Welcome to the workshop
Comprehensive Health Education Foundation (C.H.E.F. ® ) Program Developers 1-800-323-2433, ext.185 (suea@chef.org)
Early Childhood  Brain Development
Introducing . . . the Brain! <ul><ul><li>Source: Seymour Simon,  The Brain: Our Nervous System , Scholastic Inc., 1997. </...
Brain  Research <ul><li>The brain is incredibly  complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Much is still a mystery. </li></ul><ul><li>Sci...
<ul><li>The Adult Human Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons = brain cells that regulate all our thinking </li></ul><ul><li>100...
Neuron  Message  Route <ul><ul><li>Source: Adapted from an illustration by Martha Weston,  Brain Power,  Secrets of a Winn...
<ul><li>Brain Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Branching   </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons tend to reconnect  along the same pathway  ea...
Early  Learning <ul><li>Most neural pathways  are a result of stimuli  coming from the environment that the child interact...
Use It or Lose It! <ul><li>Pruning   </li></ul><ul><li>Unused neurons (brain  cells) and connections  wither away. </li></...
Making Connections <ul><li>Babies are born learning. </li></ul><ul><li>New connections in an infant’s brain are  forming a...
Nature/Nurture <ul><li>Babies are born  </li></ul><ul><li>learning!   </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is not fixed— a child...
Environment <ul><ul><li>Illustration from  The Learning Brain , by Eric Jensen, Turning Point for Teachers, 1994. </li></u...
Windows of Opportunity <ul><li>Children’s brains have optimal  times for growth. </li></ul><ul><li>During these times, par...
Four Developmental Areas  and Windows of Opportunity © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
Remarkable  Regeneration <ul><li>Windows of opportunity never totally close. </li></ul><ul><li>For most functions, it is n...
The Aging Brain <ul><li>The brain is more “plastic”  (easily changed) in the first  three years of life.  A young brain ch...
Overdoing It! <ul><li>Trust in the innate wisdom  of the child to choose the  experience he needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Let t...
Myelination  <ul><li>Myelin is a thin, fatty coating that insulates brain cells. </li></ul><ul><li>When brain cells are in...
Myelination  Protective Factors <ul><li>Never shake a baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure children get the proper kind and a...
Myelination and Maturation Schedule <ul><li>Early childhood: brain stem cerebellum sensory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Pubert...
Readiness <ul><li>Myelination establishes  boundaries around how quickly  the brain can develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Myelina...
Overview of Four Developmental Areas (Prenatal to 5-year-olds)
The Brain and Four Developmental Areas © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal beginnings:   </li></ul><ul><li>please eat well—it’s important </li></ul><ul...
Moving, Sensing and Exploring <ul><li>Brain Functions  </li></ul><ul><li>and Areas:   </li></ul><ul><li>sensations and mov...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>Babies:   </li></ul><ul><li>never shake me </li></ul><ul><li>put me on my back when I...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play is my important work—have fun with me! </li></ul><ul><li>provide me with hands-o...
© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Moving, Sensing  and Exploring Important for Learning <u...
Seeing,  Remembering  and Imagining <ul><li>Brain Areas:   </li></ul><ul><li>vision pathways </li></ul><ul><li>visual imag...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I have regular eye exams </li></ul><ul><li>have any cataracts removed as ea...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I can move freely,  yet safely </li></ul><ul><li>give me objects to manipul...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play hiding games with me—I love it </li></ul><ul><li>point to things in my world and...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play pretend games with me </li></ul><ul><li>give me opportunities to draw,  paint, a...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>limit and monitor my screen time (TV, videos and computer) </li></ul><ul><li>give me ...
Listening, Talking and Understanding <ul><li>Brain Areas:   </li></ul><ul><li>hearing (auditory nerves) </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I have regular ear  and hearing exams </li></ul><ul><li>recognize the sympt...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>talk, talk, talk with me </li></ul><ul><li>encourage me to name, describe, compare, e...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>honor my unique style of learning and expressing </li></ul><ul><li>respect my culture...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>read to me—I’m never too young for books </li></ul><ul><li>make books a part of my da...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>provide me with a variety of high-interest books </li></ul><ul><li>read, tell and sin...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>talk with me about my discoveries as I label, sort  and compare things in my world </...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play music that calms me and helps me learn </li></ul><ul><li>sing my favorite songs ...
Feeling and Relating <ul><li>Brain Areas:   </li></ul><ul><li>survival brain  (brain stem)  </li></ul><ul><li>feeling brai...
