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Personal Protective Equipment


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PPE's is the last Hierarchy of Controls , but It will worn before you entry on your Work site , This PPT give you good awareness about PPE's

Published in: Engineering
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Personal Protective Equipment

  1. 1. What is a hazard? A hazard is an existing (or potential) hazardous or unsafe condition or work practice that, by itself or in combination with other conditions, could cause injury, illness, or death to workers, as well as cause property damage. Hazards may exist from Processes, procedures Any series of actions or operations manufacturing, equipment, product flow, etc., and handling) that convert raw material into a product Unsafe equipment, machinery, or tools For example damaged tools, unguarded blades or unguarded moving parts, etc. Unsafe work practices Allowing untrained workers to perform Hazardous tasks, taking unsafe shortcuts, being distracted, working long shifts, etc.
  2. 2. How do you control hazards? Eliminate/reduce the hazard Engineering Controls Reduce the hazard Work Practice Controls Administrative Controls Put barrier between worker and hazard if needed Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) To control hazardous and unsafe conditions and work practices, use the most effective control methods feasible at your work place. Try to reduce employee exposure by implementing effective controls that do not primarily rely on individual employee behavior. Follow a system of strategies, called the "Hierarchy of Controls," which prioritizes control methods that try to remove or reduce the hazard: Hierarchy of Controls (most to least effective)
  3. 3. Aim If engineering or administrative controls are not feasible or economical, the last line of defense in protecting workers is Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)”. Make sure that required Personal Protective Equipment as per job specific will be given to workers and workers to understand the purpose of wearing it. As Project wide EHS Policy, that wearing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) on site is for strict compliance and must be followed.
  4. 4. PPE Controlling hazards: ■ Elimination/substitution ■ Engineering controls - guards, interlocks, barriers ■ Administrative controls - procedure, stay times, worker rotation “If engineering or administrative controls are not feasible or economical, the last line of defense in protecting workers is Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)”. PPE does NOT eliminate the hazard! It only protects workers in the event of an exposure.
  5. 5. PPE In all areas of the site, excluding lunch rooms, offices and control rooms, the following minimum requirements are: ■ Hard hats ■ Safety Glasses with rigid side shields ■ Prescription safety glasses - flimsy slip over type side shields not allowed ■ Footwear of full leather tongue included, with no breather holes to prevent chemical exposure. ■ Clothing suitable for the work environment Not allowed: ■ Shorts ■ Flimsy footwear and sandals ■ Sleeveless shirts ■ Mesh
  6. 6. PPE
  7. 7. PPE All PPE will be provided free of cost to employees unless otherwise noted. There may be requirements for reimbursement of prescription safety glasses and steel toe boots. Check with your supervisor. Visitors on site standard apparel should be based on a hazard assessment taking into account the areas of the site they will be escorted.
  8. 8. For assessing foot, head, eye, face, hand, and body hazard situations, match protective devices to the particular hazard. ■ Survey - Conduct a walkthrough of the areas in question, consideration given to the basic hazard categories: * Impact * Penetration * Compression (roll over) * Chemical * Heat/cold extremes * Harmful dust * Light radiation PPE
  9. 9. PPE Note: Risk assessment plays an important role to identify the risk or the hazards which the workers are exposed to and specific Personal Protective Equipment will be given to workers based on the identified hazards or risks. Identify the Hazards Re-assessment Evaluate Selection of PPEControl
  10. 10. PPE General Apparel •Every employee will at all times wear clothing that protects the body and extremities. The typical personnel hazards listed below can be prevented as follows: •Thermal burns resulting from contact with hot pipes, can be prevented by using long sleeve shirts and cloth gloves. •Chemical burns and/or skin absorption of allergens and toxins can be prevented or minimized by use of appropriate chemical protective clothing (CPC). •Loose clothing will not be worn where it can contact or catch on energized conductors, moving parts, equipment, or other hazards of this type. •Preference should be given to natural fibers in the clothing worn by personnel. •Short pants are prohibited as outerwear. •Finger rings or necklaces are prohibited when there is a danger of catching them on moving parts or contacting an energized conductor.
