Chapter 9: Observation: The Roots of Practice Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
The Observer <ul><li>Notices tone of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Notices quality of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Notices facial ...
Open-ended Activity <ul><li>An activity that places no pressure on the child and for which there are no external expectati...
Observe <ul><li>“ To see or sense especially through analytic attention” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic attention : the ob...
Steps in Observation <ul><li>Collect and record data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the da...
Types of Observation <ul><li>Subjective : includes the teacher’s perspective and judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Objective : i...
Reflection <ul><li>Teachers can reflect on many observations over time to gain a better understanding and appreciation for...
Benefits of Observation <ul><li>Tool for understanding diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Generate knowledge about child </li></u...
Goodness of Fit <ul><li>Matching a child’s temperament with his or her environment </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Co...
Curriculum Planning <ul><li>Planning organized activities </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing time for spontaneous activities </li>...
Types of Interactions to Observe <ul><li>Peer-to-peer interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Adult-child interactions </li></ul><u...
Types of Communication <ul><li>Informal communication : arises from spontaneous encounters with parents and children </li>...
Confidentiality <ul><li>Disclosing information only to those professionals and family members involved in the situation </...
What to Observe <ul><li>Their transitions to the classroom in the morning and end of day </li></ul><ul><li>Their routines ...
Bias <ul><li>One’s natural tendency to favor some children over others based on their characteristics, behavior style, and...
Narrative Records <ul><li>Running record : teacher writes down exactly what she sees for a period of time </li></ul><ul><l...
Observation Methods <ul><li>Event sampling : the observation and recording of a pre-determined event </li></ul><ul><li>Che...
Child Study <ul><li>A comprehensive document put together from observations of a child over a period of time </li></ul>Cop...
Descriptive Review <ul><li>Use the child’s work, his efforts to stand upright and then take steps, his paintings and block...
Communicating Assessment Results <ul><li>Narrative   reporting : a written description of the child’s behaviors that inclu...
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Chapter 9: Observation: The Roots of Practice

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Early Childhood Education: Learning Together
by Virginia Casper and Rachel Theilheimer
(c)2009 McGraw-Hill Publishing

Published in: Education
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Chapter 9: Observation: The Roots of Practice

  1. 1. Chapter 9: Observation: The Roots of Practice Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  2. 2. The Observer <ul><li>Notices tone of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Notices quality of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Notices facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Notices language </li></ul><ul><li>Notices actions </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  3. 3. Open-ended Activity <ul><li>An activity that places no pressure on the child and for which there are no external expectations </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  4. 4. Observe <ul><li>“ To see or sense especially through analytic attention” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic attention : the observer is concentrating in a clear and focused way on the events unfolding around her </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  5. 5. Steps in Observation <ul><li>Collect and record data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the data </li></ul><ul><li>Collect more data </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  6. 6. Types of Observation <ul><li>Subjective : includes the teacher’s perspective and judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Objective : includes only what has occurred during the observation </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  7. 7. Reflection <ul><li>Teachers can reflect on many observations over time to gain a better understanding and appreciation for what is going on in the minds of their children </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  8. 8. Benefits of Observation <ul><li>Tool for understanding diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Generate knowledge about child </li></ul><ul><li>Tool for drafting “scripts for action” </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in becoming an effective decision-maker </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in planning curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate communication with families </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  9. 9. Goodness of Fit <ul><li>Matching a child’s temperament with his or her environment </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  10. 10. Curriculum Planning <ul><li>Planning organized activities </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing time for spontaneous activities </li></ul><ul><li>Involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining goals and expectations </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  11. 11. Types of Interactions to Observe <ul><li>Peer-to-peer interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Adult-child interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Caregiving routines </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  12. 12. Types of Communication <ul><li>Informal communication : arises from spontaneous encounters with parents and children </li></ul><ul><li>Formal communication : planned communication between parties, such as a parent-teacher conference </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  13. 13. Confidentiality <ul><li>Disclosing information only to those professionals and family members involved in the situation </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  14. 14. What to Observe <ul><li>Their transitions to the classroom in the morning and end of day </li></ul><ul><li>Their routines – eating, sleeping, washing hands </li></ul><ul><li>Their activities and use of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Their language </li></ul><ul><li>Their interactions </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  15. 15. Bias <ul><li>One’s natural tendency to favor some children over others based on their characteristics, behavior style, and cultural background </li></ul><ul><li>Being aware of one’s bias can improve one’s ability to observe objectively rather than subjectively </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  16. 16. Narrative Records <ul><li>Running record : teacher writes down exactly what she sees for a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotal record : teacher describes an event </li></ul><ul><li>Diary/Journal : teacher regularly records what happens and adds commentary </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  17. 17. Observation Methods <ul><li>Event sampling : the observation and recording of a pre-determined event </li></ul><ul><li>Checklists : formal evaluations which measure a child’s developmental performance against preset criteria </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  18. 18. Child Study <ul><li>A comprehensive document put together from observations of a child over a period of time </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  19. 19. Descriptive Review <ul><li>Use the child’s work, his efforts to stand upright and then take steps, his paintings and block buildings, or the stories he writes as a starting point for understanding his world </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  20. 20. Communicating Assessment Results <ul><li>Narrative reporting : a written description of the child’s behaviors that includes observations, assessments, and recommendations </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York

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