Survival Brain  (brain stem) <ul><li>subconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>autonomic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>freeze...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>create a physically- and emotionally-safe environment </li></ul><ul><li>respond to my...
Feeling and Relating Feeling Brain (limbic system) Basic Need:  Love <ul><li>subconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>sends and...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>shower me with unconditional love </li></ul><ul><li>hug, cuddle and touch me lovingly...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>give me your undivided attention at times throughout the day </li></ul><ul><li>praise...
<ul><li>Survival and emotional needs must  be met for the cortex (thinking brain)  to develop and function properly. </li>...
Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer  (prefrontal cortex) <ul><li>conscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>imagination </l...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>pay attention to and validate all my feelings </li></ul><ul><li>help me identify, acc...
© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>set clear limits an...
© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Healthy brain – 2:1 Neglected/abused brain – 1:1 Ratio d...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>help me recognize my own body signals of stress,  e.g., tense muscles, fists, frowns,...
<ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>give me choices </li></ul><ul><li>provide me with appropriate,  meaningful learning e...
Maximizing Washington’s Brain Power <ul><li>Who to contact:   </li></ul><ul><li>BrainNet TM  of The Baby/Toddler Initiativ...
National Efforts <ul><li>Maximizing Children’s Brain Power: The Florida Starting Points Initiative:  A national effort of ...
For more information, contact: Sue Anderson Comprehensive Health Education Foundation 1-800-323-2433, ext. 185 [email_addr...
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Healthy Beginnings

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Healthy Beginnings

  1. 1. Welcome to the workshop
  2. 2. Comprehensive Health Education Foundation (C.H.E.F. ® ) Program Developers 1-800-323-2433, ext.185 (suea@chef.org)
  3. 3. Early Childhood Brain Development
  4. 4. Introducing . . . the Brain! <ul><ul><li>Source: Seymour Simon, The Brain: Our Nervous System , Scholastic Inc., 1997. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Brain Research <ul><li>The brain is incredibly complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Much is still a mystery. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have learned more in the last five years than the previous 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>They’ve learned much through new brain imaging technology. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Rima Shore, Rethinking the Brain , Families and Work Institute, 1997. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Adult Human Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons = brain cells that regulate all our thinking </li></ul><ul><li>100+ billion neurons (brain cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons communicate electrochemically through connections called synapses </li></ul><ul><li>500 trillion synapses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Richard Restak, M.D., The Brain, Bantam Books, 1984. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Neuron Message Route <ul><ul><li>Source: Adapted from an illustration by Martha Weston, Brain Power, Secrets of a Winning Team , Pat Sharp, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books . </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Brain Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Branching </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons tend to reconnect along the same pathway each time the brain responds to a similar stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Connections (synapses) grow in a brain when – experiences are repeated over and over, or – an experience triggers a strong emotional reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A neuron grows when it is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience literally sculpts the brain! </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Early Learning <ul><li>Most neural pathways are a result of stimuli coming from the environment that the child interacts with through his/her senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways create connections that are the keys to learning and remembering. </li></ul><ul><li>Children need real-world, hands-on experiences to create a framework for understanding. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Use It or Lose It! <ul><li>Pruning </li></ul><ul><li>Unused neurons (brain cells) and connections wither away. </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning is an important way the brain sculpts itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning begins early, with an intensified period around age 10 that lasts for several years. </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning too many important neurons decreases the brain’s efficiency. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Making Connections <ul><li>Babies are born learning. </li></ul><ul><li>New connections in an infant’s brain are forming at the rate of 3 billion a second. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential connections are growing between brain cells with astonishing speed in the first 3 years of life. </li></ul><ul><li>These pathways provide the foundation for a lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>For the rest of the first decade, children’s brains have twice as many connections as adults’ brains: </li></ul>Birth – 50 trillion connections 3 Years – 1,000 trillion connections Adult – 500 trillion connections © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Nature/Nurture <ul><li>Babies are born </li></ul><ul><li>learning! </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is not fixed— a child’s brain is a work in progress! </li></ul><ul><li>Genes (nature) are the blueprint and experiences (nurture) are the carpenters that create a unique human being. </li></ul><ul><li>A baby’s brain is a work in progress! </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is a dance between nature and nurture. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Environment <ul><ul><li>Illustration from The Learning Brain , by Eric Jensen, Turning Point for Teachers, 1994. </li></ul></ul>Active involvement in a stimulating, challenging and loving environment causes the brain to grow and flourish. Passive involvement, isolation and an impoverished environment diminish the brain.
