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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 7


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(c) McGraw-Hill 2011

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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7: Motor SkillsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Physical Growth and Motor Skills• Though physical growth is generally predictable, each child is unique.• Different parts of the body grow at different rates. – At birth the head accounts for 1/4 of the body. – By age 2 the head is only 1/5 of the body. 7-2
  3. 3. Physical Growth and Motor Skills• Stability of the body is explained by:• Cephalocaudal development – Growth starts with the head and moves down to the rest of the body. – The first muscles to develop are those that control head movements.• Proximaldistal development – Growth starts towards the center of the body and moves outward. 7-3
  4. 4. Brain Growth and Motor Development• At birth, the brain weighs only 25% of its adult weight.• By age three, the brain is 90% of its adult weight.• Myelinization is the process by which brain fat (myelin) coats and insulates the neural fibers.• Myelinization accounts for rapid gain in overall brain size after birth. 7-4
  5. 5. Brain Growth and Motor Development• In infancy, neurons in the brain move around and become arranged by function.• The subcortical levels are fully developed at birth. – The subcortical levels are responsible for reflexes and fundamental activities like breathing and heart rate.• There are particularly sensitive periods for development, but it is never too late for a child to benefit from quality experiences. 7-5
  6. 6. Brain Growth and Motor Development• Current brain research shows: – Movement develops as early as 6 weeks gestation as a result of both nature and nurture. – More neural connections and experience foster more coordination and stronger muscles. – Increased myelinization influences development of fine motor skills. – Experience helps form brain circuitry and is essential in fine tuning the young brain’s ability to respond to the environment. 7-6
  7. 7. Reflexes• Reflexes serve as the basis for later movement.• The appearance and delay of certain reflexes help us learn about infants’ development. What reflexes are present at birth? 7-7
  8. 8. Large Motor Skills and Locomotion• Infants eventually progress from reflexive movements to voluntary movements.• Large or gross motor skills have to do with large muscles and big movements.• Small or fine motor skills have to do with small muscles and more delicate movements. 7-8
  9. 9. Large Motor Skills and Locomotion• Locomotion is the ability to move from one place to another.• Stability is the means to mobility. – Infants can’t move until they have a solid base.• You don’t need to teach typically developing children how to sit or walk. – Allow babies to focus on their own body and inner motivation. 7-9
  10. 10. Large Motor Skills and LocomotionWhen infants’ muscles grow, they achieve strength and balance, their brain matures, and they put together the skills that lead to walking. 7-10
  11. 11. Small Motor Skills and Manipulation• Manipulation is the development of hands and fingers.• Along with manipulation, children gradually begin to have control of the small muscles in their mouth, bladder, rectum, feet, toes, and eyes. 7-11
  12. 12. Small Motor Skills and Manipulation• During the first six months, infants can’t necessarily control their grasping reflex.• Eventually babies can grab an object within reach. – Palmer grasp – Pincer grasp (with thumb and forefinger) 7-12
  13. 13. Small Motor Skills and Manipulation• Ways to encourage small motor skills include: – Encouraging self-help tasks – Providing tactile experiences – Providing experiences with objects that let children grasp, hold, scoop, pour, and squeeze 7-13
  14. 14. Fostering Motor Development• Encourage infants to practice what they know how to do.• Allow babies to move into positions themselves.• Avoid rescuing babies. See if they can get out of an uncomfortable position on their own.• No need to push development. 7-14
  15. 15. Fostering Motor Development• Do keep children in the position is which they are most free and least helpless.• Do provide toddlers with opportunities to wander, carry, dump, climb, and move in a variety of ways.• Do appreciate that children will practice if given the freedom to do so. 7-15
  16. 16. Children with Special Needs• Finding Resources – Arc of United States – NACD – Association to Benefit – NICHCY Children – New Horizons for Learning – Consortium for Citizens with – Pacer Center Disabilities – Special Education News – Disability-Related Sources on – SERI the Web – Family Center on Technology – Division for Early Childhood and Disability – Family Village – National Center for Learning – Institute on Community Disabilities Integration Projects – Zero to Three – LDA … And many more 7-16
  17. 17. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 7 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 7-17