SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Autism spectrum disorders

Autism is becoming more frequent. Diagnosis and disturbing early signs are discussed.Management is also addressed

1 of 75
Download to read offline
Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Prepared by: Dr. Shewikar El Bakry
Ass. Prof. of Neuropsychiatry
Banha University
Agenda
Introduction to Autism
Clinical Picture
Red Flags
Etiology
Diagnosis
Identifying Tools
Management
History of Autism
􀁼 Autism was first described in literature by Leo
Kanner in 1943.
􀁼 He called the syndrome “early infantile
autism.”
􀁼 Autism was also often misdiagnosed as
childhood schizophrenia.
􀁼 Early psychologists hypothesized that children
became autistic due to “cold and unnurturing”
mothers. This theory was proven false in
1979.
Autism spectrum disorders
Facts on Autism – What We
Know So Far
Autism:
􀁼 occurs in approximately 1 out of 250
births,
and has a 10-17% annual growth rate.
􀁼 typically manifests around the ages of 18
months to 3 years.
􀁼 is found throughout the world in families of
all racial, ethnic and social backgrounds.
occurs mostly in males. The ratio is about
4:1.
Why study autism
The rate of
AUTISM
was
One in 10,000
Births
Just 10 years ago
NOW
AUTISM
occurs in
1 of every 150
births
AUTISM
AWARENESS
RIBBON

Recommended

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) mamtabisht10
 
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderAutism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderEnoch R G
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disordergrona3
 
Autism (autism spectrum disorder)
Autism (autism spectrum disorder)Autism (autism spectrum disorder)
Autism (autism spectrum disorder)bibashenry
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Intellectual disability
Intellectual disabilityIntellectual disability
Intellectual disabilityjunelyn123
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)novi2801
 
Intellectual disability
Intellectual disabilityIntellectual disability
Intellectual disabilityDuaShaban
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) PresentationAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) PresentationAlana Fabish
 
Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndromeAsperger syndrome
Asperger syndromeMilen Ramos
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) PresentationAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) PresentationAnoudHuss
 
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderAutism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderDr Slayer
 
autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction
autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction
autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction varinder kumar
 
Autism based on kaplan & sadocks
Autism based on kaplan & sadocksAutism based on kaplan & sadocks
Autism based on kaplan & sadocksSameer Saharan
 
An Introduction to Autism
An Introduction to AutismAn Introduction to Autism
An Introduction to AutismAshraf Rahmani
 
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderAutism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderKaelyn Thompson
 

What's hot (20)

Assess and diagnois
Assess and diagnoisAssess and diagnois
Assess and diagnois
 
Asperger's Syndrome
Asperger's SyndromeAsperger's Syndrome
Asperger's Syndrome
 
Autism
AutismAutism
Autism
 
Autism presentation
Autism presentationAutism presentation
Autism presentation
 
Intellectual disability
Intellectual disabilityIntellectual disability
Intellectual disability
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
 
Autism
AutismAutism
Autism
 
Autism
AutismAutism
Autism
 
Intellectual disability
Intellectual disabilityIntellectual disability
Intellectual disability
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) PresentationAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
 
Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndromeAsperger syndrome
Asperger syndrome
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) PresentationAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Presentation
 
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderAutism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
 
autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction
autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction
autism spectrum disorder-a general introduction
 
Autism based on kaplan & sadocks
Autism based on kaplan & sadocksAutism based on kaplan & sadocks
Autism based on kaplan & sadocks
 
An Introduction to Autism
An Introduction to AutismAn Introduction to Autism
An Introduction to Autism
 
Autism
 Autism Autism
Autism
 
ADHD
ADHDADHD
ADHD
 
Neurodevelopmental disorders
Neurodevelopmental disordersNeurodevelopmental disorders
Neurodevelopmental disorders
 
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorderAutism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
 

