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Jet Dyeing Machine
It was found that in using Winch machines, there were some inherent problems. So
the Jet dyeing machines when they came up in the 1970's, were specifically designed
to overcome those shortcomings.
In the Jet dyeing machine the reel is completely eliminated. A closed tubular system
exists where the fabric is placed. For transporting the fabric through the tube a jet of
dye liquor is supplied through a venturi. The Jet creates turbulence. This helps in dye
penetration along with preventing the fabric from touching the walls of the tube. As
the fabric is often exposed to comparatively higher concentrations of liquor within the
transport tube, so little dye bath is needed in the bottom of the vessel. This is just
enough for the smooth movement from rear to front. Aqueous jet dyeing machines
generally employs a driven winch reel along with a jet nozzle.
The following diagram explains the functioning of a Jet dyeing machine:
Types of Jet Dyeing Machine
In deciding the type of dyeing machine the following features are generally taken into
consideration for differentiating. They are the following. Shape of the area where the
fabric is stored i.e. long shaped machine or J-box compact machine. Type of the
nozzle along with its specific positioning i.e. above or below the bath level.
Depending more or less in this criteria for differentiation following types of Jet
Machines can be said to be as developments of the conventional jet dyeing machine.
A. Overflow Dyeing Machine
B. Soft-flow Dyeing Machine
C. Airflow Dyeing Machine
Advantages of Jet Dyeing Machine
The Jet Dyeing Machine offers the following striking advantages that makes them
suitable for fabrics like polyesters.
Low consumption of water
Short dyeing time
Can be easily operated at high temperatures and pressure
Comparatively low liquor ratios, typically ranges between 1:4 and 1:20
Fabrics are handled carefully and gently
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A. Overflow Dyeing Machine
Overflows Dyeing Machines are designed for use in delicate knitted and woven
fabrics that are made up of natural as well as synthetic fibers. They are also
extensively used in the production of carpets. The main difference between jet and
overflows machines is that in jet machines the fabric gets transported by a bath that
flows at high speed through the nozzle, while in Overflow Dyeing Machine it is the
gravitational force of the liquor overflow that is responsible for fabric transportation.
Functioning of a Overflow Dyeing Machine
A typical Overflow Dyeing Machine works like this. A winch that is not motor driven
usually is located in the top side of the machine where the fabric is hanged. A longer
length of textile is made to hang from the exit side of the winch as compared to the
inlet side. By applying the force of gravitation the longer length of textile is pulled
downward more strongly than the shorter one. Consequently the fabric is soaked in the
bath without any sort of tension. The following diagram well illustrates the working
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Some models of Overflow Jet Dyeing Machine
1. ASME-B HTHP Jet Overflow Dyeing Machine
2. ASME 500D Jet Overflow Dyeing Machine
3. ASME-D HTHP Jet Overflow Fabric Dyeing Machine
1. ASME-B HTHP Jet Overflow Dyeing Machine
Place of Origin: Jiangsu
Brand Name: SUNTEX Model Number: ASME-B
ASME-B Jet Overflow Dyeing Machine is used for dyeing chemical fiber , synthetic
woven and knitting fabric.
ASME-B HTHP Jet Overflow Dyeing Machine is used for chemical fiber , synthetic
woven and knitting fabric to be dyed and fore-and-after treatment in high temperature
and high pressure .
Range of fabric gram suitable : 60 -600 g /m 2 , for transmit knitting and woven
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Technical Parameters :
Items SME-150B SME-250B SME-500B
Form of the machine Horizontal
jet overflow single
Liquor Ratio 1:5---1:8 1:5---1:8 1:5---1:8
Max Fabric Capacity
100-150 200-250 400-500
14 0 14 0 14 0
Max Working Pressure
0.40Mpa 0.40Mpa 0.40Mpa
Fabric Speed (m/min) 60-300 60-300 60-300
Heating Exchanging Area
5 6 12
Main Pump Power
14.7 18.75 22.95
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2. ASME 500D Jet Overflow Dyeing Machine
Place of Origin: Jiangsu
Brand Name: SUNTEX Model Number: ASME-D
Material: stainless steal
ASME 500D Jet Overflow Dyeing Machines.
Each tube can run into two ropes at the same time.
Big bend tube can save 10 % water.
ASME 500D Jet Overflow Dyeing Machine is used for dyeing woven and knitted
fabrics of cotton, polyester, and nylon and so on. This jet dyeing machine, ASME-
150 D , ASME-250 D, ASME-500 D , ASME -1000D ,four types .
Each tubes separates into two chambers (running into two ropes at the same
Big bend tube can save 10 % water and space.
ASME-500D Main Tech Data :
Number of tubes (chambers) : 2/4
Max Capacity: 250 kg
Liquor ratio: 1:6---1:10
Max working temperature : 140.
Speed : Jet flow: 0-450 rpm Overflow: 0- 250 rpm
Heating Speed: 35 min ( 20 ---140 )
Cooling Speed: 30 min (140 --- 60)
Total motor power : 38.45 kw
Overall Dimension : 6900x3100x2300 (economical size)
8090x3100x3080 (standard size)
(01) ASME D series high temperature high speed double overflow dyeing machine
uses the unique design of double purpose nozzle for overflow and jet.
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(02) You only need to replace the nozzle; you can transform the water into that of soft
pure overflow type
(03) Water flow of low jet pressure and large pressure and high speed according to the
classification of fabric.
(04) Wide fabric application: Wide range of dyeing, including woven and knit fabric.
Advantages of Overflow Dyeing Machine
No evaporative losses- As the dyeing vessel is closed, there is no evaporative
losses stemming from the dye bath. Further, depending on the situation the
temperature may be raised to more than 1000o
No build up of steam condensate in the dye bath- The latest technology
implies that the dye bath gets heated by a heat transducer which is steam
driven. This technology apart from being very efficient ensures that there is no
build up of steam condensate in the dye bath.
