Chapter 1314 May 2013Psych 3C1108:00- 8:45L. Du PlessisUniversity of Johannesburg
Resilient youths develop social competenciesthat help them to negotiate life’s challengesand to emerge as healthy, strong andcontributing individuals.
1.Critical School Competencies 2. Concept of Self 3. Connectedness 4. Coping Ability 5. Control: Strategies for cognitive change
Teach Rationale, explanation and instruction for skills Show Model the skill (either by video or by trainer) Practice Role play in the session Reinforce Provide feedback and encouragement Apply Students practice in “real life,: record theirexperiences and report back.
Developed after 30 years of research, this program by Spivack andShure (Shure, 2006) is designed to enhance interpersonal thinkingskills that reduce or prevent high-risk behavior. Lessons are grouped into “pre-problem solving skills” and“Problem solving skills” Prevention Strategy for Children: Interpersonal Cognitive ProblemSolving Learn how to think, not what to think Rebelliousness, aggression etc all NB early predictors of laterdelinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, psychopathology and schooldropout Lack of adequate problem-solving (PS) skills The earlier the skills can be taught the better! Problem solvers draw on repertoire of social behavioural andsocial competencies and knowledge IQ scores not related to PS skills
Includes good academic skills and academicsurvival skills Includes social competency: appropriatebehaviour, friendships, nonviolent resolution,assertiveness and resistance to peer pressure Training in life skills
These lessons include Teaching the ICPS vocabulary Teaching cause-and-effect relationships Encouraging listening and paying attention skills Helping children identify feelings▪ If people’s feelings are to be considered in decisionmaking, it is necessary to identify, understand andverbalize
These skills are taught through lessons on Alternative solutions▪ Recognize problems and generate possible solutions Consequences▪ Consequential thinking and “what might happen next” Solution-consequence pairs▪ Practice in linking solutions with consequences▪ Children suggest a solution to a problem, think of apossible consequence and then return to the sameproblem and – repeat – until goal is reached.
Older students are taught means-endsthinking, which involves: Planning a series of specific actions to attain agiven goal Recognizing and devising ways around potenialobstacles In addition, teachers are encouraged to helpstudents think about hypothetical situationsand apply skills to actual problemsthroughout the day
Optimism Research has demonstrated a link betweenpessimism and eventual depression Optimism is an ability to think positively aboutone’s situation and future, even in the face ofdifficulty Optimistic employ an explanatory style in whichthey think a bed event is temporary, limited to thespecific event and with many possible causesother than themselves.
Optimism: What is? Internal vs. external blame: personalise all (Learnto take responsibility for events) Sometimes vs. always: failure is permanent Cause of bad events: pervasive, impact ispermanent and global rather than specific Global explanations: bad events: give up oneverything. Learn to be specific
Thought catching (saying negative things toself) Evaluation (automatic & habitualthoughts/beliefs) Accurate explanations (to change automaticthoughts) Decatastrophizing (worst case mostlyunlikely)
Cognitive Restructuring Based on the assumption that faulty cognitions causedetrimental self-evaluations and emotional distress,leading to behavioral problems The goal is to help people develop their cognitiveability to recognize faulty self-statements and tosubstitute more positive ones Rational-emotive behaviour therapy (REBT): thinkingcreates feelings therefore change faulty thinking(Ellis: ABCDE model) Beck’s CT model
The child learns to recognize the activatingevent (A), the corresponding belief (B) aboutthe even and the emotional and behavioralconsequences The counselor then helps the person todispute (D) the old belief system and attendto the new emotional and behavioral effects(E) of more rational thinking
Practice REBT: Think of something stressful in your life… (likeexams), apply REBT
Beck’s CT: CognitiveTherapy: cognitive triad, schemas andcognitive errors Cognition and effect: interactive Cognitive triad: negative view of the world, self andfuture Cognitive schema: stable cognitive pattern thatindividuals create from triad Cognitive error: negative schemas (core belief)maintained and exacerbated by faulty info processing
Clients are taught to Recognize the connections between cognitions,affect and behavior Monitor negative automatic thoughts Examine evidence related to distorted automaticcognitions Substitute more realistic interpretations fordistorted cognitions Learn to identify and modify dysfunctional beliefs
Connectedness with others is critical inpeople’s lives Connectedness involves both intrapersonalawareness and interpersonal skills Training in interpersonal communication Training in Assertiveness Skills▪ Including nonverbal communication▪ Resistance and refusal training
Many at-risk young people are affected bystress and anxiety Relaxation and imagery to helpful tools tooffset some of the negative aspects ofanxiety and stress. Beneficial relaxation Progressive relaxation Visual imagery Affirmations
At-risk children often struggle with effectivedecision making egocentric perspective-taking Perception of limited alternative Social-cognitive distortions▪ Make errors when interpreting social stimuli andmisjudge consequences of hostile acts
Problem-solving steps Define the problem Examine vairables Consider alternatives Isolate a plan Do action steps Evaluate effects
Self management: the ability to maintain oralter goal-directed behavior withoutdepending on discernable external forces Self control: refers to control over one’saffective, cognitive and behavioral reactions Helps prevent problem situations, limit negativeemotional reactions, resist problematic behaviorsand delay gratification
Self management and self-control are bothpart of self-regulation. Self-regulation required the following skills Self assessment Self-monitoring Self-reinforcement
Communication and life skills, cognitivechange strategies and coping techniques areNB.The earlier these skills are taught andlearnt, the better. Reinforcement is alsonecessary.