  11. 11. PPE General Apparel Protective clothing: Pants and trousers
  12. 12. PPE Head Protection • Head protection is a must wear requirement on site. • Hard hats protect heads from falling and flying objects and provide limited protection from electrical shocks and burns. Hard hats are to be worn at all times in construction areas with the following exceptions: 1. Lunch breaks 2. Rest areas 3. Camp site 4. Vehicle and any enclosed cabs 5. Offices
  13. 13. PPE Head Protection Class E worn by: ■ Electricians ■ Instrumentation ■ Commissioning ■ Others with potential to contact live electrical Class G for general construction work
  14. 14. • Class A designed to: - Protect you from falling objects; and - Protect you from electrical shocks up to 2,200 volts. • Class B are designed to: - Protect you from falling objects; and - Protect you from electrical shocks up to 20,000 volts. • Class C are designed to : - Protect you from falling objects; - DO NOT protect you from electrical shocks; and - DO NOT protect you from corrosive substances. Types of Hard Hats
  15. 15. PPE Foot Protection • Hard sole leather shoes shall be worn at all times. General purpose rubber shoes or plastic footwear is allowed. • Where personnel are required top work in areas where there may come into contact with acids and alkalis specific footwear shall be issued.
  16. 16. Leg & Foot Protection If the employees are exposed to any of the following hazards requires foot and leg protection • Objects which could - Fall (impact hazard) - Roll (compression hazard) - Pierce or cut the sole or uppers (puncture hazard) • Electrical hazards • Chemical hazards
  17. 17. Foot Protection Protective Foot Wear:Safety shoes with steel toe PPE
  18. 18. Foot Protection
  19. 19. Foot Protection ----- Safety Shoes There are many types of footwear that are designed to protect your feet. Steel toe footwear protects your toes from falling objects and from being crushed. Metatarsal footwear have special guards that run from your ankle to your toes and protect your entire foot. Reinforced sole footwear have metal reinforcement that protects your foot from punctures. Latex/Rubber footwear resists chemicals and provides extra traction on slippery surfaces.
  20. 20. PVC footwear protects your feet against moisture and improves traction. Butyl footwear protects against most ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, acids, salts, and alkalies. Vinyl footwear resists solvents, acids, alkalies, salts, water, grease, and blood. Nitrile footwear resists animal fats, oils, and chemicals ----- Safety Shoes
  21. 21. Electrostatic dissipating footwear conducts static electricity to floors that are grounded. Electrical hazard footwear are insulated with tough rubber to prevent shocks and burns from electricity. Disposable footwear includes shower slippers, clear polyethylene and non-woven booties used in dust free work areas. ----- Safety Shoes
  22. 22. PPE Eye and Face Protection • Eye protection (approved, safety glasses with side shields or goggles) shall be worn by all personnel in construction areas. ES&H will be responsible for selection/use. Safety glasses are required to be worn at all times in work areas. • Employees required using safety spectacles/goggles and whose vision requires the use of corrective lens should wear one of the following: 1. Personal spectacles whose protective lens provide optical correction with permanent fixed side-shields and conform to the requirements of ANSI Z87.1-19696 or equivalent. 2. Safety goggles over their glasses or goggles/glasses that incorporate a corrective lens mounted behind the protective lens.
  23. 23. PPE Eye and Face Protection • Welding and other construction activities require special types of protection including in some cases, double protection (see Attachments A and B). • Only approved protective eyewear is allowed on the project site. Non-light sensing tinted lens glasses are prohibited inside buildings or other structures with limited illumination. This includes prescription glasses. • Safety glasses shall have approved side shields. (Flexible, Slip- on side shields are prohibited). • All grinding operations shall be performed with a full face shield and safety glasses or goggles.] • Welders will wear safety glasses while welding in addition to a welding hood. • Extra facial protection may also be required when handling products that may be corrosive or irritating to the eyes.
  24. 24. PPE Eye and Face Protection Protective Eye and Face Protection
  25. 25. Protective Eye and Face Protection Eye and Face Protection PPE
  26. 26. PPE Hearing Protection • All individuals will wear hearing protection in areas where the noise exposure meets or exceeds the limits set by the project. In no case, will personnel be exposed to noise levels greater than 85 dB (A) on an 8 hour time weighted average, without the use of hearing protection. • At least two types of hearing protectors shall be made available to employees: ear muffs and earplugs. • If hearing protection requirements are not posted in an area,
  27. 27. PPE Hearing Protection • The project S&H supervisor is responsible for establishing areas under control of the construction group where hearing protection may be required to be worn. This includes the use of protective equipment required when operating equipment that produces sound levels above 85 dB (A). • Hearing protection will be used by employees as identified below: 1. In designated areas 2. When operating or near chipping hammers
  28. 28. Protective Hearing Protection PPE Hearing Protection
  29. 29. Hearing Protection Many types of hearing protection devices are available. Popular types of hearing protection devices are: 1. Foam Earplugs 2. PVC Earplugs 3. Earmuffs
  30. 30. Earplugs - Advantages & Disadvantages Each of the types of hearing protection devices has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of Foam and PVC earplugs are: 1. Small & lightweight; 2. Comfortable in hot environments; and 3. Easily used with other safety equipment. The disadvantages of earplugs are: 1. May work loose and require occasional refitting; 2. Require specific fitting instructions; and 3. Are frequently soiled.