Viewers also liked

Autism powerpoint
Autism powerpointAutism powerpoint
Autism powerpointyobrithere
 
Autism Slides
Autism SlidesAutism Slides
Autism Slidesssittner
 
Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)
Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)
Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)Simon Bignell
 
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder Lori Boll
 
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATIONAUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATIONKate Mard
 
Autism and behaviour presentation
Autism and behaviour presentationAutism and behaviour presentation
Autism and behaviour presentationleedsautism
 
Autism 101 by ASNV
Autism 101 by ASNVAutism 101 by ASNV
Autism 101 by ASNVAutismNOVA
 
Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3
Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3
Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3Jegon Varakala
 
Autism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologist
Autism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologistAutism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologist
Autism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologistDr Amit Vatkar
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum DisorderLove Sanz
 
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism Spectrum DisordersAutism Spectrum Disorders
Autism Spectrum Disordershparis
 
ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014
ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014
ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014Louis Cady, MD
 
Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008
Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008
Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008flyfishlake
 
Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies
Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies
Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies Ihab Shahawi
 
Common Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD Medication
Common Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD MedicationCommon Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD Medication
Common Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD MedicationStephen Grcevich, MD
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder
 
Autism powerpoint
Autism powerpointAutism powerpoint
Autism powerpoint
 
Autism Slides
Autism SlidesAutism Slides
Autism Slides
 
Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)
Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)
Autism Asperger's & ADHD - Introduction to the Module (2014)
 
Autism spectrum disorders
Autism spectrum disordersAutism spectrum disorders
Autism spectrum disorders
 
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
 
Autism Treatments
Autism TreatmentsAutism Treatments
Autism Treatments
 
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATIONAUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AND USE OF THE IPAD FOR CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION
 
Autism and behaviour presentation
Autism and behaviour presentationAutism and behaviour presentation
Autism and behaviour presentation
 
Autism 101 by ASNV
Autism 101 by ASNVAutism 101 by ASNV
Autism 101 by ASNV
 
Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3
Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3
Autism spectrum disorder (asd) 3
 
Autism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologist
Autism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologistAutism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologist
Autism, dr amit vatkar, pediatric neurologist
 
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder
 
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism Spectrum DisordersAutism Spectrum Disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorders
 
Childhood anxiety
Childhood anxietyChildhood anxiety
Childhood anxiety
 
Autism and gene
Autism and geneAutism and gene
Autism and gene
 
ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014
ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014
ADHD - Diagnoses, Epidemiology & Precision Treatment - IMMH 2014
 
Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008
Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008
Powerpoint Presentation J Hanley Odd2008
 
Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies
Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies
Successful Non-Aversive Autism Treatment Strategies
 
Common Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD Medication
Common Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD MedicationCommon Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD Medication
Common Sense Strategies For Prescribing ADHD Medication
 

Similar to Autism spectrum disorders

Bradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpoint
Bradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpointBradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpoint
Bradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpointStacey Bradley
 
The ABC’s of Autism
The ABC’s of AutismThe ABC’s of Autism
The ABC’s of AutismSemel Admin
 
ASD is common neuro Developmental dusorder
ASD is common neuro Developmental dusorderASD is common neuro Developmental dusorder
ASD is common neuro Developmental dusorderrajeshvarmamay8
 
Autism Spectrum Disodrer - current concepts
Autism Spectrum Disodrer - current conceptsAutism Spectrum Disodrer - current concepts
Autism Spectrum Disodrer - current conceptsLokanath Reddy Mummadi
 
DSM Frye EAC.ppt
DSM Frye EAC.pptDSM Frye EAC.ppt
DSM Frye EAC.pptKirillZ3
 
Autism pre
Autism preAutism pre
Autism preSana Ali
 
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderDhrutignaPatel
 
ADHD: Across the Age Spectrum
ADHD: Across the Age SpectrumADHD: Across the Age Spectrum
ADHD: Across the Age SpectrumScott Carroll
 
