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Pigmentations of skinDefinitionPigmentation varies according to racial origin (skin types 1 to 6) and sun exposure.A)Types of Hyperpigmentation (Increased skin colour)1. Generalised2. LocalisedB) Hypopigmentation (reduced skin colour).A Woods lamp (long-wave ultraviolet radiation) may be used during theexamination of the skin, as pigmentary changes are easier to identify whileexposing the affected skin to UV-A.Symptoms of Pigmentations of skinThe following are some of the symptoms of Pigmentations of skin:1. Darker skin patches (Hyperpigmentation)Acanthosis nigricansAlkaptonuriaBecker naevusBerloque dermatitisChloasma (melasma)Confluent & reticulated papillomatosisCongenital naeviDowling-Degos diseaseFixed drug eruptionErythema ab igneErythrasmaFlagellate erythemaFreckles, lentiginesIdiopathic eruptive macular pigmentationLaugier-Hunziker syndromeLichen planus pigmentosaLipodermatosclerosisMelanomaMolesMongolian spotMorphoea (morphea)Naevi of Ota & ItoNeurofibromatosisOchronosis
Pigmented contact cheilitisPigmented purpuraPityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor)Poikiloderma of CivattePostinflammatory (trauma, burns, skin disease)PurpuraTinea nigra Urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytosisGeneralised dark skinAddisons diseaseDrug-induced pigmentation (phenothiazines, silver, chemotherapy)HaemochromatosisIchthyosisSézary syndromePorphyria cutanea tardaSystemic sclerosisWilson disease2. Pale or white skin/patches (Hypopigmented)AlbinismAtrophie blancheBleaching creamsDegos diseaseHalo molesChemical leukodermaContact leukodermaHypomelanosis of ItoIdiopathic guttate hypomelanosisLeprosyLichen sclerosusLupus erythematosusMorphoeaMycosis fungoidesPiebaldismPityriasis albaPityriasis versicolorPoliosisPostinflammatory (trauma, burns, skin disease)SarcoidosisSystemic sclerosis
Tuberous sclerosis (ashleaf spots)Vitiligo3.Postinflammatory pigmentationfollows injury (e.g. thermal burn)Inflammatory disorder (e.g. dermatitis, lichen planus, psoriasis)It is mostly observed in darker skin types. Postinflammatory pigmentation tends tobecome darker and more noticeable with sun exposure4. Phytophotodermatitis dermatitis due to injury by sunlight and due to contactwith a plant. It is induced by UV (ultra violet) radiation The patient may present inspring or summer during the acute inflammatory stage, when there are linearblisters, or a few days to months later because of unsightly and bizarrepigmentation. The pigmentation is partly epidermal and partly dermal (melanosis).Responsible plants include parsley, parsnips, celery, carrot, fig, lime and severalspecies of wild flowers (umbelliferae).Berloque dermatitis refers to bergapten (5-methoxypsoralens) phototoxicity.Bergapten is found in older fragrances (current regulations restrict theconcentration of bergapten). The acute inflammatory dermatitis is sometimesunnoticed and the patient may present with streaky pigmentation on the neck. Thisis the same reaction as occurs after PUVA.Melasma Melasma (chloasma) affects sun-exposed areas. It presents assymmetrical hyperpigmented macules on cheeks, upper lip, chin, and forehead. Itaffects adult women and they are often pregnant or taking some form of hormonalcontraceptive.Poikiloderma of Civatte Poikiloderma of Civatte is a characteristic weatheringchange affecting the lateral neck bilaterally, resulting in reticulate or follicularerythema, hyperpigmentation and atrophy.Homeopathic treatment for Pigmentations of skinAn SPF30+ sunscreen is essential if the pigmentation affects an exposed site. It iseasier to lighten epidermal melanin than dermal melanin. These agents can be
helpful:• Hydroquinone• Topical retinoids• Topical corticosteroids• Glycolic acid and other fruit acids• Azelaic acid• L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) v Resurfacing using chemical peels, laser, intensepulsed light (IPL) or dermabrasion may be effective but unfortunately risks furtherdamage to the epidermis and formation of more pigmentHomeopathy:After diagnosis and as per the underlying cause of the pigmentation homeopathyhas role to play in conditions of pigmentation very effectively.Document Source: http://www.mindheal.orgMindheal Homeopathy is a leading homeopathic treatment center in Mumbai, India.