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  1. 1. Marketing information system
  2. 2. 3- Why Information? • Companies with superior information enjoy a competitive advantage. • The company can : 1)choose its markets better, 2)develop better offerings, and 3)execute better marketing planning
  3. 3. Marketing information system • A marketing information system is a management information system designed to support marketing decision making.
  4. 4. Marketing information system • PHILIP KOTLER: • "A marketing information system is a continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute pertinent, timely and accurate information for use by marketing decision makers to improve their marketing planning, implementation, and control".
  5. 5. • A marketing information system (MIS) is a set of procedures and methods designed to generate, analyze, disseminate, and store anticipated marketing decision information on a regular, continuous basis. An information system can be used operationally, managerially, and strategically for several aspects of marketing.
  6. 6. marketing Decision support system
  7. 7. Internal reporting systems • Supplies results data. • The internal records of production, warehousing, distribution , direct selling, cash flow , creditors are in internal reporting department system. • E.g. sales, orders, customer profiles, stocks, customer service reports etc
  8. 8. Internal reporting system has focus on four marketing activities • The order to payment cycle • Sales information system • Data base , data warehousing and data mining
  9. 9. 3- Order-to-Payment Cycle 1.Customers and sales representatives fax or e-mail their orders. 2.Computerized warehouses quickly fill these orders. 3.The billing department sends out invoices as quickly as possible. using the Internet and extranets to improve the speed, accuracy, and efficiency of the order-to- payment cycle.
  10. 10. 3- Internal Records Sales Information System Marketing managers need timely and accurate reports on current sales.
  11. 11. 3- Databases, Data Warehousing, and Data Mining companies organize their information in databases: 1.customer databases, 2.product databases, 3.salesperson databases Organizations combine data from the different databases. Internal Records
  12. 12. Marketing intelligence systems: • Supplies happenings data • A set of procedures and data sources used by marketing managers used to obtain every day information from the marketing environment that they can use in their decision making.
  13. 13. 3- Steps to Improve Marketing Intelligence • Train and motivate sales force • Motivate channel members to share intelligence • Network externally • Utilize customer advisory panel • Utilize government data resources • Purchase information • Collect customer feedback online
  14. 14. Marketing Decision Support System • A set of statistical tools and techniques models with hardware and software support that helps the manger in analysing the information properly and using it in making better and effective marketing decisions
  15. 15. Marketing research systems • Marketing research: • Systematic gathering recording and analysing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services
  16. 16. Marketing research • According to American Marketing Association, “Marketing Research is the function that links the consumer, customer and public to the marketer through information- information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems, generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process.”
  17. 17. Marketing research • PHILIP KOTLER • It is the systematic design , collection and analysis and reporting of data analysis and findings relevant to specific marketing situation facing the company.
  18. 18. Marketing research characteristics • Systematic • Objective
  19. 19. Who Is Responsible for Marketing Research Most large companies have their own marketing research departments. At much smaller companies, marketing research is often carried out by everyone in the company Business Organizations normally budget marketing research at 1 to 2 percent of company sales
  20. 20. Marketing research & firms Type Examples Syndicated-service research firms Gather & sell Custom marketing research firms hired to carry out Specialty-line marketing research firms (specialized in services) sells field interviewing services to other firms.
  21. 21. The Marketing Research Process six steps as shown in this Figure
  22. 22. Step 1) Defining the Problem • Should not be defined too broadly or too narrowly . Clarity on the following: a. What is to be researched? (the content , the scope) b. Why it is to be researched? (the decision that are to be made)
  23. 23. Step 2) Developing Research Plan Designing a research plan calls for decisions on the data sources, research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan, and contact methods
  24. 24. Research design • A research design encompasses the methodology and procedure employed to conduct research.
  25. 25. Data sources Primary data Secondary data
  26. 26. Research approaches Primary data can be collected in five ways: Observation Focus groups Surveys Behavioral data Experiments.
  27. 27. Observational research • Gather fresh data by observing the relevant actors and settings
  28. 28. Focus Group Gathering of six to ten people who are carefully selected based on certain demographic, psychographic, or other considerations and brought together to discuss at length various topics of interest.
  29. 29. Behavioral Data Customers leave traces of their purchasing behavior in store scanning data, catalog purchases, and customer databases.
  30. 30. Survey Research  Companies undertake surveys to learn about people's knowledge, beliefs, preferences, and satisfaction, and to measure these magnitudes in the general population. Requires development of a survey instrument.
  31. 31. Experimental Research The most scientifically valid. The purpose of experimental research is to capture cause- and-effect relationships by eliminating competing explanations of the observed findings. • Experiments call for selecting matched groups of subjects, subjecting them to different treatments, controlling extraneous variables, and checking whether observed response differences are statistically significant.
  32. 32. Three main research instruments in collecting primary data: 1) questionnaires, 2) qualitative measures, 3) Technological devices. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
  33. 33. Questionnaires • Consist of a set of questions presented to respondents. • To collect primary data. Closed-end questions Open-end questions
  34. 34. Qualitative research QR techniques are relatively unstructured measurement approaches that permit a range of possible responses, and they are a creative means of ascertaining consumer perceptions that may otherwise be difficult to uncover.
  35. 35. Technological Devices • Mechanical devices are occasionally used in marketing research. • Eye cameras study respondents' eye movements to see where their eyes land first, how long they linger on a given item, and so on. • Audiometers can be attached to television sets in participating homes to record when the set is on and to which channel it is tuned.
  36. 36. SAMPLING PLAN SAMPLING PLAN After deciding on the research approach and instruments, the marketing researcher must design a sampling plan. 1. Sampling unit: Who is to be surveyed? 2. Sample size: How many people should be surveyed? 3. Sampling procedure: How should the respondents be chosen?
  37. 37. • Simple random sample: Every member of the population has an equal chance of selection. • Stratified random sample: The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as age groups), and random samples are drawn from each group. • Cluster (area) sample: The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as city blocks), and the researcher draws a sample of the groups to interview. A. Probability Sample
  38. 38. B. Non-probability Sample • Convenience sample: The researcher selects the most accessible population members. • Judgment sample: The researcher selects population members who are good prospects for accurate information. • Quota sample: The researcher finds and interviews a prescribed number of people in each of several categories.
  39. 39. CONTACT METHODS Once the sampling plan has been determined, the marketing researcher must decide how the subject should be contacted:
  40. 40. Step 3: Collect the Information • Getting the right respondents is critical. • In the case of surveys, four major problems arise. 1) Some respondents will not be at home and must be contacted again or replaced. 2) respondents will refuse to cooperate. 3) some will give biased or dishonest answers. 4) some interviewers will be biased or dishonest.
  41. 41. Step 4: Analyze the Information The next-to-last step in the process is to extract findings from the collected data. The researcher tabulates the data and develops frequency distributions. Averages and measures of dispersion are computed for the major variables. The researcher will also apply some advanced statistical techniques and decision models in the hope of discovering additional findings.
  42. 42. Step 5: Present the Findings The researcher should present findings that are relevant to the major marketing decisions facing management.
  43. 43. Step 6: Make the Decision • The last step is decision-making process. Evaluating the decision made. Managers decide: • To use • To discard • To carry more research