Behavioral problems in children
Behavioral problems in childrenBehavioral problems in children
Behavioral problems in childrenAnkur Puri
 
a case of psychiatry
a case of psychiatrya case of psychiatry
a case of psychiatrySohail Ahmed
 
Mental Retardation and ADHD
Mental Retardation and ADHDMental Retardation and ADHD
Mental Retardation and ADHDnabina paneru
 
Mental Retardation ppt.pptx
Mental Retardation ppt.pptxMental Retardation ppt.pptx
Mental Retardation ppt.pptxbeminaja
 
Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)
Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)
Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)Joshua Batalla
 

Similar to Autism spectrum disorders (20)

Autism sprecturm disorder
Autism sprecturm disorder Autism sprecturm disorder
Autism sprecturm disorder
 
Bradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpoint
Bradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpointBradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpoint
Bradley Clemo _lp4_autismpowerpoint
 
The ABC’s of Autism
The ABC’s of AutismThe ABC’s of Autism
The ABC’s of Autism
 
ASD is common neuro Developmental dusorder
ASD is common neuro Developmental dusorderASD is common neuro Developmental dusorder
ASD is common neuro Developmental dusorder
 
Autism Spectrum Disodrer - current concepts
Autism Spectrum Disodrer - current conceptsAutism Spectrum Disodrer - current concepts
Autism Spectrum Disodrer - current concepts
 
Autism & ADHD
Autism & ADHDAutism & ADHD
Autism & ADHD
 
DSM Frye EAC.ppt
DSM Frye EAC.pptDSM Frye EAC.ppt
DSM Frye EAC.ppt
 
Autism pre
Autism preAutism pre
Autism pre
 
Pdd
PddPdd
Pdd
 
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
 
ADHD: Across the Age Spectrum
ADHD: Across the Age SpectrumADHD: Across the Age Spectrum
ADHD: Across the Age Spectrum
 
Autism
AutismAutism
Autism
 
Behavioral problems in children
Behavioral problems in childrenBehavioral problems in children
Behavioral problems in children
 
a case of psychiatry
a case of psychiatrya case of psychiatry
a case of psychiatry
 
Mental Retardation and ADHD
Mental Retardation and ADHDMental Retardation and ADHD
Mental Retardation and ADHD
 
Mental Retardation ppt.pptx
Mental Retardation ppt.pptxMental Retardation ppt.pptx
Mental Retardation ppt.pptx
 
autism.pptx
autism.pptxautism.pptx
autism.pptx
 
CHILDABUSE AND POCSO.pptx
CHILDABUSE AND POCSO.pptxCHILDABUSE AND POCSO.pptx
CHILDABUSE AND POCSO.pptx
 
Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)
Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)
Aspergers syndrome complete (group 1)
 
Autism disorder
Autism disorder Autism disorder
Autism disorder
 

More from Shewikar El Bakry

what is happening? Pregnancy
what is happening? Pregnancywhat is happening? Pregnancy
what is happening? PregnancyShewikar El Bakry
 
coping with diabetes mellitus in children
coping with diabetes mellitus in childrencoping with diabetes mellitus in children
coping with diabetes mellitus in childrenShewikar El Bakry
 
coping with Diabetes in children
coping with Diabetes in childrencoping with Diabetes in children
coping with Diabetes in childrenShewikar El Bakry
 
Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)
Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)
Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)Shewikar El Bakry
 
Teacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needs
Teacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needsTeacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needs
Teacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needsShewikar El Bakry
 
Recent advances in autism treatment
Recent advances in autism treatmentRecent advances in autism treatment
Recent advances in autism treatmentShewikar El Bakry
 
Pollution and the nervous system
Pollution and the nervous systemPollution and the nervous system
Pollution and the nervous systemShewikar El Bakry
 
Hoarding power point presentation
Hoarding power point presentationHoarding power point presentation
Hoarding power point presentationShewikar El Bakry
 
Adhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Adhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorderAdhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Adhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorderShewikar El Bakry
 