  14. 14. Windows of Opportunity <ul><li>Children’s brains have optimal times for growth. </li></ul><ul><li>During these times, parts of the brain become much more active in response to what the senses absorb—growing and learning faster than any other time in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Most windows of opportunity occur in the first three years of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Children need the right experiences at the right time for their brains to fully develop. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Four Developmental Areas and Windows of Opportunity © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Remarkable Regeneration <ul><li>Windows of opportunity never totally close. </li></ul><ul><li>For most functions, it is never too late to form new connections. </li></ul><ul><li>The human brain is remarkable in its ability to heal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarkable Recovery: Half of a 4-year-old’s brain was surgically removed to relieve the symptoms of intractable epilepsy. Within two years, the other half compensated for this loss by gaining mass and function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before surgery: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 years, 11 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three months after surgery: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 years, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two years after surgery: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 years, 1 month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Rima Shore, Rethinking the Brain , Families and Work Institute, 1997. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Aging Brain <ul><li>The brain is more “plastic” (easily changed) in the first three years of life. A young brain changes its architecture minute by minute, reshaping itself to cope with experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain becomes less “plastic” with age; however, a healthy, stimulated brain continues to grow throughout life. </li></ul><ul><li>Use it or lose it! </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Overdoing It! <ul><li>Trust in the innate wisdom of the child to choose the experience he needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Let the child lead—do not impose too much structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious about giving a child too much stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Over-stimulation causes the brain to shut down. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Myelination <ul><li>Myelin is a thin, fatty coating that insulates brain cells. </li></ul><ul><li>When brain cells are insulated, they become more efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Myelination develops over time. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Myelination Protective Factors <ul><li>Never shake a baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure children get the proper kind and amount of fats and oils. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse if possible during the first year—breast milk contains a fat similar to the fat in myelin. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Myelination and Maturation Schedule <ul><li>Early childhood: brain stem cerebellum sensory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty: limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>Late adolescence: prefrontal cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Illustration by Victoria Tennant, Brain Child , V.T. Consulting, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(used with permission from Victoria Tennant) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Readiness <ul><li>Myelination establishes boundaries around how quickly the brain can develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Myelination cannot be rushed— every child has a unique timetable. </li></ul><ul><li>Pushing a child to do something before she is ready can result in learning problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the child’s cues—her interest and frustration levels will tell you when her brain is ready or not ready to learn a new skill. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Overview of Four Developmental Areas (Prenatal to 5-year-olds)
  24. 24. The Brain and Four Developmental Areas © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal beginnings: </li></ul><ul><li>please eat well—it’s important </li></ul><ul><li>Babies: </li></ul><ul><li>nurse me if you can—it gives me a head start </li></ul><ul><li>1- to 5- year-olds: </li></ul><ul><li>give me meals rich in nutrients with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>introduce me to a wide variety of tastes </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I get the right kind and amount of fat and protein </li></ul><ul><li>limit my sugar intake </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I drink water every day </li></ul><ul><li>set a good example for me </li></ul>Nutrition Important for Healthy Development © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Moving, Sensing and Exploring <ul><li>Brain Functions </li></ul><ul><li>and Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>sensations and movement (sensory-motor cortex) </li></ul><ul><li>integration (corpus callosum) </li></ul><ul><li>coordination (cerebellum) </li></ul><ul><li>balance (vestibular system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Richard Restak, Receptors , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bantam Books, 1995. </li></ul></ul>Vestibular System
  27. 27. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>Babies: </li></ul><ul><li>never shake me </li></ul><ul><li>put me on my back when I sleep </li></ul><ul><li>I need to spend some awake time on my tummy </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns to 5-year-olds: </li></ul><ul><li>touch me gently and lovingly </li></ul><ul><li>make my environment safe </li></ul><ul><li>give me supervised freedom to move and explore </li></ul><ul><li>encourage me to be physically active </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Moving, Sensing and Exploring Important for Growth
  28. 28. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play is my important work—have fun with me! </li></ul><ul><li>provide me with hands-on experiences— I learn by doing </li></ul><ul><li>take me places so I can explore the world </li></ul><ul><li>give me lots of opportunities to play outside— supervise me and teach me to be safe </li></ul><ul><li>experience and appreciate the wonders of nature with me </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Moving, Sensing and Exploring Important for Learning