Low liquor ratios- Dyeing is conducted at relatively low liquor ratios, e.g.
10:1 and may be lesser resulting in substantial savings in water and energy.
Excellent dye liquor contact- Excellent dye liquor contact with the fabric rope
results in better and more improved level dyeing.
Computer control- The machines are operated by computer and hence,
operator error is eliminated.
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B. Soft-flow Dyeing Machine
In the soft flow dyeing machine water is used for keeping the fabric in circulation. The
conceptional difference of this equipment from a conventional jets that operates with a
hydraulic system is that the fabric rope is kept circulating during the whole processing
cycle (right from loading to unloading). There is no stopping of liquor or fabric
circulation for usual drain and fill steps.
The principle working behind the technique is very unique. There is a system for fresh
water to enter the vessel via a heat exchanger to a special interchange zone. At the
same time the contaminated liquor is allowed channel out through a drain without any
sort of contact with the fabric or for that matter the new bath in the machine.
Key Features of Soft flow Dyeing Machine
Significant savings in processing time.
Savings in water that is around 50%.
Excellent separation of different streams results in optimum heat recovery and
a distinct possibility of further use or a dedicated treatment.
Types of Soft Flow Dyeing Machine
A few of the commercially popular brands along with their particular technical
specifications are discussed here. The categories are not exhaustive as such
1. Multi Nozzle Softflow Dyeing Machine
These textile machines are used with a purpose of dyeing Dye - 30 to 450 g./mt.sq.
Fabrics (woven & knitted fabrics) with a Capacity 50 to 2000kgs. Understanding the
need of the artificial fiber, it dyes a textile in a way that it retains its luster.
Ultra low Liquor ratio - 1:1 (Wet Fabric)
Dye - 30 to 450 g./mt.sq. Fabrics (woven &
Number of very soft-flow nozzles & jet nozzles.
No pilling effect.
Work as a jet dyeing machine for polyester &
Work as a soft flow machine for cotton fabrics.
Reduce pollution plant size.
No colour inlet pump (optional) - Dozing pump
High temp. up to 140° C.
Capacity 50 to 2000kgs.
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Multi - Nozzle Low/High temp. Dyeing technology work as a soft flow as well as jet
dyeing machine. The main advantage of this development is to increase machine
flexibility/ versatility to process all types of fabrics.
In this new technical development, the nozzle 3 & 4 are big diameter and fix nozzle
with individual flow control valve. The 1st main nozzle is adjustable. By increasing
and decreasing the gap of nozzle, flow and pressure will be increase and decrease as
per fabric quality demand. To run this machine as a soft flow machine, increase the
gap that decrease the pressure and increase water flow, at that time all three nozzles
are working as a soft flow and water flow control individually by control valve as per
fabric quality demand.
To run machine as a jet dying machine, decrease the gap of nozzle that increase the
pressure and decrease the water flow. That time soft-nozzle control valve is close.
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Specifications & Dimension are subject to change without any prior notice.
Mm / inch
Mm / inch
mm / inch
4650 / 183
4650 / 183
4650 / 183
4650 / 183
4650 / 183
4650 / 183
3350 / 131
3350 / 131
3350 / 131
3350 / 131
3350 / 131
3350 / 131
3150 / 124
3850 / 151
4550 / 209
5250 / 206
6000 / 236
6700 / 263
2. High Temperature High Pressure Softflow Dyeing Machine
HT.HP soft flow dyeing machines are multi type dyeing machines. These textile
machines are used with a purpose of dyeing a larger division of cloth. It dyes cotton,
hosiery and crape cloth material. Understanding the need of the cloth, it dyes a textile
in a way that it retains its luster for long.
Lowest liquor ratio.
Reduce colour & chemicals.
Reduce steam consumption.
Tangle free operation.
Online washing system.
Inner flow dyeing system.
No rope marks, no pilling effect,
Dye 30 to 450 g./mt.sq. Fabric (cotton woven, cotton knit and its blends)
Cup type very soft flow nozzle with low pressure higher flow design.
Online filter design for easy cleanup even during the process with extra
replaceable filter mesh.
Specially design vessel cleaning system by SS spraying nozzles.
Fabric drive reel with A.C. Motor & Frequency controller.
S.S. Control Panel with rotary switch, Emergency stop, Fabric speed indicator,
Hotter & moderate operation panel.
PTFE Teflon sheet in basket.
Vessel made from AISI SS 316 L.
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Capacity - 10kg. to 2000kg.
Maximum working temp. 140° C.
Maximum working pressure 4 kg./cm².
Normal capacity: 80-110 kg
Main motor power: 15.1 kw
Overall dimension: 2700x6450x4600 mm
Max fabric speed: 400 m per minute
25 -100 degrees with an average of 5 degrees per minute
Rate of cooling: 130-100 degrees with an average of 3 degrees per min.
Colour Kitchen system with Agitators & Actuators with direct dosing system
for colour preparation and dye dispensing / dosing.
Double filter system.
Fully automatic system with PLC & Electromagnetic flow meter. · Seam
Frequency controller for Main motor.
Stirring system in colour tank.
Dye Kitchen with Accessories (Optional) Dye Kitchen Specially designed for the
dissolving & preparation of dyes chemical & auxiliaries & transfer of the dissolved
media to the single dyeing machine. Available in difference stage of automation with
optional accessories like Stirrer & Dosing pump combined usage with programs.
Manufactured from high quality stainless steel, to suit all machine types' capacities
with flexible combination of tank size & number of satisfy all process requirement &
Fig: High Temperature High Pressure Soft flow Dyeing Machine
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H.T.H.P. RAPID JET DYEING MACHINE - Consist of:
Autoclave: In horizontal and conical construction equipped with a port and
cover for the fabric loading in the front. The group and polished reel and
separator are located inside the autoclave is pressurised by compressed air.