More from Shewikar El Bakry (15)

what is happening? Pregnancy
what is happening? Pregnancywhat is happening? Pregnancy
what is happening? Pregnancy
 
OCD in children
OCD in childrenOCD in children
OCD in children
 
coping with diabetes mellitus in children
coping with diabetes mellitus in childrencoping with diabetes mellitus in children
coping with diabetes mellitus in children
 
coping with Diabetes in children
coping with Diabetes in childrencoping with Diabetes in children
coping with Diabetes in children
 
coping with daily stress
coping with daily stresscoping with daily stress
coping with daily stress
 
Mental Disorders
Mental DisordersMental Disorders
Mental Disorders
 
Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)
Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)
Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (ADHD)
 
Intellectual Disaabilities
Intellectual DisaabilitiesIntellectual Disaabilities
Intellectual Disaabilities
 
Teacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needs
Teacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needsTeacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needs
Teacher 's role in recognizing and helping children with special attention needs
 
Recent advances in autism treatment
Recent advances in autism treatmentRecent advances in autism treatment
Recent advances in autism treatment
 
Pollution and the nervous system
Pollution and the nervous systemPollution and the nervous system
Pollution and the nervous system
 
Why Fragile X syndrome
Why Fragile X syndromeWhy Fragile X syndrome
Why Fragile X syndrome
 
التوحد
التوحدالتوحد
التوحد
 
Hoarding power point presentation
Hoarding power point presentationHoarding power point presentation
Hoarding power point presentation
 
Adhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Adhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorderAdhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Adhd basic information about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
 

Recently uploaded

Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptxPopulation of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptxDr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxPhysiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxSai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.pptGROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.pptDr Vinay KV Shetty
 
gynae pcd pharma franchise - Solace Biotech Limited
gynae pcd pharma franchise -  Solace Biotech Limitedgynae pcd pharma franchise -  Solace Biotech Limited
gynae pcd pharma franchise - Solace Biotech LimitedSBL DIGITAL
 
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...semualkaira
 
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]Brian Peacock
 
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajInfluenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...PeerVoice
 
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajAscariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CareBrian Peacock
 
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajHepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Yantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in Ayurveda
Yantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in AyurvedaYantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in Ayurveda
Yantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in AyurvedaAparnaNandakumar12
 
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxVertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxYasser Alzainy
 
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...Rajshri
 
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied StudentsCell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied StudentsRajendra Dev Bhatt
 
Best neurologist in jalandhar Punjab India
Best neurologist in jalandhar Punjab IndiaBest neurologist in jalandhar Punjab India
Best neurologist in jalandhar Punjab IndiaNHS Hospital
 
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay ShettyDasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay ShettyAkshay Shetty
 
Radicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cyst
Radicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cystRadicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cyst
Radicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cystJani253068
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptxPopulation of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
 
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxPhysiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.pptGROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
 
gynae pcd pharma franchise - Solace Biotech Limited
gynae pcd pharma franchise -  Solace Biotech Limitedgynae pcd pharma franchise -  Solace Biotech Limited
gynae pcd pharma franchise - Solace Biotech Limited
 
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
Bedside Utility of Liaoning Score a Non-Invasive As Predictor of Esophageal V...
 
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
Psychedelic Interventions for Neurological Conditions [NAN 2022 Poster]
 
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajInfluenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
 
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajAscariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
 
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajHepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Yantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in Ayurveda
Yantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in AyurvedaYantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in Ayurveda
Yantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in Ayurveda
 
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxVertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
 
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
 
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied StudentsCell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
 
Best neurologist in jalandhar Punjab India
Best neurologist in jalandhar Punjab IndiaBest neurologist in jalandhar Punjab India
Best neurologist in jalandhar Punjab India
 
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay ShettyDasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
 
A rare case of Omental & Fibroid Torsion
A rare case of Omental & Fibroid TorsionA rare case of Omental & Fibroid Torsion
A rare case of Omental & Fibroid Torsion
 
Radicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cyst
Radicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cystRadicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cyst
Radicular cyst or periapical odontogenic cyst
 

Autism spectrum disorders

  • 1. Autistic Spectrum Disorders Prepared by: Dr. Shewikar El Bakry Ass. Prof. of Neuropsychiatry Banha University
  • 2. Agenda Introduction to Autism Clinical Picture Red Flags Etiology Diagnosis Identifying Tools Management
  • 3. History of Autism 􀁼 Autism was first described in literature by Leo Kanner in 1943. 􀁼 He called the syndrome “early infantile autism.” 􀁼 Autism was also often misdiagnosed as childhood schizophrenia. 􀁼 Early psychologists hypothesized that children became autistic due to “cold and unnurturing” mothers. This theory was proven false in 1979.
  • 5. Facts on Autism – What We Know So Far Autism: 􀁼 occurs in approximately 1 out of 250 births, and has a 10-17% annual growth rate. 􀁼 typically manifests around the ages of 18 months to 3 years. 􀁼 is found throughout the world in families of all racial, ethnic and social backgrounds. occurs mostly in males. The ratio is about 4:1.
  • 6. Why study autism The rate of AUTISM was One in 10,000 Births Just 10 years ago NOW AUTISM occurs in 1 of every 150 births AUTISM AWARENESS RIBBON
  • 7. Palestine statistics • The Prevalence • Ghaza strip 2649 from a population of 1324991 • West bank 4622 from 2311204 • The Incidence • Ghaza strip 14 from a population of 1324991 • West bank 25 from 2311204
  • 8. What is Autism • Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder • Inhibits a person's ability to – Communicate – Develop social relationships – Often accompanied by behavioral challenges.
  • 9. Facts about Autism • One of the most severe mental disabilities that has impact on the individual's behavior. • Putting out flames without finding the cause
  • 10. By the end of 7 months • Smile back at another person • Respond to sound with sounds • Enjoy social play Red Flags •No big smiles or other warm, joyful expressions by six months or thereafter •No back-and-forth sharing of sounds, smiles, or other facial expressions by nine months or thereafter
  • 11. By the end of 12 months • Use simple gestures • Imitate actions in their play • Respond when told “no” Red Flags •No back-and-forth gestures, such as pointing, showing, reaching, or waving bye •Not answering to one’s name when called •No babbling – mama, dada, baba
  • 12. By the end of 18 months • Do simple pretend play • Point to interesting objects • Use several single words unprompted Red Flags •No single words by 18 months •No simple pretend play
  • 13. By the end of 2 years (24 months) • Use 2- to 4-word phrases • Follow simple instructions • Become more interested in other children • Point to object or picture when named Red Flags •No two-word meaningful phrases (without imitating or repeating) •Lack of interest in other children
  • 14. Red Flag: Any loss of speech or babbling or social skills Regression at any age is cause for immediate referral
  • 16. Clinical Picture No real fear of dangers! Inappropriate laughing or giggling
  • 18. 18 Sustained unusual or repetitive play; Uneven physical or verbal skills May avoid eye contact
  • 19. 19 May prefer to be alone Difficulty in expressing needs; May use gestures
  • 21. 21 Echoes words or phrases Inappropriate response or no response to sound
  • 22. 22 Spins objects or self Difficulty in interacting with others Clinical Picture
  • 23. Clinical Picture Does not seek opportunities to interact with others. Unwillingness and/or inability to engage in cooperative play
  • 24. Clinical Picture Fails to produce appropriate facial expressions to specific occasions.
  • 28. Clinical Picture (Social Skills) • • Lack of awareness of the existence or feelings of others. • 􀁼 Severe impairment in the ability to relate to others. • 􀁼 Aloof and distant from others. • 􀁼 Appears not to listen when spoken to.
  • 29. Clinical Picture (Social Skills) Fails to produce appropriate facial expressions to specific occasions. 􀁼 Avoids eye contact. 􀁼 Difficulty with changes in environment and routine. 􀁼 Does not seek opportunities to interact with others. 􀁼 Unwillingness and/or inability to engage in cooperative play.