  29. 29. © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Moving, Sensing and Exploring Important for Learning <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>my brain and body work together— give me lots of opportunities to develop my coordination skills </li></ul><ul><li>don’t rush me into walking—crawling is an important way my brain makes connections for learning </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds
  30. 30. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining <ul><li>Brain Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>vision pathways </li></ul><ul><li>visual images (visual cortex) </li></ul><ul><li>imagination and visual memory (prefrontal cortex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Restak, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptors ,Bantam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, 1995. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I have regular eye exams </li></ul><ul><li>have any cataracts removed as early as possible </li></ul><ul><li>put me in a room with good lighting—not too bright or too dim </li></ul><ul><li>surround me with interesting things to see </li></ul><ul><li>play games with me that help my eyes follow an object </li></ul><ul><li>look at picture books with me </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Sharp Vision
  32. 32. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I can move freely, yet safely </li></ul><ul><li>give me objects to manipulate that help my eyes and hands work together </li></ul><ul><li>let me experiment with a variety of art materials </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Eye-Hand Coordination
  33. 33. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play hiding games with me—I love it </li></ul><ul><li>point to things in my world and describe them </li></ul><ul><li>give me objects to play with that help me remember where things go </li></ul><ul><li>read picture books with me and ask me to recall details </li></ul><ul><li>help me recognize and identify letters and numbers in a fun, non-pressured way </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Visual Memory
  34. 34. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play pretend games with me </li></ul><ul><li>give me opportunities to draw, paint, and create in my own way </li></ul><ul><li>choose toys that encourage me to use my rich imagination </li></ul><ul><li>read or tell me some stories without pictures </li></ul>3- to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Creativity
  35. 35. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>limit and monitor my screen time (TV, videos and computer) </li></ul><ul><li>give me choices of activities that are active rather than passive </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds Seeing, Remembering and Imagining Important for Creativity © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Listening, Talking and Understanding <ul><li>Brain Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>hearing (auditory nerves) </li></ul><ul><li>hearing and speech (auditory cortex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Society for Neuro- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>science, Brain Facts , 1993. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Richard Restak, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptors ,Bantam Books, 1995. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>make sure I have regular ear and hearing exams </li></ul><ul><li>recognize the symptoms of ear infections and treat promptly </li></ul><ul><li>keep me away from very loud noises </li></ul>Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Accurate Hearing
  38. 38. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>talk, talk, talk with me </li></ul><ul><li>encourage me to name, describe, compare, explain </li></ul><ul><li>listen closely and respond to what I have to say </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a second language to me as soon as possible before I’m 10 </li></ul>Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Communication and Thinking Skills
  39. 39. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>honor my unique style of learning and expressing </li></ul><ul><li>respect my culture’s ways of communicating </li></ul><ul><li>allow me to learn at my own pace </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Communication and Thinking Skills
  40. 40. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>read to me—I’m never too young for books </li></ul><ul><li>make books a part of my daily routine </li></ul><ul><li>read to me with expression and enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>tell me or sing me stories </li></ul>Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Reading and Writing Readiness
  41. 41. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>provide me with a variety of high-interest books </li></ul><ul><li>read, tell and sing rhymes with me </li></ul><ul><li>repeat my favorite stories and rhymes again and again </li></ul><ul><li>encourage me to point to pictures and talk about the book as you read to me </li></ul><ul><li>point out letters and words in labels, signs and books </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Reading and Writing Readiness
  42. 42. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>talk with me about my discoveries as I label, sort and compare things in my world </li></ul><ul><li>count with me </li></ul><ul><li>help me recognize and identify numbers </li></ul>3- to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Important for Understand- ing Math and Science Concepts
  43. 43. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>play music that calms me and helps me learn </li></ul><ul><li>sing my favorite songs with me; let’s make up new ones </li></ul><ul><li>enjoy and make music with me </li></ul><ul><li>introduce me to playing an instrument as early as three years old </li></ul>Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Listening, Talking and Understanding Listening to and Performing Music—Important for Using the Whole Brain