Pressure guage and necessary safety values are provided.
Main dia of the autoclave : 600 mm
straight part of the autoclave : 7000 mm
Flow Tubes: Flow tubes are made of stainless steel and are highly polished and
connected to the autoclave. Necessary flow control valves and by pass valves
for the fine adjustments of flow quantity are provided.
Main liquor circulation pump: For the liquor circulation and fabric
movements and efficient centrifugal pump made of stainless steel is provided.
The pump is driven by directly coupled to fully enclose two pole induction
motor of 20 H.P.
Heat Exchanger: Heat exchanger is made from stainless steel. The heat
exchanger is of shell and tube type construction and is entirely mode of
stainless. The heat exchanger is suitable for raising temperature of the dye
liquor from 30'C to 130'C at a steam pressure of 4.0 Kgs./cm2. The heat
exchanger is suitable for cooling down the dye liquor from 1.3'C to 8O'C.
Reserve Tank: One reserve tank made of stainless steel is provided outside the
high pressure circuits for the preparation to dyestuff and chemicals.
1. One filter for the heat exchanger.
2. One lamp is provided on the top of the autoclave for efficiently
illuminating the inside of the autoclave.
Control panel: The following controls are provided.
1. Temperature indicator and automatic temperature controlling
2. On/of swatches for the operation of pumps and other control.
3. Indicating lamps etc.
4. Pneumatic circuits controls.
Draw Reel: One draw reel with necessary drive is provided on the front top of
the autoclave near the cover suitable for loading and unloading of the
Nozzle: One No. Jet Nozzle will be supplied with the machine.
Scope of supply :
1. One autoclave complete with all the internal pipelines. valves,
foundation block and other such parts necessary for normal operation.
2. One control panel as above.
3. One draw reel as above.
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C. Airflow Dyeing Machine
This is another development of the very popular jet dyeing machines. The main
difference between the Air Flow Machine and Jet Dyeing machine is that the airflow
machine utilizes an air jet instead of the water jet for keeping the fabric in
circulation. Typically the fabric is allowed to pass into the storage area that has a very
small amount of free liquor. This results in a reduction in consumption of water,
energy and chemicals.
The figure below shows how in an Airflow Machine the bath level is always under the
level of the processed textile. Here the fabric does not remain in touch with the
liquor (the bath used is below the basket that holds the fabric in circulation). This
invariably means that the bath conditions can be altered without having any impact
on the process phase of the substrate.
Advantages of Airflow Machine
Completely Separated circuit for liquor circulation without getting in touch
with the textile
Bath less Dyeing operation
Rinsing process offers all the added benefits of continuous processing as it is
no longer a batch operation
Extremely low liquor ratio
Virtually nonstop process
Comparatively lesser energy requirement due to faster heating/cooling and
optimum heat recovery from the hot exhausted dye liquors
Reduction in consumption of the chemicals (e.g. salt) dosage of which is based
on the amount of dye bath
Lesser water consumption savings up to 50% from the conventional Jet dyeing
Sensitivity towards ecology
More safety while dyeing.
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Airflow Dyeing Machine (XDWG 225, 450, 675, 900, 1350)
XDOG airflow dyeing machine is produced by the OEM Chinese manufacture.
It adopts air dynamic theory, making high speed airflow generated from high pressure
blower (fan), enters into nozzle from air entrance, meantime injecting atomized
dyeing liquid to nozzle from water entrance, Atomized dye liquor merges with high
speed airflow in the nozzle.
It will make the fabric move accordingly.
1. Low liquor ratio, Cotton fabric is 1: 4, Polyester is 1: 5.
2. Compared with common jet dyeing machinery, it can save water around 50% and
shorten dyeing time 50%, can get the more perfect dyeing effect.
3. Special nozzle design, make fabrics no fuzzing and more smoothness.
4. Main kier is made of SUS 316.
5. The bottom of main tank is covered with fine Teflon pipes.
6. High efficiency heat exchanger
7. Stainless steel centrifugal air blower.
8. EPC dyeing processing computer from Hong Kong.
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Main tech data:
For cotton: (XDWG 450)
Liquor ratio: 1: 4
No of fabric container: 2
Load capacity: 400-450 kg
Fan Power: 45 kw
Main pump: 7.5 kw
Cloth lift: 4.4 m
Total power: 56.9 kw
Operating power: 18.8 kw
Capacity of preparation tank (L): 2000 L
Transmission speed: 100-700 m/min
Rate of temperature rise (Average): Steam pressure more than 5 kg/ m2
Rate of temperature drop (Average): Steam pressure more than 2 kg/ m2
The New L-shape Airflow
However, the Airflow dyeing machine had one disadvantage: dyeing of extremely
delicate fabrics didn't give a perfect result. Current and future trends pointing toward
more and more lightweight fabrics with high contents of elastane in finest yarn counts
and gauges prompted the next stage of Airflow machinery design.
To meet the required voluminous hand as well as top-grade quality standards, the
world's first long-tube Airflow machine, the Airflow Lotus 200, was developed. The
new dyeing machine incorporates the latest advances in Then's Airflow technology
and operates according to the original aerodynamic principle. The dye liquor passes
the self-cleaning filter and is then evenly applied and finely distributed as a mist with
the aid of the blower, assuring outstanding penetration, according to Then.
Schematic drawing of the Airflow® technology: Air is the key element, and is said to be the ideal
medium to transport piece goods in dyeing machines.