  • 30. Clinical Picture (Communication Skills) • Deficits or differences in communication skills are common with individuals with autism. • 􀁼 Difficulties in using and understanding both verbal and non-verbal language. • 􀁼 Failure to initiate or sustain conversational interchange. • 􀁼 Abnormalities in the pitch, stress, rate, rhythm, and intonation of speech.
  • 31. Clinical Picture (Communication Skills) • Poor receptive and expressive skills. • 􀁼 May echo words (echolalic speech). • 􀁼 May use screaming, crying, tantrums, • aggression, or self-abuse as ways to • communicate. • 􀁼 Repeating words or phrases in place of normal, responsive language. • Does not refer to self correctly
  • 32. Clinical Picture • Unusual and repetitive movements of the body that interfere with the ability to attend to tasks or activities, such as hand flapping, finger flicking, rocking, hand clapping, grimacing or eye gazing. • Marked distress over changes in seemingly trivial aspects of the environment. • 􀁼 Laughing, crying, or showing distress for reasons not apparent to others. • 􀁼 Unreasonable insistence on following routines in
  • 33. Clinical Picture • Unresponsive to normal teaching methods. • 􀁼 Acts as deaf. • 􀁼 Apparent over- or under-sensitivity to pain. • 􀁼 No fear of real danger. • 􀁼 Uneven gross and fine motor skills. • 􀁼 May not want to cuddle or be cuddled. • 􀁼 Inappropriate attachment to objects. • 􀁼 Noticeable physical over-activity or extreme under-activity.
  • 34. Clinical Picture • May use an adult’s hand like a tool for accomplishing tasks. • 􀁼 Does not spontaneously imitate the play of other children. • 􀁼 Tendency to spend inordinate amounts of time doing nothing or pursuing ritualistic behaviors.
  • 35. Etiology • Psychoanalytical • Genetic • anatomical brain areas annomelies • Infection • Vaccination • Prenatal and perinatal factors • Environmental • Toxins
  • 36. • Common physical findings in ASD • (all consistent with expected and reported findings of severe mercury toxicity) • – Blocked “mirror-neurons” in frontal cortex (inability to respond to • mom’s feelings, love, gaze, smile) • – Inflammatory Bowel Disease • – Increased size of frontal lobe and white matter • – Cerebellar atrophy (reduced number of Purkinje cells) • – Increased “neuronal packing” in cortex • – Cytoarchitectural changes in subcortical structures • – Micro-and astroglia activation with leaky blood brain barrier • – Altered glutamate receptors • – Hippocampal damage • – Elevation of inflammatory cytokines in brain and CSF: MCP-1, • IFNgamma • – IgA deficiency and increased IgE • – Lymphopenia • – T-cell abnormalities • – Abnormal NK cell function
  • 37. F84 Pervasive developmental disorder F84.0 Childhood autism F84.1 Atypical autism F84.2 Rett's syndrome F84.3 Other childhood disintegrative disorder F84.4 Overactive disorder associated with mental retardation and stereotyped movements F84.5 Asperger's syndrome F84.8 Other pervasive developmental disorders F84.9 Pervasive developmental disorder, unspecified International Classification of Diseases 10
  • 38. Changes in 2013…  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) revisions − Autism spectrum disorders • Includes autism, Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS, and child disintegrative disorder (CDD) − Concentrates on required features • Social/communication deficits • Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, activities o Addition of sensory criteria − Increases specificity while maintaining sensitivity • Important to distinguish spectrum from non-spectrum developmental disabilities • Improves stability of diagnosis
  • 39. Assessment The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule- Generic (ADOS-G) Autistic Diagnosis Interview. (ADI-R) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Mullen’s communication Scales . M-CHAT, CHAT . Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test .CSBS Caregiver Questionnaire .Screening Tool for Autism in Two- Year-Olds (STAT) . Childhood Autism Rating Scale .Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC)
