Dealing with teenagers

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Here is some evidence of how teenagers behave these days..

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Dealing with teenagers

  1. 1. Chapter 1314 May 2013Psych 3C1108:00- 8:45L. Du PlessisUniversity of Johannesburg
  2. 2.  Resilient youths develop social competenciesthat help them to negotiate life’s challengesand to emerge as healthy, strong andcontributing individuals.
  3. 3.  1.Critical School Competencies 2. Concept of Self 3. Connectedness 4. Coping Ability 5. Control: Strategies for cognitive change
  4. 4.  Teach Rationale, explanation and instruction for skills Show Model the skill (either by video or by trainer) Practice Role play in the session Reinforce Provide feedback and encouragement Apply Students practice in “real life,: record theirexperiences and report back.
  5. 5.  Developed after 30 years of research, this program by Spivack andShure (Shure, 2006) is designed to enhance interpersonal thinkingskills that reduce or prevent high-risk behavior. Lessons are grouped into “pre-problem solving skills” and“Problem solving skills” Prevention Strategy for Children: Interpersonal Cognitive ProblemSolving Learn how to think, not what to think Rebelliousness, aggression etc all NB early predictors of laterdelinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, psychopathology and schooldropout Lack of adequate problem-solving (PS) skills The earlier the skills can be taught the better! Problem solvers draw on repertoire of social behavioural andsocial competencies and knowledge IQ scores not related to PS skills
  6. 6.  Includes good academic skills and academicsurvival skills Includes social competency: appropriatebehaviour, friendships, nonviolent resolution,assertiveness and resistance to peer pressure Training in life skills
  7. 7.  These lessons include Teaching the ICPS vocabulary Teaching cause-and-effect relationships Encouraging listening and paying attention skills Helping children identify feelings▪ If people’s feelings are to be considered in decisionmaking, it is necessary to identify, understand andverbalize
  8. 8.  These skills are taught through lessons on Alternative solutions▪ Recognize problems and generate possible solutions Consequences▪ Consequential thinking and “what might happen next” Solution-consequence pairs▪ Practice in linking solutions with consequences▪ Children suggest a solution to a problem, think of apossible consequence and then return to the sameproblem and – repeat – until goal is reached.
  9. 9.  Older students are taught means-endsthinking, which involves: Planning a series of specific actions to attain agiven goal Recognizing and devising ways around potenialobstacles In addition, teachers are encouraged to helpstudents think about hypothetical situationsand apply skills to actual problemsthroughout the day
  10. 10.  Optimism Research has demonstrated a link betweenpessimism and eventual depression Optimism is an ability to think positively aboutone’s situation and future, even in the face ofdifficulty Optimistic employ an explanatory style in whichthey think a bed event is temporary, limited to thespecific event and with many possible causesother than themselves.
  11. 11.  Optimism: What is? Internal vs. external blame: personalise all (Learnto take responsibility for events) Sometimes vs. always: failure is permanent Cause of bad events: pervasive, impact ispermanent and global rather than specific Global explanations: bad events: give up oneverything. Learn to be specific
  12. 12.  Thought catching (saying negative things toself) Evaluation (automatic & habitualthoughts/beliefs) Accurate explanations (to change automaticthoughts) Decatastrophizing (worst case mostlyunlikely)
  13. 13.  Cognitive Restructuring Based on the assumption that faulty cognitions causedetrimental self-evaluations and emotional distress,leading to behavioral problems The goal is to help people develop their cognitiveability to recognize faulty self-statements and tosubstitute more positive ones Rational-emotive behaviour therapy (REBT): thinkingcreates feelings therefore change faulty thinking(Ellis: ABCDE model) Beck’s CT model
  14. 14.  Rational-emotive behaviour therapy (REBT): Major assumption: thoughts create feelings. A: Activating event B: Belief C: Consequence D: Dispute (evidence, alternatives, implications,usefulness) E: Emotional effects
  15. 15.  The child learns to recognize the activatingevent (A), the corresponding belief (B) aboutthe even and the emotional and behavioralconsequences The counselor then helps the person todispute (D) the old belief system and attendto the new emotional and behavioral effects(E) of more rational thinking
  16. 16.  Practice REBT: Think of something stressful in your life… (likeexams), apply REBT
  17. 17.  Beck’s CT: CognitiveTherapy: cognitive triad, schemas andcognitive errors Cognition and effect: interactive Cognitive triad: negative view of the world, self andfuture Cognitive schema: stable cognitive pattern thatindividuals create from triad Cognitive error: negative schemas (core belief)maintained and exacerbated by faulty info processing
  18. 18.  Clients are taught to Recognize the connections between cognitions,affect and behavior Monitor negative automatic thoughts Examine evidence related to distorted automaticcognitions Substitute more realistic interpretations fordistorted cognitions Learn to identify and modify dysfunctional beliefs
  19. 19.  Connectedness with others is critical inpeople’s lives Connectedness involves both intrapersonalawareness and interpersonal skills Training in interpersonal communication Training in Assertiveness Skills▪ Including nonverbal communication▪ Resistance and refusal training
  20. 20.  Many at-risk young people are affected bystress and anxiety Relaxation and imagery to helpful tools tooffset some of the negative aspects ofanxiety and stress. Beneficial relaxation Progressive relaxation Visual imagery Affirmations
  21. 21.  At-risk children often struggle with effectivedecision making egocentric perspective-taking Perception of limited alternative Social-cognitive distortions▪ Make errors when interpreting social stimuli andmisjudge consequences of hostile acts
  22. 22.  Problem-solving steps Define the problem Examine vairables Consider alternatives Isolate a plan Do action steps Evaluate effects
  23. 23.  Self management: the ability to maintain oralter goal-directed behavior withoutdepending on discernable external forces Self control: refers to control over one’saffective, cognitive and behavioral reactions Helps prevent problem situations, limit negativeemotional reactions, resist problematic behaviorsand delay gratification
  24. 24.  Self management and self-control are bothpart of self-regulation. Self-regulation required the following skills Self assessment Self-monitoring Self-reinforcement
  25. 25.  Communication and life skills, cognitivechange strategies and coping techniques areNB.The earlier these skills are taught andlearnt, the better. Reinforcement is alsonecessary.

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