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Jigger dyeing machine
Based on experience and developments in industry and controller technology, the
Thies-Jigger is developed. Suitable for processing fabric at atmospheric temperatures
of up to 98°C and in HT execution up to 143°C, this Jigger is especially recommended
for the treatment of crease sensitive, permeable and non-permeable articles in open
width form, offering optimum flexibility for the finishing of all modern fibres and
blends. Incorporating innovations in step less tension and material speed control and
with an economical dye trough designed for uniform dyeing in short liquor ratio
An industrial PC, proven in the exhaust dyeing industry, including PLC and a fabric
rope monitoring system is used for the complete machine control, ensuring the
maintenance of optimum processing conditions.
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Fabric tension 50 - 800 N
Fabric speed: 10 to 150 m/min
Fabric width up to 5400 mm
Roller width up to 5600 mm
Roller diameter* 330 - 550 mm
Batch diameter* 1000/1230/1450 mm
* Depending on the execution
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Significant innovations in the process technology ensure modern utilization
1. Direct drive of the main rollers via frequency controlled three-phase motors
with brake drive current return (energy saving)
2. A dye trough design ensuring minimum possible liquor ratio
3. Fabric rope monitoring control system for precise calculation and control of
the fabric speed and tension
4. Uniform dyeing conditions in the dye trough, independent of the batch size
5. Water meter for controlled rinsing
6. Dosing of dyes and chemicals dependent on the fabric length passing through
the dye bath
7. Addition pressure pump for shading corrections and dosing
8. On the HT-Jigger dosing under pressure possible
9. External pump and heat exchanger ensure uniform liquor heating and
10.Sidewise displacement of the main batch roller
11.Analogue level for dyeing kier
12.Floor level track system*
Fig: Schematic diagram of Jigger dyeing machine
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Integrated fabric transfer system with spreader for crease-free
loading/unloading of the fabric
Centre driven frequency controlled motor drive for loading/unloading of the
fabric from and to an A-frame
Function “Salt dissolving” with electric stirrer and automatic brine transfer
into the kier
Self cleaning liquor filter
Chamber roof heating
Spraying device in the dye trough for intensive rinsing of the fabric
Moisture extraction device used in the unloading process
Chamber roof cleaning spray
Automation of the loading/unloading port*
*) for atmospheric jiggers
Fig: Atmospheric jigger dyeing machine
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Fig: different section of Atmospheric jigger dyeing machine
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MAXI Hydraulic Type Jumbo Jigger Machine
Trough is entirely built in stainless steel AISI 316.
The door of machine pneumatically lifted & lowered.
To observe inside of the machine large windows are provided.
The doors and windows are sealed with special gasket against steam escape.
To prevent dripping of condensate there are steam coils in the hood.
Dye liquor circulation by means of pump this circuit is used for better leveled
dyeing or switching the flow on the spray pipes for more efficient washing or
Dye liquor filter outside the machine with large filtering surface.
Service tank for dye stuffs & chemicals.
Semi or fully automatic with microprocessor (optional).
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High-temperature High-pressure Auto jig
This machine is for the jig dyeing at high temperature and high pressure conditions of
all types of thick, thin fabrics, Terylene, chemical fiber and real silk fabrics. Under
normal temperature and pressure conditions, it can replace common jigs to dye all
types of natural silk, rayon and polyamide fiber. The machine is reasonably structured,
with good safety and capacity, easy to
Major Technical Parameters
Roller diameter 219mm
Max.Rolling width 1800mm
Max.Rolling diameter 680mm
Working speed 40-110m/min
SWR1400 Large-Size Jig Dyeing Machine
SWR1400 Series is the kind of dye jigger with the biggest cloth roll and the widest
cloth. It is self-designed and developed by our plant based on absorption of
advanced technology of various dye jiggers from Japan, Denmark, Italy, etc and in the
light of specific conditions. It is the essential dyeing equipment in the dyeing and
printing trade. The equipment is apply- cable for a variety of fabrics in pre- and post-
treatment and dyeing process at a constant temperature. It combines scouring,
bleaching and dyeing pro- cusses into one and can conform to development of small
batch and diver- sifted products in dyeing and printing trade. Besides, it features
novel de- sign, reasonable structure, wide adaptability, excellent performance and
simple maintenance as well as safe and reliable operation.
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1. By employing CAD, CAM technique the equipment is fabricated with high accuracy.
2. In order to get a reliable speed-measuring signal, magnetic flexible connection is
used between the bottom roll of the equipment and speed measuring mechanism.
3. Automatic temperature control system can keep dye liquor at a constant
temperature according to the specific condition.
4. Liquor circulating system can maintain uniform temperature of dye liquor and
homogeneous dye distribution; liquor filter device is fixed in the circulating system
for avoiding pipes to be clogged.
5. A top-mounted heating and heat-insulating apparatus is fitted for ensuring rate of
temperature rise and increasing productivity.
6. Control system has the functions of automaticreverse, automatic travel count,
automatic length count, full travel stop, swing change-over, etc.
7. Auxiliary devices such as top-mounted illuminating light, warning light, emergency
stop lever, are equipped to provide safe operation and easy maintenance.
8. Discharge valve, gas shaft, pneumatically-controlled delivery cross arm.
9. Aligning system (Buyingparts).
Main technical parameter：
Diameter of main roller 400mm
Max. diameter of cloth roll 1400mm
Max. working fabric width 2000-3200mm
Adjustable fabric rate 0-120m/min
Tension of fabrics 20-80Kg
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HD618 Constant Temperature Dye Jigger
I .Mainly for open width desizing, bleaching, scouring, dyeing, etc of fabric of cotton,
polyester, flax and blended fabric. It can be widely used in the dyeing and printing
industry to meet the requirement of small batches and different kinds.
II .Technical features
Adopting AC frequency invert driving, PLC control and data communication
Truly direct fabric surface tension, linear speed inspection and closed loop
Utilizing the touch screen technology. Excellent man-machine dialogue
Auto temperature control, auto direction reversing, auto stop and fabric swing
The dye liquor circulation system of the machine can make the temperature of
the dye liquor be the same and make the dyestuffs be even distributed.
