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Chapter 12: How Should Education Be Reformed?


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(c) Cengage Learning
Chapter 12
Those Who Can, Teach! 12th ed
Ryan & Cooper

Published in: Education
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Chapter 12: How Should Education Be Reformed?

  1. 1. How Should Education Be Reformed? Chapter 12
  2. 2. Positions on American Public School Reform Schools can and must be improved. Effective school reform is needed, but, for various reason, likely impossible. Schools are the best they have ever been. Reform is not necessary.
  3. 3. Schools Need to Educate Three “People” in Each Student <ul><li>The democratic citizen </li></ul><ul><li>The good worker </li></ul><ul><li>The good person </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Ought to Be the Elements of Educational Reform? <ul><li>Excellence </li></ul><ul><li>High Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>High-stakes Standardized Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Active Learning (constructivist’s approach) </li></ul><ul><li>A Sense of Community </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Character Education </li></ul>
  5. 5. Accountability <ul><li>Performance often measured by standardized tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement tests, minimum competency tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-stakes testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Danger of teaching to the test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Lake Wobegon” effect </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. High-Stakes Standardized Testing <ul><li>49 states have created standards for student achievement linked to some form of high-stakes assessment </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2007, 22 states required their students to pass these high school exit exams </li></ul><ul><li>Many educators and parents express grave concerns about what they perceive as an overemphasis on high-stakes testing </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic assessment promoted as alternative: portfolios, performances </li></ul>
  7. 7. VIDEO CASE: Assessment in the Elementary Grades: Formal and Informal Literacy Assessment
  8. 8. VIDEO CASE: Performance Assessment: Student Presentations in a High School English Class
  9. 9. VIDEO CASE: Portfolio Assessment: Elementary Classroom
  10. 10. Active Learning/ Constructivism <ul><li>Knowledge must be constructed in the mind by each learner, rather than transmitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners constantly reconstruct their mental knowledge as new information becomes available. </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning - curriculum should involve students in real situations that let them use and reconstruct prior knowledge as new information is presented. </li></ul>
  11. 11. VIDEO CASE: Elementary School Language Arts: Inquiry Learning
  12. 12. Sense of Community <ul><li>Needed to combat growing disengagement of students </li></ul><ul><li>Movement inspired by “urban sanctuaries” discovered by social researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Schools-within-schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Houses” of 100 to 400 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay together and with same teachers several years </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Lifelong Learning <ul><li>Tools for Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods for remembering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note-taking methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing for different kinds of tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work habits, self-regulation to “get the job done” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Character Education <ul><li>Arguments for Character Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to teach academics if moral conduct is not encouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values needed for democratic participation are appropriate for all public-school students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arguments against Character Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public schools should focus only on academics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to define universal values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches to Character Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character in the curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service learning </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. National-level Reform Efforts <ul><li>National Educational Goals for the Year 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-intentioned, but not achievable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>National Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult because of decentralized state control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum organizations offer widely-used standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Voluntary Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools & districts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-school reform - governors’ coalition </li></ul>
  16. 16. Key Provisions of 2001 No Child Left Behind Act Annual Testing <ul><li>Grades 3-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized reading and math tests </li></ul><ul><li>Science tests, starting 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Disaggregated data </li></ul>Academic Improvement <ul><li>“ Adequate yearly progress” of all students toward state standards </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences for low-performing schools </li></ul>Highly Qualified Teachers <ul><li>Licensed in subject taught </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated competence </li></ul>
  17. 17. Common Elements in State Reforms <ul><li>Increased graduation requirements </li></ul><ul><li>More academic learning time </li></ul><ul><li>Standards-based education </li></ul><ul><li>Higher expectations for teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Higher salaries for teachers </li></ul><ul><li>School choice </li></ul>
  18. 18. Forms of School Choice Public School Choice <ul><li>Choice of schools within a district </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes between districts </li></ul>Magnet Schools Public schools with specific themes Charter Schools Public schools chartered to be run independently Voucher Plans Public money to attend private school
  19. 19. Arguments For and Against Voucher Plans <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Families have widest possible range of education choices </li></ul><ul><li>Free-market competition will force schools to improve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good schools get stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad schools “go out of business” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Against </li></ul><ul><li>Schools, rather than families, choose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those not accepted remain in public system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voucher amounts not enough for most private schools </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces funds for public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Public money could support religious schools </li></ul>