  • 42. Training of Early Head Start Staff Early Screening and Diagnosis of ASDs – What are the early signs of ASD – Why is early diagnosis important – How to screen for autism at an early age: appropriate screeners (MCHAT) – Effective ways to collaborate and share information with families about the screening, possible need for referral, and benefits of beginning intervention early – How to make an appropriate referral for a child who fails a screening
  • 43. Data Collection for Analysis , and Program Changes • Design student progress measurement systems • Conduct assessment and evaluation • Use data-based decision-making
  • 44. The emergence of a new autism model • Older model • • Genetically determined • • Brain based • • Treatable but not curable Is autism a BRAIN • DISORDER? • Newer model • • Environmentally triggered • • Genetically influenced • • Both brain and body • • Metabolic abnormalities play big role • • Treatable and recovery possible • OR is it • A DISORDER THAT • AFFECTS THE BRAIN?
  • 45. Management Plan Should address: • Establishing goals for language/communication interventions • Establishing goals for educational intervention • Prioritizing target symptoms/comorbid conditions • Monitoring multiple domains of functioning • Behavioral adjustment • Adaptive skills • Academic skills • Social/communication skills • Social intervention with family members and peers • Monitoring medications
  • 46. Treatment • Goals – Minimize core features and associated deficits – Maximize functional independence and QOL – Alleviate family stress • Educational intervention • Developmental Therapies – Communication – Sensory, fine motor, gross motor • Behaviorally Based treatments – Core and associated symptoms – Social skills • Medical or biologic treatments • Support family in home and community
  • 47. Treatments and Educational Strategies • Autism is not a disease. There is not a single treatment such as a drug or therapy program that will work for all individuals with autism. • 􀁼 Treatment often comes in the form of • individualized plans designed to meet all areas of need. • 􀁼 Meeting the challenges of autism is better described as educational rather than treatment. • 􀁼 No single program or service will fill the needs of everyone with autism. Strategies to help a person with autism should be part of a comprehensive plan
  • 48. Early intervention programs “psychosocial interventions can change the disorders course” • Such programs involve highly focused and individualized teaching activities targeting all areas of development • Several different programs eg: TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autism and related communications handicapped children) • LOOVAS method • The Denver model • LEAP (learning experiences and alternative program for preschoolers and parents)
  • 49. Psychopharmacology Adjunct to educational, developmental & behavioral treatments So far no evidence of impact on core symptoms Evidence supporting is variable Toolkit – handouts for MD & families • Treat target symptoms – Stereotypies – Withdrawal – Obsessions – Irritability – Hyperactivity – attention span – self-injurious behavior – Aggression – sleep
  • 50. Treatment Atypical antipsychotic, Abilify (Aripiprazole) oral formulation was approved November 24, 2009 by the FDA for the treatment of irritability associated with ASD in children aged 6-17 years. Data based on two 8 week, randomized, placebo- controlled multicenter studies evaluating its efficacy for improving mean scores on the Caregiver-rated Irritability subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-I).
  • 51. Biologically Based Supplements B6/Magnesium, B12 DMG/ TMG Vitamin A, Vitamin C Folate Omega 3 Fatty Acids Elimination Diets Casein/ gluten free Off-label medications Secretin • Immune – Antifungal therapy – Immunotherapy, steroids – Antibiotics/Antivirals – Stem cell transplantation • Immunization- related – With-hold immunization – Chelation • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) Always others coming along…
  • 52. GUT Issues must be dealt with before dealing with the heavy metal issue There are 3 main issues common to all autistic Children 1. Yeast Overgrowth 2. Leaky gut 3. Heavy Metal Accumulation 52