  44. 44. Feeling and Relating <ul><li>Brain Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>survival brain (brain stem) </li></ul><ul><li>feeling brain (limbic system) </li></ul><ul><li>chief executive officer (prefrontal cortex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustration by Victoria Tennant, Brain Child , V.T. Consulting, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 (used with permission from Victoria Tennant) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Survival Brain (brain stem) <ul><li>subconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>autonomic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>freeze/flight/fight response </li></ul><ul><li>defensive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>autopilot; rote behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Richard Restak, Receptors , Bantam Books, 1995. </li></ul></ul>Feeling and Relating Basic Need: Safety
  46. 46. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>create a physically- and emotionally-safe environment </li></ul><ul><li>respond to my needs in a loving, consistent way </li></ul><ul><li>soothe me when I am upset </li></ul><ul><li>provide me with a structure I can depend on </li></ul>Prenatal to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Survival Brain Basic Need: Safety—Important for Trust Feeling and Relating
  47. 47. Feeling and Relating Feeling Brain (limbic system) Basic Need: Love <ul><li>subconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>sends and receives emotional signals (to and from the body) </li></ul><ul><li>pleasure/pain response </li></ul><ul><li>long-term memory and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Richard Restak, Receptors ,Bantam Books, 1995. </li></ul></ul>Limbic System Structures (brain diagram)
  48. 48. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>shower me with unconditional love </li></ul><ul><li>hug, cuddle and touch me lovingly </li></ul>Prenatal to 5-year-olds Feeling Brain Basic Need: Love Important for Healthy Relationships © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Feeling and Relating
  49. 49. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>give me your undivided attention at times throughout the day </li></ul><ul><li>praise my accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>encourage me when I’m frustrated </li></ul><ul><li>treat me with respect </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Feeling Brain Basic Need: Love Important for Self-Esteem Feeling and Relating
  50. 50. <ul><li>Survival and emotional needs must be met for the cortex (thinking brain) to develop and function properly. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the struggle to meet these needs, the more the brain develops pathways dedicated to basic survival rather than learning. </li></ul><ul><li>When needs aren’t met, rebuild the foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>This process takes time, persistence and faith. </li></ul>© Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Feeling and Relating Unmet Basic Needs
  51. 51. Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer (prefrontal cortex) <ul><li>conscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>imagination </li></ul><ul><li>higher-level thinking </li></ul><ul><li>attention and concentration </li></ul><ul><li>short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>emotional regulation </li></ul><ul><li>emotional intelligence skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Richard Restak, Receptors , Bantam Books, 1995. </li></ul></ul>Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching (brain diagram)
  52. 52. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>pay attention to and validate all my feelings </li></ul><ul><li>help me identify, accept and express my feelings in safe and respectful ways </li></ul><ul><li>coach me in social skills </li></ul><ul><li>be a role model for me—I learn by watching you </li></ul>1- to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Self-Awareness, Empathy and Social Skills © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>set clear limits and be consistent with me </li></ul><ul><li>when I misbehave, give me fair consequences that I can learn from </li></ul><ul><li>don’t spank me—it only teaches me to be afraid and to hurt others </li></ul><ul><li>ignore some of the things I do or don’t do </li></ul>2- to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Self-Control
  54. 54. © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved. Healthy brain – 2:1 Neglected/abused brain – 1:1 Ratio dramatically reduced by stress and drugs Hypervigilant alarm system Exaggerated defense mechanism Violence as a problem-solving tool Presence of a positive, stable adult Guidance Ratio of Control of Thinking Brain Over Survival Brain Survival Brain Low Ratio of Control Can Result In: Influencing Factors for Thoughtful, Positive Behavior
  55. 55. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>help me recognize my own body signals of stress, e.g., tense muscles, fists, frowns, angry loud voice </li></ul><ul><li>listen to my fears; reassure me that I’m safe </li></ul><ul><li>help me separate real fears from imaginary ones </li></ul><ul><li>structure my environment to reduce frustration </li></ul><ul><li>give me safe ways to let off steam—running, jumping, taking a bath </li></ul><ul><li>teach me simple relaxation techniques </li></ul>Newborns to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Stress Management © Comprehensive Health Education Foundation. All rights reserved.
  56. 56. <ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>give me choices </li></ul><ul><li>provide me with appropriate, meaningful learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>follow my cues—my interests and frustrations show you what’s right for me </li></ul>2- to 5-year-olds Feeling and Relating Chief Executive Officer Basic Needs: Modeling and Coaching Important for Self-Motivation
  57. 57. Maximizing Washington’s Brain Power <ul><li>Who to contact: </li></ul><ul><li>BrainNet TM of The Baby/Toddler Initiative Project: 360-902-0215 or www.brainnet.wa.gov </li></ul><ul><li>C.H.E.F ® : 1-800-323-2433 or www.chef.org </li></ul>
  58. 58. National Efforts <ul><li>Maximizing Children’s Brain Power: The Florida Starting Points Initiative: A national effort of the Carnegie Corp. of New York www. carnegie .org/ startingpoints / </li></ul><ul><li>BrainWonders, Helping Babies and Toddlers Grow and Develop: Zero to Three www.zerotothree.org </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Facts : I Am Your Child http:// iamyourchild .org </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking the Brain: Families and Work Institute www. familiesandworkinst .org </li></ul>
  59. 59. For more information, contact: Sue Anderson Comprehensive Health Education Foundation 1-800-323-2433, ext. 185 [email_address]

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