Equipped with filtering device to prevent the blockage of the piping.
Heating protect device ensures the temperature rising speed to promote the
The entire machine is equipped with auxiliary devices such as over-head
casing illumination lamp, breakage alarm lamp, emergency stop rod, etc. Safe
operation, easy maintenance.
Water discharging valve, air chimney and fabric delivery's crossbeam are
MAIN TECHNICAL PARAMETER
Diameter of main roller 375mm
Max. diameter of cloth roll 1200mm
Max. working fabric width 1800-3400mm
Adjustable fabric rate 20-120m/min
Tension of fabrics 20-90kg
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Winch Dyeing Machine
Winch dyeing machines comes with the lucrative options of low cost design,
simplicity in operation and maintenance yet uncompromising features when it comes
Mostly woolen fabrics are dyed by using Winch Dyeing machine. The dyeing
machine derives its name "Winch" as the fabric rope gets circulated in the machine by
way of a mechanical action of a horizontal rotor or reel, called as a winch or
sometimes winces. The cross-section of the winch rotor may be circular or elliptical.
As shown in the diagram below, the winch dyeing machine has a front compartment; a
perforated partition separates it from the main dyeing chamber. It is this front
compartment where dyestuff and dyeing auxiliary additions are made. Gradually they
move to main dyeing vessel from there. The process works like this first a series of
fabric ropes are immersed in the dye bath. This fabric ropes must be of equal lengths.
A part of each rope is then taken over two reels or over the winch itself. In the
subsequent course of dyeing operation a rope of fabric is circulated through the dye
bath and the winch. The dyestuff and auxiliaries are dosed manually or automatically
according to the recipe method.
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Model - SM-VW 400 Vertical Winch Dyeing Machine
Features: SM-VW 400
- Width the wide soft nozzle. It plans a soft the
hazard which gets a soft process wide and soft
nozzle system especially.
- Air parts system (the selective evening
sunlight): It is tied with the system which pours
an air in the knit fabric which has not become dog
width, the back which is entangled it prevents and
also the quality improves.
- The work characteristic which excels: The
mechanical structure is simplicity the excellent
work and irrigation to be easy and the American
expert the work is possible.
- Width wide application : Reel [li] and other it
will come, Oh, the wool, the cotton and the pulley
Oh America [tu], the acryl, the viscose and the
pulley nose the product back which sprouts
dyeing, bleaching and washing the product which is various are possible with the bell.
- High Performance Mechanism: Wide and soft nozzle. The special designed wide
soft flow nozzle system with high liquor flow to achieve the soft and smooth
-Air ballooning system (Option): Air ballooning device which are to be shoot
air in the tubular type knitted fabrics so that fabric can be dye at any
- Excellent Workability: The compact structure of machine provides easy
operation and maintenance and even the unskilled.
- Wide Application: The machine provides multi-purpose of dyeing and bleaching
and washing for terry towel, velour, wool, cotton, polyamide, acrylic and
viscose and poly/cotton brand and so on.
Capacity (kg): 400 ~ 450
Electric power: 18kw
Max temp: 98 °C
Number of nozzle: 4
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Beam Dyeing Machine
The beam dyeing machine operates with the same principle as that of package dyeing
machine. It can be effectively used to dye yarn or fabric. The process works like this,
fabric or yarn in open width is rolled on to a perforated beam. The beam then
subsequently slid into a vessel that is closed and pressurized. The color impregnates
the fabric as the dye liquor is allowed to go on circulating through the perforations in
the beam. Usually the beam machines are designed in such a manner so as to hold a
single beam or multiple beams in a batch.
Features of Beam dyeing Machine
Able to adjust water level in accordance to fabric volume.
Even dyeing and superior dyeing quality.
Optimized circulation system along with high performance pumps.
Advantages of a Beam Dyeing Machine
The fabric is put under controlled tension, and is wound on to a perforated
beam. This results in elimination of creases from the fabric. It also ensures total
control of dimensions of the roll of fabric.
The fabric is not allowed to do any movement during the process of dyeing.
This actually means that there is no application of mechanical action on to the
fabric. As shown in the figure, there is no movement of the fabric as the
hydrostatic pressure of the pump forces the dye liquor through the fabric roll.
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Beam Dyeing Machine
Technical Specification of the featured model
Loading Cap: 100 kg
Electric wattage: 22Kw
Maximum Operating Pressure: 5kgf/cm2g
Maximum Operating Temperature: 158°C
Page 29 of 44
In earlier days very few terms were used in maintenance management like repair,
overhauling etc., but with the involvement of management expert in maintenance
management and also attempting to differentiate between various maintenance jobs,
several new terms were invented and used such as Planned maintenance, Scheduled
maintenance, Routine maintenance, Periodic maintenance, Breakdown maintenance,
Corrective maintenance, Fixed Time maintenance, Condition based maintenance and
Reliability Centered maintenance etc.
In order to streamline the understanding of different types/systems of maintenance
functions, the classification can be done on the basis of planning and
critically/essentially of jobs. Some jobs may be planned in advance but some jobs may
have to be taken up immediately and un-planned. Planned and unplanned jobs can also
be classified further depending on the nature of the job and its essentiality.
Classification of maintenance system
The detailed classification is shown below.
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Breakdown Maintenance (Emergency Repair)-
In a breakdown maintenance system, repair is undertaken only after the failure of the
equipment. The equipment is allowed to run undisturbed till it fails. Of course,
lubrication and minor adjustment (for pressure, flow etc.) are done during this period
Only when equipment fails to perform the designed functions or comes to a grinding
halt, any other maintenance/repair job is taken.
On the face value this system appears to be simple and less expensive but it is not
really so. It may work good in a small factory/plant where:
Number of equipments is few.