  31. 31. Earmuffs - Advantages & Disadvantages Earmuffs are another type of hearing protection device. The advantages of earmuffs are: 1. Easy for your employer to supervise the wearing of this device; 2. One size fits all; and 3. Fits better for longer periods of time. The disadvantages of earmuffs are: 1. May fit tight on your head; 2. Uncomfortable in a warm environment; and 3. Problems occur when used with other equipment.
  32. 32. Respiratory Protection • Respiratory protection devices of the approved type will be made available and shall be worn by all employees when exposed to hazardous concentrations of toxic or noxious dust, fumes, mists, or gases, at the direction of the Safety Department. Specific hazard analysis will be developed for these activities. • Respiratory protection equipment will be used, stored, and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements and the Respiratory Protection Program. • Respiratory equipment will be selected on the basis of hazards to which the employee will be exposed. PPE
  33. 33. Respiratory Protection PPE Protective Respiratory Protection
  34. 34. Disposable half mask respirators Reusable half mask respirators – gas/vapour filter Reusable half mask respirators Different types of RPE
  35. 35. Different types of RPE Full face mask respirators – gas/vapour filter Powered respirators with masks Full face mask respirators – particle filter
  36. 36. PPE Hand Protection • Appropriate hand protection shall be provided and used by employees when exposed to hazards such as the following: 1. absorption of harmful substances or deflating material 2. items or material which may cause laceration, abrasions, punctures or chemical burns 3. temperature extremes 4. vibration from equipment such as power hand tools
  37. 37. Hand Protection PPE Protective Hand Protection
  38. 38. Hand Protection If the employees are exposed to any of the following hazards requires Hand protection • Severe cuts, lacerations, or abrasions • Punctures • Thermal burns • Harmful temperature extremes • Chemical hazards - Absorption of harmful substances - Chemical burns - Rashes, irritation
  39. 39. There are many type of gloves that are designed to protect your hands. Metal mesh gloves resist sharp edges and prevent cuts. Leather gloves shield your hands from rough surfaces. Vinyl and neoprene gloves protect your hands against toxic chemicals. Rubber gloves protect you when working around electricity. Hand Protection ----- Gloves
  40. 40. Padded cloth gloves protect your hands from sharp edges, slivers, dirt, and vibration. Heat resistant gloves protect your hands from heat and flames. Latex disposable gloves are used to protect your hands from germs and bacteria. Lead-lined gloves are used to protect your hands from radiation sources. ----- Gloves
  41. 41. PPE Protective Equipment for Fall Fall Protection • Workers exposed to potential risk are required to wear Fall protection equipment.
  42. 42. PPE Fall Protection Protective Equipment for Fall
  43. 43. Understand Your Fall Arrest System A Personal Fall Arrest System is comprised of three (3) key components – anchorage connector; body wear; and connecting device. Remember: A, B, & C A = Anchorage/Anchorage Connector B = Body Wear C = Connecting Device
  44. 44. A = Anchorage/Anchorage Connector Anchorage: Commonly referred to as a tie- off point (Ex: I-beam, rebar, scaffolding, lifeline, etc.) • Must be high enough for a worker to avoid contact with a lower level should a fall occur. • Anchorages must be capable of supporting 5,000 pounds (22kN) of force per worker. • Careful consideration should be given to selecting a proper anchorage for ultimate safety. • The anchorage should be easily accessible.
  45. 45. The Importance of Anchorages Carefully planned and selected anchorages are crucial. Should a fall occur, the worker will be suspended from the anchorage, their life depending on its strength. An anchorage, for example, could be an I-beam, while a cross-arm strap, or choker, wrapped around this beam and permitting attachment is the anchorage connector. • Anchorage Connectors are designed as the intermediary device for securing a connecting device to an anchorage. • The anchorage connector should be positioned to avoid a “swing fall.”
  46. 46. • Examples of Permanent Anchorage Connectors
  47. 47. • Examples of Temporary Anchorage Connectors
  48. 48. Temporary Horizontal Lifeline Systems
  49. 49. Leading Edge Anchorage Connector
  50. 50. Beam Anchorages
  51. 51. B = Body Wear Body Wear: The personal protective equipment worn by the worker (Ex: full-body harness) • Only form of body wear acceptable for fall arrest is the full-body harness. • Should be selected based on work to be performed and the work environment. • Side and front D-rings are for positioning only. Incorrect Harness Fit Chest strap positioned incorrectly. Should be located at mid- chest to keep shoulder straps snug. Leg straps are too loose. Premium Harness
  52. 52. Incorrect Harness Fit Chest strap positioned too high and too loose. Leg straps are positioned improperly.