  • 53. Another approach to therapy Dealing with the yeast overgrowth. Dealing with the leaky gut. Heavy metals and their effects. Chelation. Methylcobalamin. 53
  • 54. Speech/Language Therapy • Behaviorally based/ intensive structured teaching – E.g., Verbal Behavior • Augmentative strategies – Sign language – PECS – Aided augmentative/ alternative system(s) • Decrease non-communicative language • Developmental-pragmatic approaches – appropriate use of language in social situations – e.g., SCERTS – Social skills training
  • 55. Content Areas • Communication – Teaching the child to use nonverbal communicative gestures. – Teaching motor imitation. – Teaching the meaning and important of communication. – Teaching symbolic representation.
  • 56. Environmental and Classroom Arrangement • Employ visual strategies • Use techniques of structured teaching • Use consistency in designing the learning environment • Monitor and modify environmental stimuli
  • 58. Behavioral Intervention ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) General behavioral teaching approach involves reinforcement and consequences to shape behavior All of our parents used it! Involves the A, B, C’s Not airway, breathing circulation Antecedent Behavior Consequence
  • 59. Motor and Sensory Occupational therapy is the assessment and treatment of physical and psychiatric conditions using specific, purposeful activity to prevent disability and promote independent function in all aspects of daily life.
  • 61. Motor and Sensory • Sensory Integrative Therapy and Autism is based on the idea that some people struggle to receive, process, and make sense of information provided by the senses. For example, some people with autism are hyper-sensitive (over- sensitive) to some things such as loud noises but hypo-sensitive (under-sensitive) to other things such as pain.
  • 62. Sensory Integration Strategies Some examples of treatment approaches: • Oral sensory motor development can be aided by: whistles, blowers and bubble blowing kits. • Fine motor: A number of toys like cone and ball catch, puppets etc • For kids with fidgety fingers many blocks, fixes etc that help them focus. • Gross motor: Bean bags, Therabands • Vestibular and Proprioception: Swings, trampoline. • Tactile: Fabrics, brushes • High arousal / anxiety: weighted jackets, “squishes”
  • 63. Motor and Sensory • Hippo Therapy Dance Movement Therapy Chiropractic Therapy Coloured FiltersWeighted Items
  • 64. Other • Animal Therapy • Dolphin Therapy • Assistance Dog
  • 66. Psychotherapy • Play provides a safe psychological distance from their problems and allows expression of thoughts and feelings appropriate to their development
  • 67. • Play – social ,physical ,constructive ,symbolic, and independent. – Age-appropriate play skills – Individual teaching and directly guided in inclusive preschool experiences.
  • 68. Psychotherapy • Holding Therapy • CBT • Music Therapy • Art Therapy
  • 69. Behavioural and Developmental • Relationship Development Intervention focuses on a child’s difficulties with flexibility of thought, emotional regulation and perspective-taking. • RDI is based on the idea that children with autism have missed key developmental milestones – such as social referencing, joint attention – that enable them to think flexibly, regulate their emotions, and understand social situations.
  • 70. Behavioural and Developmental • Social Stories™ and Autism
  • 73. Typical Daily Schedules of Intervention 7:30-8:30amHome dressing and mealtime programs. 9:00-12:00 Inclusive preschool intervention. 12:00-1:30 Mealtime programs ,hygiene programs. 1:30-4:30 1:1 structured teaching programs. 4:30-5:30 Play indoors and outdoors. 5:30-7:00 Chores ,mealtime program ,communication programs. 8:00-Bedtime Book routines
  • 74. • Role of families : – Families are at the helm of their child’s treatment. – Parents are the primary teachers – Home visits are scheduled as needed.

Editor's Notes

  1. Autism is considered to be one of the most severe and difficult mental disabilities that has its impact on the individual's behavior. It also affects his learning capability, social up bringing, occupation, rehabilitation and his ability for work proficiency. We were treating symptoms rather than the disease
  2. Session agenda