Equipments are very simple repair does not call for specialist or special
Where sudden stoppage/failure of equipments will not cause severe
financial loss in terms of delivery commitment or further damage to
other equipment/components. No
Where sudden failure will/Cause severe safety or environment hazards.
In such small factories, generally there is no specialized maintenance crew.
Maintenance is normally done by persons operating the machine and other connected
persons. Maintenance is generally done to put back the breakdown m/c into operation
but not much job is done to prevent recurrences of such breakdown. Spares are
generally kept with persons operating the m/c or their superiors. Xv*
However such breakdown maintenance system cannot work in/a big industry having
large number of equipments, some of which may be quite intricate. This is not used in
chemical and process industries where reliability requirement is quite high and where
failure may lead to safety or pollution hazards or where restart of the equipment/plant
will take considerable time
Corrective maintenance, as the name implies, means maintenance actions for
correcting or restoring a failed unit (or units going to fail). Its scope is very vast and
may include different types of actions form small actions like typical adjustments and
minor repairs to re-design of equipment. It includes both planned and unplanned (or
scheduled and unscheduled) actions and is governed by failures of the items as well as
condition of items. Actions in corrective maintenance can be sub-divided, according
to priority, as follows:
Emergency work, high priority, generally off line i.e., after stopping the
equipment. Normally less than 24 hours notice is given for taking the
Deferred work-jobs of lower order priority; generally off-line
To eliminate/reduce repetitive breakdowns.
Reconditioning or redesign jobs (both major and minor).
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Corrective maintenance is generally one time task i.e., once taken up, completed fully.
Each corrective maintenance job may differ from the other. Some of the corrective
maintenance jobs may call for collection of extensive data/ information about
breakdowns and their causes etc. and proper analysis of those data before coming to
conclusion about actual jobs to be done. Techniques like Cause and Effect Analysis
(Fish- bone diagram/Parato diagram) etc. help these cases. Some jobs may call for
Research and Development (R & D) activities. Thus, such corrective maintenance
jobs may have the following stages:
Collection of data/information analysis.
Identify likely causes
Find out the best possible solutions to eliminate likely causes.
Implement those solutions, etc.
Some of the differences between preventive maintenance (P.M.) and corrective
maintenance may be as follows;
1. PM jobs are generally taken before the equipment has stopped working whereas
corrective maintenance may be done before or after the equipment has stopped
2. Level and type of PM jobs are generally decided within the maintenance
department whereas in corrective maintenance help of other departments may be
3. PM jobs are planned well in advance whereas corrective maintenance jobs may be
taken at shorter notice
In multi component system, with several failing components, often it is advantageous
to follow opportunistic maintenance also. When an equipment or system is taken
down for maintenance/changing one or few worn-out components, the opportunity can
be utilized for maintenance/changing over wearing out components even though they
have not failed. (This would probably be economical in the long run than taking shut-
down when other components fail. Normally cost of replacing several parts jointly is
much less than the sum of costs of several separate replacements. However, cost of
left over (residual) life of components, which are going to be changed, has to be taken
into consideration in such calculations.
Opportunistic maintenance is very beneficial for non-monitored components. For non-
monitored components, which are inaccessible for inspection without replacement,
replacement policy may be considered For non- monitored components, which can be
inspected before replacement, inspection policy may be considered. For monitored
components, if fault is detected in one of the few similar components, opportunity of
shut down and dismantling is taken to check and repair other similar components. A
commonly used example in automobile engine, if one valve gives problem (worn-out)
and needs grinding other valves are also ground in the same shutdown. It would be
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very expensive to dismantle, grind and regrind and reassemble the valves as and when
they show problems (Worn-out).
Often, in an equipment complex, which are taken down every year for statutory
annual overhaul and inspection (like boilers etc.), if any component fails a month or
two earlier than the scheduled date of start of next shutdown and if that repair is going
to take some time, the next annual overhaul and inspection is proposed to start
immediately and total job is taken together. This can also be a case of opportunistic
Opportunistic maintenance is actually not a specific maintenance system but is a
system of utilizing an opportunity, which may come up anyone. To carry out the
actual jobs, we may use different techniques/systems.
Routine maintenance is the simplest form of planned maintenance but very essential.
As the name implies, routine maintenance means carrying out minor maintenance jobs
at regular intervals. It involves minor jobs such as cleaning, lubrication, inspection
and minor adjustments of pressure, flow, tightness etc., and tightening of loose parts
etc. It also includes inspection of bearings, 'V- belts, couplings, jointing, foundation
bolts, earthings and protective covers etc. The small and critical defects observed
during such inspection, are rectified immediately and bigger jobs are planned for
rectification during next available shutdown. Such maintenance is essential for
effective, scheduled and preventive maintenance.
Routine maintenance is not need-based. In equipment, some motors may be running
for hours a day and some motors may be running twenty hours in a day, but, in routine
maintenance, all are inspected at the same frequency. This may lead to some amount
of over-maintenance on some equipment or components but this system pay
handsomely in the long run. “Regularity i.e., carrying out planned jobs regularly in
simple cycle schedules is very essential in routine maintenance. Such schedules are
simple (like check, clean, lubricate, tighten, adjust etc.) and repetitive. Routine
maintenance may also consider a small portion of preventive maintenance.
Frequency of routine maintenance is generally once every shift (at the start of the
shift) or once a day. Of course, in sophisticated and automatic working equipments or
in equipment having enough condition monitoring gadgets to indicate failures, the
period of routine maintenance may change. Again, depending on the extent of jobs
and time available, either the same job may be planned for every day or one group of
jobs may be planned for Monday, another group of jobs for Tuesday and so on.
