertiary education still remains a challenge which is 0.89 in 2012-13. Violence against women is a major concern and do not reflect the progress made under other indicators. Instances of violence against women has an astonishing and grim variety to it – with acid throwing, domestic violence stemming out of dowry, rape, harassment and an assortment of others 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 IndexValue Trend in GenderParity Index(GPI) Primary Education(I-V) Secondary Education(I - ) Higher Education(18 to 23 yrs) 0 -1.77.98.815.2 29.636.942.549.359.970.8 0 -3.3 4.4 3.6 8.1 19.8 24.8 28 32.3 38.8 206.6 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 AxisPercentageTitle Incidence and Rate of Crimeagainst Women(Percentage changefrom 2002) Incidence Rate
  • 16. GROWTH & ATTAINMENT OF MDG  Economic growth is critical to attainment of most of MDGs but not sufficient  Growth has tendency to reduce poverty but Income elasticity of poverty has fallen  Definitive view on poverty reduction is hostage to data uncertainties  The pattern of growth and sectoral composition matters for the pace and quality of poverty reduction.  Though consumption poverty has declined , calorie poverty has not declined.  Expansion of non-farm growth is more closely linked to urban than agricultural growth which explains rapid decrease in urban poverty than rural poverty  India’s nonfarm growth, slow by international standard is driven by urban growth, reduction levels and state and local factors.
  • 17. THE EMPLOYMENT- POVERTY NEXUS  Employment is one of the main instrumentality which leads to poverty reduction through growth  Sectorial composition of economic growth, the choice and level of technology and effective functioning of the labor market also influence the rate of growth of employment  Structurally, growth to be pro poor, employment intensity sector must lead to expansion in the outputs directly or indirectly induced.  While the number of people moving into non farm employment is growing, the quality of nonfarm employment is falling
  • 18. BEYOND GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION….  In contrast to steady reduction in poverty India’s record in Human Development is mixed.  Variation in human development indicators are enormous across states.  Increase in income level does not necessarily lead to consumption of MDG Goods & Services due to other factors like:  Social customs and barrier  Lack of education and awareness  Prohibitive cost due to lack of infrastructure  Low level and slow growth in public expenditures particularly on health and education  For Growth to be Inclusive redistribution and channelization of the benefits of growth, through social protection schemes, entitlement program – both to reduce poverty directly and to allow people to benefit in other human development.
  • 19. CRITICISM ON MDGS MDGs have often been criticized for being a top-down development agenda. North-dominated. represent a reductionist view of development They are too limited in scope Too focused on social sectors their emphasis on quantification is excessive; they omit fundamental objectives contained in the Millennium Declaration inadequately address the complexity of the dimensions that are included (e.g. gender equality and the quality of freedom)
  • 20. MDG TO SDG – LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND  Originated from The Open Working Group (OWG) deliberations which was mandated by the Rio+20outcome document ‘The Future We Want’  Triple bottom line approach to human wellbeing  Economic development  Social inclusion  Environment sustainability
  • 21. MDG TO SDG – LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND It is critically important to keep the key elements of SDGs in perspective The synthesis report of the Secretary General on the post-2015 agenda, “The road to dignity: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet” was published in December 2014. The report presents six elements for delivering on the SDGs which “… would help frame and reinforce the universal, integrated and transformative nature of a sustainable development agenda …”. The six elements are: •Dignity: to end poverty and fight inequalities •People: to ensure healthy lives, knowledge, and the inclusion of women and children •Prosperity: to grow a strong, inclusive, and transformative economy •Planet: to protect our ecosystems for all societies and our children •Justice: to promote safe and peaceful societies, and strong institutions •Partnership: to catalyse global solidarity for sustainable development
  • 23. CRITICAL ELEMENTS FOR SUCCESS OF THE SDGS  The Agenda: Inclusive, transformative, integrated and universal How the ‘universal’ SDG will be rearticulated at the national level reflecting the contextual priorities?- Still an issue of debate  Country-led implementation, Common But Differentiated Responsibility  A revitalized Global Partnership: An area much criticized during MDG implementation  Follow-up and review processes will be voluntary and will respect policy space and priorities of the countries  Global review will primarily be based on national official data sources – country reports and thematic reports
  • 24. LESSONS FOR THE SDGS  New areas of SDGs (e.g. cities and human settlements, ecosystem and biodiversity) will call for greater effort and resources at the country level  Much more ambition and effort is required on the part of the national, regional and international community.  It is important to sensitize national policies in line with SDGs!  An important issue with respect to SDGs is how their implementation will be financed.  Public finance (domestic resource mobilization) and foreign aid are expected to continue to be central to supporting the implementation of the SDGs, but they will not be adequate.  Other potential sources of financing include:  resources generated from the private sector (including remittances)  crackdown on illicit financial flows and corruption  trade and market access  foreign direct investment
  • 25. LESSONS FOR THE SDGS  Concerns have been raised about the sheer breadth and ambition of these goals, the feasibility of monitoring them and tracking actual progress within countries.  If monitoring of 8 MDGs, 20 targets and 60 indicators have posed serious challenges at the national level, how about 17 SDGs, 169 targets and over 300 indicators?  Capacity of national statistics office and other government agencies will be tested  Accessibility, quality and timeliness of data will be critical. To fix a reference year will be a challenge: 2010?; 2015?  Rapid technological progress should be put into effective use  Attainment of SDGs will require a strong and effective institutional mechanism involving all stakeholders including public representatives (central and local), government (executive & bureaucracy), private sector, civil society, knowledge community, and development partners.
  • 26. SDG AND INDIA  India along with middle income countries like BRICSAM will be main leaders  India’s developmental agenda and priorities are in alignment with SDGs  India successfully lobbied for Common But Differentiated Responsibilities
  • 27. ROAD AHEAD FOR INDIA Meeting the SDGs will require addressing wide range of challenges :  Broad based Inclusive Economic growth  Reviving the manufacturing sector(Make In India, Skill Development)  Focus on non farm sector and new thrust on new dimension of agriculture  Encouraging small and medium enterprises  Financial Inclusion(Jan Dhan Yojona, Mudra Bank)  Social Security measures( Pension and Insurance schemes for poor at nominal premium, Crop insurance schemes for farmers)  Focus on Human Development – Need to increase spending on health and education  Strong Design and effective delivery  Effective targeting and delivery under schemes like NREGA  Improving the Public Distribution System  Reduction of subsidy and pilferages by direct transfer of benefits under welfare schemes.  Resilient and Sustainable Infrastructure  All weather memorable roads, electrification of all villages and hamlet, telecommunications  Development of national waterway system  Massive expansion renewable energy like Hydel, Wind, Solar and nuclear in place of thermal power  Macro economic Policy  With need for massive financing, participation of private sector is most  With easing of inflationary pressure with softening of commodity prices, need for a expansionary and counter-cyclical fiscal policy with increasing public spending
  • 28. CONCLUSION:  MDG despite of many criticisms & fallacies has brought the focus of the govt. ,policy makers & other stakeholders w.r.t issues like poverty, hunger,gender disparity etc.  So, SDG will carry on the unfinished agenda of MDG.  SDG to shift its focus to human well being & sustainability while striving to meet the other developmental roles  Hence, India’s developmental agenda are in congruence with SDG.
  • 29. “Between now and 2015, we must make sure that promises made become promises kept. The consequences of doing otherwise are profound: death, illness and despair, needless suffering, lost opportunities for millions upon millions of people.”