The Celestial Spheres, The Ptolemaic and Copernican Cosmos Ron Shigeta PhD
“ Fact” #1 GeoCentrism <ul><li>The most obvious truth about the heavens - the sun and planets spin about the earth every d...
“Fact” #2 Earth is uniquely flat  <ul><li>The planets, like the moon and sun are spherical, but are small, while the earth...
Aristotelean Cosmology <ul><li>Four elements, Water, Earth, Air, and Fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Each with its own place  </li...
“ Fact” 3: the heavens, like all things on the earth are supported by elements <ul><li>Ptolemaic Cosmology </li></ul><ul><...
An perfectly ordered world?
The Obvious Becomes Complicated
A Fanciful Cosmos,  though quite small
Copernicus   Published: De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543)  <ul><li>Perfectly circular orbits, supported by ether ...
Galileo sees the Jovian Moons (1610)
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The Celestial Spheres and the Ptolemaic and Copernican System

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Describes the evolution of our conception of the heavens, from the Ptolemaic to the Copernican system

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The Celestial Spheres and the Ptolemaic and Copernican System

  1. 1. The Celestial Spheres, The Ptolemaic and Copernican Cosmos Ron Shigeta PhD
  2. 2. “ Fact” #1 GeoCentrism <ul><li>The most obvious truth about the heavens - the sun and planets spin about the earth every day. </li></ul>
  3. 3. “Fact” #2 Earth is uniquely flat <ul><li>The planets, like the moon and sun are spherical, but are small, while the earth is vast and flat. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Aristotelean Cosmology <ul><li>Four elements, Water, Earth, Air, and Fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Each with its own place </li></ul><ul><li>Each drawn to its respective place by a Natural motion, either up or down. </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Fact” 3: the heavens, like all things on the earth are supported by elements <ul><li>Ptolemaic Cosmology </li></ul><ul><li>Stars, Moon and Planets each have their own sphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric spheres spinning moved by the motion of the outermost </li></ul><ul><li>Between each sphere, the fifth element the ether. </li></ul><ul><li>Then finally a fixed sphere of stars. </li></ul>
  6. 6. An perfectly ordered world?
  7. 7. The Obvious Becomes Complicated
  8. 8. A Fanciful Cosmos, though quite small
  9. 9. Copernicus Published: De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543) <ul><li>Perfectly circular orbits, supported by ether spheres. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun is central. </li></ul><ul><li>The distance to the firmament (stars) is much greater than the distance to the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Epicycles, equants, deferents still used because perfectly circular orbits were assumed (the true orbits are not perfect circles). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Galileo sees the Jovian Moons (1610)

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