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Preventive maintenance (PM)
This is one of the oldest maintenance systems being practiced in industries. It is easy
to understand and is still being used extensively. Today corrective maintenance and
condition-Based Maintenance (diagnostic maintenance) etc., are also added to this
concept to some extent. Preventive Maintenance is the planned maintenance of plants
and equipments (including and resulting from periodic inspection) in order to prevent
or minimize breakdowns and depreciation rates. As it covers vast areas, occasionally
some people get misled about its coverage. Some people think PM is just a routine
inspection, cleaning, lubrication, adjustment and doing minor repairs/jobs on
equipments. Some other think that PM means internal cleaning of equipments and
components, lubrication and oil changing and replacement of consumables like
gaskets, belts, seals, bearings etc.
Yet some other Jhink that PM includes only major jobs like overhauling and
recojiditioning etc. Actually PM includes all three types of activities mentioned here,
After PM repairs, the equipment's health, is restored back nearly to the equipment's
original condition. However, it does not include much improvement and upgradation
In general, the various components of PM are as follows.
(i) Check drawing, design and installation of equipments including
subsequent redesign and minor modifications depending on specific nature of
(ii) Proper identification of all items, proper documentation and
Spare catalogues, equipment catalogue and inventory list
Job manuals etc.
(iii) Periodic inspection of plants and equipments:
Use of checklists by inspectors and its frequency, daily, office-wise,
weekly, monthly etc.
Well qualified and experienced inspectors.
Use of necessary aids-
Testing equipments, vibration meters, Ultrasonic and X-ray
Preparing total defect list and their categorization
(iv) Repetitive servicing, repairs, upkeep and overhauls:
Medium repairs- roughly around 50% of jobs of major overhauls.
Major overhauls or capital repairs.
Emergency repairs or corrective repairs.
Recovery or salvaging- when equipment has undergone several major
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(v) Adequate lubrication, cleaning and painting of equipments. Changing of
oils and lubricants of systems as per inspection report.
(vi) Typical failure analysis and planning for their elimination,
(vii) Organization for PM
(viii) Budgetary control of repairs and PM
The extent of above mentioned components may vary in PM practices from equipment
to equipment and plant to plant. However, all the components are essential and they
supplement each other. Aim should be to increase (qualitatively and quantitatively)
inspection and minor repairs and to some extent, medium repairs so that major repairs
and overhauls are reduced and interval between two capital repairs is prolonged i.e.
capital repairs are less frequent.
Preventive maintenance schedules are normally of following two types;
05-(i) Fixed time maintenance:-
Majority of PM schedules are fixed-time maintenance. Simple routines or cycles of
work loads are established for different days of week, fortnight,month or quarter and
are following regularly. Often all components may not work for same number of hours
but for convenience of planning, organizing and control, equipments are clubbed for
PM schedules. Such a system simplifies control and fitters and mechanics can do their
work with minimum supervision
05-(ii) Condition- based maintenance:-
Condition based maintenance normally comes under predictive maintenance category.
However, there is always some amount overlap between preventive maintenance,
inspection and condition monitoring of equipments and so, some jobs of PM schedule
are taken from feed back of condition monitoring of equipments. Such PM jobs are
generally smaller magnitude. A good PM prgrammes uses modem diagnostic tools
and condition monitoring tools as part of inspection tools. A broad-based PM
programmes also uses some amount of routine maintenance and corrective
06 Predictive maintenance
Predictive maintenance as the name implies, simply means predicting the failure
before it occurs, identifying root causes for those failure symptoms and eliminating
those causes before they result in extensive damage to the equipments. The objective
of predictive maintenance programme is to run the equipment in good condition for
long time so that the life and time between two overhauls can be extended.
Predictive maintenance encompasses the following three distinct stages
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Frequency of PM
The frequency of PM jobs are generally cyclic in nature. But the interval between two
PM schedules for same jobs i.e. frequency of PM is not same throughout the life cycle
of equipment. Failure rates follows Bath tub curve.
Bath Tub Curve
Again during the chance failure phase, the inspection, cleaning, lubrication and minor
repair components etc., may have pre-determined fixed frequency and interval but the
major overhauls and capital repair components etc., may sometime follow slightly
different frequency and intervals.
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Design out maintenance
It is design- oriented curative measure aimed at rectifying a design defects originated
from improper method of installation or poor material choice etc. Design out
maintenance requires, for its success, a strong maintenance-design interface so that
maintenance engineer works in close co-operation with design engineer. Whereas
most maintenance concepts aim to minimize number of failures or effect of failures,
design out maintenance aims "to eliminate the cause of maintenance" it is more
suitable for items/equipments of high maintenance cost. The choice to be made is
between the cost of re-design and the cost of recurring maintenance.
Reliability centered maintenance (RCM)
Basically, RCM methodology deals with some key issues not dealt with by other
maintenance programs. It recognizes that all equipment in a facility is not of equal
importance to either the process or facility safety. It recognizes that equipment design
and operation differs and that different equipment will have a higher probability to
undergo failures from different degradation mechanisms than others. It also
approaches the structuring of a maintenance program recognizing that a facility does
not have unlimited financial and personnel resources and that the use of both need to
be prioritized and optimized. In a nutshell, RCM is a systematic approach to evaluate
a facility's equipment and resources to best mate the two and result in a high degree of
facility reliability and cost-effectiveness. RCM is highly reliant on predictive
maintenance but also recognizes that maintenance activities on equipment that is
inexpensive and unimportant to facility reliability may best be left to a reactive
The road from a purely reactive program to a RCM program is not an easy one. The
following is a list of some basic steps that will help to get moving down this path.
