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Surface active agents

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Surface active agents

  1. 1. Surface Active Agents
  2. 2. Prepared By : Mazadul Hasan sheshir ID: 2010000400008 13th Batch (session 2009-2013) Department : Wet Processing Technology Email: mazadulhasan@yahoo.com Blog : www. Textilelab.blogspot.com (visit) Southeast University Department Of Textile Engineering I/A 251,252 Tejgaon Dhaka Bangladesh Prepared By : ©right
  3. 3. Surface Active Agents  The term surfactant is a blend of surface active agent. Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphiphilic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their "tails") and hydrophilic groups (their "heads").  when added to a liquid, reduces its surface tension, thereby increasing its spreading and wetting properties.  In the dyeing of textiles, surface-active agents help the dye penetrate the fabric evenly.
  4. 4. Application of Surfactants  Detergents  Fabric softener  Emulsifiers and Emulsions  Paints  Adhesives  Inks  Anti-fogging  Dispersants  Wetting  Ski wax, snowboard wax  Defoamers  Agrochemical formulations  Herbicides some  Insecticides  Biocides  Shampoo  Hair conditioners (after shampoo)  Spermicide  Firefighting  Foaming agents
  5. 5. Detergent  A detergent (as a noun; "detersive" means "cleaning" or "having cleaning properties"; adjective "detergency" indicates presence or degree of cleaning property) is a material intended to assist cleaning.  Today, detergent surfactants are made from a variety of petrochemicals (derived from petroleum) and/or oleochemicals (derived from fats and oils).  Although the cleansing action of soaps and detergents is similar, the detergents do not react as readily with hard water ions of calcium and magnesium. Detergent molecular structures consist of a long hydrocarbon chain and a water soluble ionic group.
  6. 6. Classification of detergents 1. Ionic detergent - Anionic detergent - Cationic detergent - Amphoteric detergent 2. Nonionic detergent
  7. 7. Anionic detergents: The detergents which consist negative ionic group are called anionic detergents. The majority are alky sulfates and others are generally known as alkyl benzene sulfonates.
  8. 8. Cationic detergents  The cationic classes of detergents have a positive ionic charge and are called "cationic" detergents. In addition to being good cleansing agents, they also possess germicidal properties which makes them useful in hospitals. Most of these detergents are derivatives of ammonia. A cationic detergent is most likely to be found in a shampoo or clothes "rinse".
  9. 9. Nonionic detergents  Nonionic surfactant molecules are produced by first converting the hydrocarbon to an alcohol and then reacting the fatty alcohol with ethylene oxide. They are not ionize in water. They are very popular in textile uses.
  10. 10. Advantages and disadvantages of synthetic detergents  Effective cleaning in hard water  They are not precipitate as insoluble Ca/Mg salts (gummy substance) on material  They are not very good detergent as soap  Incompatibility, in case of opposite ionic nature  Environmental hazard

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