Nanoelectronics Final


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Nanoelectronics Final

  1. 1. Presented by:- Shikha Gupta (UE6558) NANOELECTRONICS
  2. 2. NANOELECTRONICS <ul><li>Branch of Engineering which uses nanometer scale elements in design of integrated circuits such that one of the three dimensions of the electronic component is in nm. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, Nanometer scale refers to electronic circuits less than 100nm. </li></ul><ul><li>1 nm= 10 -9 metres </li></ul>
  3. 3. MOORE’S LAW <ul><li>According to Moore’s Law, the number of transistors that will fit on a silicon chip doubles every eighteen months . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presently, microprocessors have more than forty million transistors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the year 2020, the trend line of Moore’s law states that there should be a one nanometer feature size . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SCALING PRINCIPLES <ul><li>For designing nano FET apart from channel length, other parameters like doping, voltages etc. are to be also scaled. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Original Device Scaled Device
  6. 6. EJ MOSFET (Electrically variable shallow junction MOSFET) NANO MOSFET
  7. 7. SCALING LIMITS OF MOSFET <ul><li>Technical problem : For channel length<30nm , insulating SiO 2 is expected to be less than 2nm thick. This thin layer causes gate dielectric tunneling </li></ul><ul><li>Physical problem: For channel length<10nm, direct source-drain tunneling occurs. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Schematic representation of Gate –dielectric tunneling and Direct source-drain tunneling
  9. 9. EJ- MOSFET <ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of 2 gates :Upper gate and a lower gate. Gates are insulated from each other by an integrate oxide layer </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Working </li></ul><ul><li>Upper layer electrically induces the inversion layers that are self aligned to the lower gate and the lower gate controls the current between the inversion layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of two gates helps in suppressing short channel effects </li></ul>
  11. 11. QUANTUM EFFECTS IN ULTRASHORT CHANNEL MOSFET <ul><li>Mobility enhancement due to decrease in scattering </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold voltage increases with decrease in channel width </li></ul>
  12. 12. THRESHOLD VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT USING QUANTUM EFFECTS <ul><li>For <110> oriented device n type has greater V T shift than p type </li></ul><ul><li>For <100> oriented device p type has greater V T shift than n type </li></ul><ul><li>To keep V T same for both square scaling i.e. width = height is used. </li></ul>
  14. 14. BALLISTIC TRANSPORT IN NANO STRUCTURES <ul><li>At room temperature mean free path of electron is around 10nm.So, at ultrashort channel length electron scattering decreases considerably. </li></ul><ul><li>At channel length less than 10nm,scattering approaches zero. It is called ballistic transport. </li></ul><ul><li>With decrease in temperature mean free path can be increased & ballistic transport can be obtained at larger channel length. </li></ul>
  15. 15. RESONANT TUNNELING IN NANO DEVICES <ul><li>RT is observed in hetero-structure semiconductor devices made from pairs of different alloys III-V alloys . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs diodes </li></ul>
  16. 16. MISCELLANEOUS NANO-STRUCTURES Carbon nanotubes & nanowires
  17. 17. CARBON NANOTUBES <ul><li>Single-wall carbon nanotubes are a new form of carbon made by rolling up a single graphite sheet to a narrow but long tube closed at both sides by fullerene-like end caps.. </li></ul>
  18. 18. PROPERTIES <ul><li>Exhibit electrical conductivity as high as copper, thermal conductivity as high as diamond </li></ul><ul><li>Strength 100 times greater than steel at one sixth the weight </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical conductivity depends on their helicity. </li></ul>
  19. 19. CURRENT APPLICATIONS <ul><li>In field of electronics & communication </li></ul><ul><li>In solar cells to trap electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screens and flexible displays </li></ul><ul><li>nanoradio , a radio receiver consisting of a single nanotube, was demonstrated in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>In fabrication of ultracapacitors (which have high energy density) </li></ul>
  20. 20. NANOWIRES <ul><li>Electrons in nanowires are quantum confined laterally and thus occupy energy levels that are different from that in bulk materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect ratios (length-to-width ratio) of 1000 or more </li></ul><ul><li>Poor conductivity (edge effect) </li></ul>
  21. 21. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Current </li></ul><ul><li>Create active </li></ul><ul><li>electronic devices </li></ul><ul><li>like logic gates etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential use </li></ul><ul><li>As photon ballistic waveguides </li></ul><ul><li>For connecting molecular-scale entities in a molecular computer </li></ul><ul><li>For flexible flat-screen displays </li></ul>
  23. 23. WORLD’S SMALLEST TRANSISTOR Graphene Transistor
  24. 24. WORLD’S smallest transistor <ul><li>quantum dot with a tiny </li></ul><ul><li>circular cage at the center </li></ul><ul><li>known as the central island. </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage can change the </li></ul><ul><li>conductivity of these </li></ul><ul><li>quantum dots, allowing </li></ul><ul><li>them to store logic states </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to retain conductivity when only one atom thick. </li></ul><ul><li>a small sheet of graphene is taken & </li></ul><ul><li>channels are carved into it using electron </li></ul><ul><li>beam lithography. What remains is a </li></ul>Graphene Sheets
  25. 25. Schematic diagram of graphene transistor
  26. 26. NANO RADIO First Radio at nano-scale
  27. 27. NANO RADIO <ul><li>A nanoradio is a radio receiver or transmitter constructed on a nanometer scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently only receivers have been developed( October 2007) </li></ul>
  28. 28. WORKING <ul><li>The nanotube, is contained in a vacuum and one of its ends is connected to an electrode of a battery. The other electrode is placed a short distance from the nanotube's other end. The tube will vibrate in tune with any external electromagnetic signal, effectively acting as an antenna. The vibration frequency can be adjusted by changing the applied voltage. </li></ul>
  29. 29. NANO RADIO
  31. 31. NANO EMISSIVE DISPLAY <ul><li>Launched in May,2005 by motorola </li></ul><ul><li>Works by moving electrons through its driver electronics and into the nanotubes, which then direct the electrons at groups of phosphors (pixels) on the interior surface of the display. When the phosphors are bombarded with electrons, they glow, giving off color—similar to the operation of a traditional CRT </li></ul>
  32. 32. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Light in weight and more slim </li></ul><ul><li>Saves 20% to 30% more power than other flat panel displays </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing cost is estimated to be a half to a third the cost of LCD and plasma displays </li></ul>
  33. 33. APPLICATION <ul><li>Laptop screen due to better power saving & size </li></ul><ul><li>Screens in fighter planes due to better brightness & resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive and aeronautical purposes </li></ul><ul><li>TV displays </li></ul>
  34. 34. THANK YOU