1. Develop a Master equipment list identifying the equipment in your facility.
2. Prioritize the listed components based on importance to process.
3. Assign components into logical groupings.
4. Determine the type and number of maintenance activities required and periodicity
a. Manufacturer technical manuals
b. Machinery history
c. Root cause analysis findings ~ Why did it fail?
d. Good engineering judgment
5. Assess the size of maintenance staff.
6. Identify tasks that may be performed by operations maintenance personnel.
7. Analyze equipment failure modes and effects.
8. Identify effective maintenance tasks or mitigation strategies
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Computerized Maintenance Management Systems
Computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) are a type of management
software that perform functions in support of operations and maintenance (O&M)
programs. The software automates most of the logistical functions performed by
Typical CMMS functions depend on the complexity of the system chosen. Examples
Work order generation, prioritization, and tracking by equipment and/or
component. Work orders often can be sorted by equipment, date, person
Tracking scheduled and unscheduled maintenance activities.
Storing technical documentation and maintenance procedures by component, as
well as equipment warranty information.
Real-time reports of ongoing work activity.
Calendar- or run-time-based preventive maintenance work order generation.
Capital and labor cost tracking by component, as well as shortest, median, and
longest times to close a work order by component.
Complete parts and materials inventory control with automated reorder
Many computerized maintenance management system programs can now interface
with existing energy management and control systems (EMCS) and property
management systems. Coupling these capabilities allows condition-based monitoring
and the generation of component energy use profiles.
One of the greatest CMMS benefits is the elimination of paperwork and manual
tracking activities, saving time and allowing staff to remain productive. This is only
true if the CMMS can collect and store information in an easily retrievable format.
Additional benefits of a computerized maintenance management system include:
Detection of impending problems before a failure occurs, resulting in fewer
failures and customer complaints.
Achieving a higher level of planned maintenance activities that enables a more
efficient use of staff resources.
Affecting inventory control, enabling better spare parts forecasting to eliminate
shortages and minimize existing inventory.
Maintaining optimal equipment performance, reducing downtime and
elongating equipment life.
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While a CMMS can greatly improve O&M program efficiency, there are some
common pitfalls. These include:
Improper selection of a CMMS vendor. Time must be taken to evaluate initial
needs and look for the proper match in terms of system and service provider.
Inadequate training of O&M staff on proper use of the CMMS. Staff must
receive dedicated training on input, function, and maintenance for the CMMS.
This training typically takes place at the Federal facility after the system has
Lack of commitment to properly implement the CMMS. A commitment needs
to be in place for the implementation of the CMMS. Most vendors provide this
as a service, which is almost always worth the expense.
Lack of commitment to CMMS use and integration. While CMMS provides
significant advantages, they need to be maintained. Most successful CMMS
installations have a champion who encourages its continued use
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Changeable parts for Fabric Dyeing M/cs
Mechanical Shaft Seal and Spares & Rubber Parts, Rubber,
door Sealing Gasket, PT FE/ Teflon, Carbon Graphite Products
Rubber Parts Rubber Parts Mechanical
Shaft Seal and Spares
Main Circulation & Injection/ Booster Pumps
, Shaft Sleeve.
Main Circulation & Injection/ Booster Pumps
Actuator, Valves , Dye
Spindles Peroforted Tubes
, Locking Caps with Bolts /
Plates, Spacer for Dye Cones, head/
base plates. , Ball Valve , Carrier
, Wing Nut .
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Actuator, Valves, Dye
Spindles Peroforted Tubes
, Locking Caps with Bolts /
Plates, Spacer for Dye Cones, head/ base
plates. , Ball Valve , Carrier , Wing Nut .
JUMBOO JIGGERS SPARES
Brake Drums: Ratchet / Bearing type
S.S. Guide , Ebonite Coated , Teflon Coated
, Rubber Coated , Hard Chromium Plated ,
aluminum Batching Roll
S.S. Tanks with Pump
Batch Rolls: HDPE Roll , M.S. Roll
, Aluminum Roll Complete Differential
Gear Box and Shaft
Gears: Bevel, Super & Worm Gears , Cross Bar
Drain Bushes, Rubber/ Hylam / Nylon / Cabron
/Graphite S S Bend Pipe Expanders , S
Brake Liner / Aluminum Revite Chain
Wheel / Sprocket
S.S. Coil : Steam / Oil , S.S. Nipple for Coil
S.S. Tanks with Pump
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Jigger Dyeing machine:
Total no. of
Steam line valve 30 min 6 180 min 6.06
Cooling valve 3.5 hrs 3 630 min 21.22
Safety valve 2 hrs 3 360 min 12.12
Heat exchanger 2 hrs 1 120 min 4.04
Bearing damage 2 hrs 3 360 min 12.12
Steam trap 2 hrs 4 480 min 16.16
Mechanical seal 4 hrs 2 480 min 16.16
Air unit 30 min 1 30 min 1.01
Positioner 30 min 1 30 min 1.01
TC oaring 2 hrs 2 240 min 8.08
Butterfly valve 30 min 2 60 min 2.02
Total 2970 min
Problem percentage (%) 6.06 21.22 12.12 4.04 12.12 16.16 16.16 1.01 1.01 8.08 2.02
Problem percentage (%)
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We should take special care of cooling valve, steam trap, mechanical seal,
safety valve & Bearing damage because those contribute 77.78% of total
Factor Weight Local Brand A Brand B Total
Cost 5 5x2500
62500 45000 48000
Life time 3 2Mx6
315000 210000 157500
Availability 1 0 0 1000 0 0 1000
Service 1 300 180 0 300 180 0
Total 377800 255180 206500
As per factor rating we can say that we should use cooling valve of Brand B.
Problem percentage (%)
Steam line valve
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Maintenance is very important for prolonging the machine’s useful life-time.
Maintenance system is must for keeping the factory plants, equipment, machine tool
etc in optimum working condition and ensuring accuracy of product & time schedule
to delivery customers and to modify or improve productivity of existing machine to
meet the need for production & thus avoid sinking of additional capital.
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