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René Descartes!
  (1596 - 1650)!


  “The Father of
Modern Philosophy”"
“There are only six simple and
primitive passions, i.e. wonder, love,
hatred, desire, joy, and sadness. All
the others are...
Discourse on the
 Method (1637)
Meditations on
First Philosophy
      (1641)
methodological skepticism

1.  If there are propositions that can potentially
    be false, then we should temporarily
   ...
knowledge"
Andreas Vesalius
Galen (129 – 199)!
                       (1514 – 1564)"
Reading from
 Galen, early
    1500s"
knowledge"
Meditation I!

“Of The Things of Which
 We May Have Doubt”"
“adventitious knowledge”



  Knowledge acquired
  through the senses."
“clear and distinct knowledge”



  Knowledge that cannot be
         doubted."
“dualism”
Meditation II!

“Of the Nature of the Human
  Mind; and That It Is More
Easily Known Than the Body”"
“The Wax Argument”
How do we recognize a piece of wax?!

!     By its touch."
!     By its shape."
!     By its color."
!     By its temperat...
The sensory features of wax can change.!

                   !  Wax can change shape."
                   !  Wax can feel ...
1. The features of wax that we
   experience through our senses can
   change."
2. If a piece of wax changes its
   featur...
1. The brain is responsible for
   processing sensory information."
2. Therefore, the brain is not
   responsible for our ...
“mind/body dichotomy”!
“But what then am I? A
   thinking thing.”
a priori knowledge: independent of
empirical experience!


a posteriori knowledge: dependent
on empirical experience
Meditation III!

“Of God: That He Exists”"
Ontological Argument


An argument that tries to prove
 the existence of God through
intuition and reason alone (not
  thr...
Ontological Argument!

1.  God is, by definition, the greatest
    conceivable being."
2.  An existent being is greater tha...
Descartes’s Ontological Argument!

“Certainly, the idea of God, or a
supremely perfect being, is one
that I find within me ...
Descartes’s Ontological Argument!

“From the fact alone that I cannot
conceive of God except as existing,
it follows that ...
1. It is impossible to conceive of a
   circle except as round."
2. It is impossible to conceive of the
   number 2 except...
1.  God is a perfect being."
2.  A necessary being is more perfect
    than an unnecessary being."
3.  An existent being i...
Isaac Newton"
 (1643 - 1727)!
4 Descartes, Rationalism and the Enlightenment
4 Descartes, Rationalism and the Enlightenment
4 Descartes, Rationalism and the Enlightenment
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4 Descartes, Rationalism and the Enlightenment

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4 Descartes, Rationalism and the Enlightenment

  1. 1. René Descartes! (1596 - 1650)! “The Father of Modern Philosophy”"
  2. 2. “There are only six simple and primitive passions, i.e. wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy, and sadness. All the others are composed of some of these six, or are species of them.” René Descartes, On the Passions of the Soul (1649)"
  3. 3. Discourse on the Method (1637)
  4. 4. Meditations on First Philosophy (1641)
  5. 5. methodological skepticism 1.  If there are propositions that can potentially be false, then we should temporarily assume that they are false." 2.  We should accept as true only those propositions of which we can have absolute certainty." 3.  The propositions of which we have absolute certainty should become the foundation of our knowledge."
  6. 6. knowledge"
  7. 7. Andreas Vesalius Galen (129 – 199)! (1514 – 1564)"
  8. 8. Reading from Galen, early 1500s"
  9. 9. knowledge"
  10. 10. Meditation I! “Of The Things of Which We May Have Doubt”"
  11. 11. “adventitious knowledge” Knowledge acquired through the senses."
  12. 12. “clear and distinct knowledge” Knowledge that cannot be doubted."
  13. 13. “dualism”
  14. 14. Meditation II! “Of the Nature of the Human Mind; and That It Is More Easily Known Than the Body”"
  15. 15. “The Wax Argument”
  16. 16. How do we recognize a piece of wax?! !  By its touch." !  By its shape." !  By its color." !  By its temperature." We recognize wax by the features we learn through our senses. !
  17. 17. The sensory features of wax can change.! !  Wax can change shape." !  Wax can feel different." !  Wax can change color." !  Wax can change temperature." Yet we still recognize that it is the same wax. !
  18. 18. 1. The features of wax that we experience through our senses can change." 2. If a piece of wax changes its features, we can still identify it as the same piece of wax." 3. Therefore, the identity of the wax is determined by something other than its sensory features."
  19. 19. 1. The brain is responsible for processing sensory information." 2. Therefore, the brain is not responsible for our ability to identify wax." 3. The mind is responsible for our ability to identify wax."
  20. 20. “mind/body dichotomy”!
  21. 21. “But what then am I? A thinking thing.”
  22. 22. a priori knowledge: independent of empirical experience! a posteriori knowledge: dependent on empirical experience
  23. 23. Meditation III! “Of God: That He Exists”"
  24. 24. Ontological Argument An argument that tries to prove the existence of God through intuition and reason alone (not through empirical means)."
  25. 25. Ontological Argument! 1.  God is, by definition, the greatest conceivable being." 2.  An existent being is greater than a non-existent being." 3.  Therefore God, by definition, exists."
  26. 26. Descartes’s Ontological Argument! “Certainly, the idea of God, or a supremely perfect being, is one that I find within me just as surely as the idea of any shape or number.” [Meditation V]"
  27. 27. Descartes’s Ontological Argument! “From the fact alone that I cannot conceive of God except as existing, it follows that existence is inseparable from him, and consequently that he does, in truth, exist.” [Meditation V]"
  28. 28. 1. It is impossible to conceive of a circle except as round." 2. It is impossible to conceive of the number 2 except as an even number." 3. It is impossible to conceive of God except as a perfect being."
  29. 29. 1.  God is a perfect being." 2.  A necessary being is more perfect than an unnecessary being." 3.  An existent being is more perfect than a non-existent being." 4.  Therefore, God necessarily exists."
  30. 30. Isaac Newton" (1643 - 1727)!

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