  53. 53. Correct Harness Fit • Chest and Leg Straps Offer a Snug Fit
  54. 54. C = Connecting Devices While focus is given to anchorage connectors and body wear (full-body harnesses) components, the connecting device (a shock-absorbing lanyard or self- retracting lifeline) between these two components actually bears the greatest fall forces during a fall.
  55. 55. C = Connecting Devices • Shock-Absorbing Lanyard or Self-Retracting Lifeline? Think About It! - Always know your fall distance and select proper equipment to meet the fall clearance. • Remember... UNDER 18 1/2 ft. (5.6m) - always use a Self-Retracting Lifeline. OVER 18 1/2 ft. (5.6m) - a Shock-Absorbing Lanyard or Self-Retracting Lifeline can be used.
  56. 56. Calculating Fall Clearance Select the Proper Fall Protection Equipment Shock-Absorbing Lanyard or Self-Retracting Lifeline? • Always know your fall distance and select proper equipment to meet the fall clearance. Illustration: 6 ft. (1.8m) Shock-Absorbing Lanyard with D-Bolt Anchorage Connector
  57. 57. Lanyards – the Critical Link in Fall Protection The lanyard is a connecting device, a flexible line to secure a full-body harness or body belt, where permitted, to a point of anchorage. There are two basic categories of lanyards: non-shock-absorbing and shock- absorbing. The more common and safer type is the shock-absorbing lanyard. • Shock-absorbing lanyards extend deceleration distance during a fall, significantly reducing fall arresting forces by 65 to 80 percent, below the threshold of injury (as specified by OSHA & ANSI). • One type of lanyard includes a special shock-absorbing inner core material surrounded by a heavy-duty tubular outer jacket that doubles as a back-up web lanyard. • In accordance with OSHA regulations, lanyards are required to have self-closing, self-locking snap hooks to reduce the possibility of unintentional disengagement, or “rollout”.
  58. 58. Shock-Absorbing Lanyards - Before and After Deployment
  59. 59. Harness Pressure Points Spread load across butt strap and belt strap if on the harness Excess pressure here can cut blood flow to the legs Some studies have indicated permanent damage to the lower extremities when the worker hangs for more than twenty (20) minutes
  60. 60. PPE Safe Practices
  61. 61. Employer Responsibilities Assessment As part of the assessment, employers must also determine the various health hazards that may be present in your work area. Health hazards include: - Types of chemicals you could be exposed to; - Sources of harmful dusts; and - Sources of nuclear radiation. Selection of PPE Once your area has been assessed, your employer must select, with your help, appropriate personal protection equipment for you to use while performing your job.
  62. 62. Employer Responsibilities Providing PPE Once your area has been assessed, your employer must provide, at no cost to you, appropriate personal protection equipment that fits, for you to use while performing your job. NOTE: If you have your own personal protective equipment, it must be approved by your employer before you can use it on the job. Check with your supervisor or safety manager before using your own equipment.
  63. 63. Training Your employer must also provide you with training. Your training must include: * When PPE is necessary; * What PPE is necessary; * How to properly use your PPE; * How to care for your PPE; and * How to store your PPE. Employer Responsibilities
  64. 64. Maintenance of PPE In addition to providing you with PPE, your employer must maintain the PPE used by employees. If a piece of PPE cannot be repaired, it must be discarded and replaced Employer Responsibilities Recordkeeping Finally, your employer must maintain records of the workplace assessment and of your training.
  65. 65. Employee Responsibilities Attend Training Sessions You are responsible for attending all PPE training sessions. Remember, the best PPE in the world is useless unless you know how to use and care for it! Assess Potential Hazards Before you start any job, assess the real and potential hazards associated with that job. Follow ALL Warnings and Precautions Take time to read any and all warnings and precautions that may appear on tools, equipment, chemicals, MSDSs, and personal protective equipment.
  66. 66. Employee Responsibilities Listen and Follow Directions Listen and follow the directions that you may be given by your supervisor or safety manager. They want you to return home today, and everyday, safe and sound to your family and friends. Report Report any and ALL unsafe conditions you may find in your work area to your supervisor or safety manager. REMEMBER: Safety is a team effort!
  67. 67. The Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Rule says you must • Do a Hazard Assessment for PPE and document it • Select and provide appropriate PPE to your employees • Provide training to your employees and document it • Make sure your employees use their PPE properly • Make sure PPE is in safe and good condition - NOTE - Defective equipment can be worse than no PPE at all. Summary